Free AIOU Solved Assignment Code 6455 Spring 2021

Free AIOU Solved Assignment Code 6455 Spring 2021

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Course: Teaching of Biology (6455)
Semester: Spring, 2021
ASSIGNMENT No. 1

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  1. 1 Give a brief on standard, benchmark and learning outcomes in the subject of Biology.

Biology, the study of living things, represents more than a subject in school. On Earth, biology pervades the surface and spaces underground as well. Humans in particular harness biology for every aspect of life.

Foods and Beverages

People consume biological products both to survive and for enjoyment. Livestock provide food for humans, and those animals in turn need their own food to survive. Plants provide endless options for food: feed for animals, fruits, vegetables, oils for eating or cooking and flavoring extracts. Beets and sugarcane can be made into sugar for sweetening. Honeybees use flower nectar and make honey. Sugar maple trees’ sap can be boiled to make maple syrup. Coffee comes from coffee tree seeds, whereas tea originates from tea plant leaves.

Microbes and enzymes enable the creation of foods such as cheese, yogurt and bread. Barley, yeast and hops work together to make beer, with enzymes activated with the malting of barley and the yeast metabolizing in fermentation. Wine is made in similar fashion from grapes and other fruits.

Other biological processes aid in food production. Compost made from decaying plant and animal waste serves as a natural fertilizer for organic crops. Whether insect or bird, pollinators continue the process of plant life, giving humans and other animals food and beverages to eat and drink.

Clothing and Textiles

People wear clothing made from biological substances. Cotton provides material for many clothing items. Linen, made from flax, is another plant-based fabric. Even polyester is made from biomass in the form of fossil fuels. Plants provide the basis for fabric dyes and nylon. Carpets, upholstery, curtains, towels and countless other household textiles are made from plants.

Beauty and Personal Care

Biological sources make up the ingredients for many personal care and beauty products. Shampoo, henna dye, lotion, cosmetics, perfumes, diapers, loofahs, nail polish remover and soap represent only a few examples of biology-based everyday items.

Transportation and Leisure

Tires are made from the rubber of the rubber tree. Wood serves as the source for sports equipment such as baseball and cricket bats, bowling pins and lanes. People often play sports on living grass turf. Musical instruments such as clarinets, violins, drumsticks, drums and pianos contain biologically sourced components. Many boats are still made of wood, as are docks. Boaters still use plant-based ropes.

Buildings

Many homes around the world are built from plants. Wood from trees provides framework for houses and other buildings and the furniture within them. Rugs and other floor covers are made from wood, cork, fibers and linoleum, all plant-based. Paper from wood, erasers from rubber, inks, pens and pencils all derive from plants.

Fuels

Many fuels used today originated from a biological origin. Fossil fuels such as petroleum and natural gas formed from decayed plant and animal matter. Modern biofuels are made from plant material. Ethanol made from plant sugars is blended with gasoline to increase fuel efficiency. Algae, corn, wheat, rapeseed oil and sugar beets provide the basis for biofuels. This opens up a relatively new realm of renewable fuel to counteract carbon emissions.

Healthcare and Medicine

Doctors, nurses, and other medical staff must study biology to learn how to aid both humans and animals. Learning about the human body’s inner processes, organs, neurological system, blood, reproduction, development and diseases all prove essential for treatment and research.

Biological items also aid medicine. Many medicines contain plant-based ingredients. Aspirin was derived from the acetylsalicylic acid found in willow tree bark. Foxglove provides the basis for a heart medication. The anti-cancer drug Taxol is another example of a biologically derived medicine. Plants even form the basis for bandages, whether cotton or latex.

The realm of biotechnology also stands at the forefront of healthcare options. Additionally, many biological products are regulated for medical science and research use. Among these, blood and blood components, human tissue, monoclonal antibodies and proteins such as enzymes and growth factors all contribute to vital research for new medicines. Biology is far more than a school subject; it aids in making life better for everyone on Earth.

AIOU Solved Assignment Code 6455 Spring 2021

Q No.2 Write your views regarding cost of biology teaching and learning keeping in view learning aids.

Teachers use a wide variety of tools to foster learning, but what exactly should be used? This lesson outlines some of those instructional materials and their use in the classroom.

Instructional Materials

So what are instructional materials? Every teacher needs supplies and resources in order to have a successful classroom. Writing utensils, paper, and inspirational wall signs are all useful objects in a classroom, but they are not instructional materials. Instructional materials are the tools used in educational lessons, which includes active learning and assessment. Basically, any resource a teacher uses to help him teach his students is an instructional material. There are many types of instructional materials, but let’s look at some of the most common ones.

Traditional Resources

Traditional resources include any textbooks and workbooks used in the classroom. For example, language arts classrooms almost always have literature textbooks, writing textbooks, and even vocabulary and spelling workbooks. In addition to these, traditional resources also include any supplemental reading material, like novels or poems outside of the textbook.

These materials can really help to introduce new concepts to your students. For example, when learning the concept of theme, a literature textbook can provide numerous reading materials all displaying theme in different types of literature. In the same way, workbooks can give some useful basic practice activities for a new vocabulary words or even writing activities that might be difficult for students. Then, when mastery is shown on a basic level, a teacher can introduce more challenging material related to that concept.

To evaluate these traditional resources, the most important aspect is to make sure you choose material within the resource that appropriately relates to your learning objective. Most textbooks and workbooks have already been designed to align with certain educational standards and are therefore very reliable in regards to addressing classroom goals. Still, it is important to be sure to choose material within the textbooks that matches your specific learning objective.

Graphic Organizers

A second type of instructional material is the graphic organizer, which is any type of visual representation of information. Diagrams, charts, tables, flow charts, and graphs are all examples of graphic organizers. For instance, in a math classroom, it is essential to use graphs on a coordinate plane when learning about the equation of a line so that students can actually see how a line is graphed. In language arts, Venn diagrams and plot diagrams are clear instructional tools to use when comparing or analyzing events in a piece of literature. All of these graphic organizers allow students to physically see relationships between ideas. This is imperative for learning, especially for students who are more visually oriented. Seeing a clear relationship is always easier than an abstract idea in your mind.

In fact, having students create their own graphic organizers can be a great way to incorporate active learning. For instance, you can have students read a short story or even an informational article and then create their own visual representation of the information. This pushes students to internalize and apply the information, which requires more thought than simple recall.

To evaluate your graphic organizers, the most important aspect is to make sure they support learning and are not merely creative distractions. Some materials can be very fun and interesting, but if they do not support learning, they should not be included in your lesson. For instance, a Venn diagram on two characters in the novel, A Tale of Two Cities, can be a nice visual, but this is a higher-level novel and needs a more in depth type of graphic organizer. At this level, a Venn diagram is just too simple.

Teacher-Made Resources

A last type of instructional material comprises any teacher-made resources. These include anything the teacher creates, like handouts, worksheets, tests, quizzes, and projects. Many of these are used for assessment in the classroom, which is determining the level of learning on any given topic. For instance, different handouts or worksheets can be used throughout a unit to see which students are getting it and which students are struggling.

Evaluating these materials is very important. Everything a teacher creates must be a true assessment of the learning objectives. For instance, a test on a more advanced novel needs to show how a student can apply the concepts of theme, character development, conflict, and other literary ideas covered in that unit. In this case, simple recall of plot events should take a lesser role in any teacher-created assessments.

Before selecting specific materials to teach evolution and the nature of science, it is important to identify criteria that can help evaluate school science programs and the design of instructional materials. Chapter seven in the National Science Education Standards, “Science Education Program Standards,” describes the conditions needed for quality school science programs. These conditions focus on six areas:

  • Consistency across all elements of the science program and across the K-12 continuum
  • Quality in the program of studies
  • Coordination with mathematics
  • Quality resources
  • Equitable opportunities for achievement
  • Collaboration within the school community to support a quality program

Similarly, educators need to consider criteria against which to judge instructional materials. Teachers, curriculum designers, and other school personnel can use the following criteria to evaluate the design of a new curriculum, to select instructional materials, or to adapt instructional materials through professional development. No set of instructional materials will meet all the following criteria. You will have to make a judgment about the degree to which materials meet criteria and about acceptable and unacceptable omissions. These criteria are adapted from earlier discussions of standards-based curriculum.1

Criterion 1: A Coherent, Consistent, and Coordinated Framework for Science Content . Science content should be consistent with national, state, and local standards and benchmarks. Whether for lessons, units, or a complete elementary, middle, or high school program, the content should be well-thought-out, coordinated, and conceptually, procedurally, and coherently organized. The roles of science concepts, inquiry, science in personal and social contexts, and the history and nature of science should be clear and explicit.

Criterion 2: An Organized and Systematic Approach to Instruction. Most contemporary science curricula incorporate an instructional model. The instructional model should (1) provide for different forms of interaction among students and between the teachers and students, (2) incorporate a variety of teaching strategies, such as inquiry-oriented investigations, cooperative groups, use of technology, and (3) allow adequate time and opportunities for students to acquire knowledge, skills, and attitudes.

Criterion 3: An Integration of Psychological Principles Relative to Cognition, Motivation, Development, and Social Psychology. Psychological principles such as those found in the American Psychological Association publication How Students Learn: Reforming School Through Learner-Centered Education2 should be applied to the framework for content, teaching, and assessment. These psychological principles include more than learning theory. They include providing for motivation, development, and social interactions.

Criterion 4: Varied Curriculum Emphases. The idea of curriculum emphases can be expressed by thinking about the foreground and background in a painting. An artist decides what will be in the foreground, and that subject is emphasized. Science curricula can, for example, emphasize science concepts, inquiry, or the history and nature of science, while other goals may be evident but not emphasized. No one curriculum emphasis is best for all students; probably, a variety of emphases accommodates the interests, strengths, and demands of science content.

Criterion 5: An Array of Opportunities to Develop Knowledge, Understanding, and Abilities Associated with Different Dimensions of Scientific Literacy . Contemporary science curricula should provide a balance among the different dimensions of science literacy, which include an understanding of scientific concepts, the ability to engage in inquiry, and a capacity to apply scientific information in making decisions.3

Criterion 6: Teaching Methods and Assessment Strategies Consistent with the Goal of Science Literacy. Approaches to teaching and assessment ought to be consistent with the goals of teaching evolution, inquiry, and the history and nature of science. This can be accomplished by using inquiry-oriented teaching methods and by assessing students during investigative activities.

Criterion 7: Professional Development for Science Teachers Who Implement the Curriculum . Curricula need to provide opportunities that support teachers as they develop the knowledge and skills associated with implementing and institutionalizing the science program.

Criterion 8: An Inclusion of Appropriate Educational Technologies. The use of computers and various types of software enhances learning when students use the technologies in meaningful ways. The use of educational technologies should be consistent with other features of the curriculum—for instance, the dimensions of scientific literacy and an instructional model.

Criterion 9: Thorough Field Testing and Review for Scientific Accuracy and Pedagogic Quality. One important legacy of the 1960s curriculum reform is the field testing of materials in a variety of science classrooms. Field testing and reviewing a program identify problems that developers did not recognize and fine tune the materials to the varied needs of teachers, learners, and schools. Scientists should review materials for accuracy. Developers can miss the subtleties of scientific concepts, inquiry, and design. In addition, educators who review materials can provide valuable insights about teaching and assessment that help developers improve materials and enhance learning.

Criterion 10: Support from the Educational System. Research on the adoption, implementation, and change associated with curricula indicates the importance of intellectual, financial, and moral support from those within the larger educational system. This support includes science teachers, administrators, school boards, and communities. Although a curriculum cannot ensure support, it should address the need for support and provide indicators of support, such as provision of materials and equipment for laboratory investigations, budget allocations for professional development, and proclamations by the school board.

Clearly, no one curriculum thoroughly incorporates all ten criteria. There are always trade-offs when developing, adapting, or adopting a science curriculum. However, the criteria should provide assistance to those who have the responsibility of improving the science curriculum.

AIOU Solved Assignment 1 Code 6455 Spring 2021

Q No.3 How slides are helpful for teaching of microbiology. Give examples.

Essentially, microbiology is the study of biological organisms that are too small to be seen with the naked eye (without using such tools as the magnifying glass or microscope etc). Microbiology is therefore dedicated to studying the lives and characteristics of a wide variety of organisms ranging from bacteria and archaea to parasitic worms in their environments.

Here, the discipline is used to learn about all aspects of the organisms in order to not only determine how they live in their environment, but also how they impact their respective surroundings and thus other organisms around them (human beings, animals, etc).

Microbiology has proved to be one of the most important disciplines in biology, making it possible to identify how some of these organisms cause diseases, discover cures for such diseases and even use some microbes for industrial purposes etc.

Some of the fields that microbiologists may specialize in include:

  • Immunology
  • Soil biology
  • Industrial Microbiology
  • Biotechnology
  • Biogeochemistry
  • Microbial genetics
  • Aquatic Microbiology

* Although microbiology is, for the most part, described as the study of microorganisms (those that cannot be seen with the naked eye), such groups as algae and fungi contain organisms that do not necessarily require the use of special tools to observe them. Therefore, microbiology also encompasses a number of organisms that fall outside the traditional definition.


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Basic sciences, including Microbiology and Immunology are foundations of Medical knowledge to make better Doctors. However it continues to expand with many chapters with arrivals of emerging and remembering microbes. These courses use illustrations from the bacterial and immunological diseases of humans that play an important role in understanding medicine and healthcare. Under the medical microbiology and immunology umbrella there are essential requirements for advanced knowledge in the many aspects of microbes, diseases, and host defences The Universities and Medical council of India too modified syllabus with great efforts, they made a Major question on Applied Microbiology which will help medical students to solve a clinical problem puzzled with some signs and symptoms The greatest achievements in Medical Sciences are attributed to developments in diagnosis, treatment and prevention of several diseases. Many students think the basic sciences are of no importance to their career development this has immensely compromised the quality of medical education in the country. The medical college curriculum should, in Flexner’s view, relate directly to several foundational subjects including anatomy, physiology, pharmacology, bacteriology and physical diagnosis. He felt that these subjects should occupy the first and second years of medical school and relate to the clinical work that occupied the third and fourth years of medical school. Without the scientific basis of medical education inherent in foundation courses, it would be difficult to educate the practitioner to any reasonable level of medicine. It has been universally accepted that understanding the normal is the starting point for a comprehension and mastery of the abnormal and that understanding the normal requires a strong background in foundational sciences. The underpinnings of medicine, therefore, depend on the fundamental sciences that furnish “the essential basis of medical education” and provide the student physician with an understanding of the practical importance of the scientific method. This information needs to be combined with a strong foundation in various non-science course work, behaviours, attitudes and skills. There continues to be considerable debate concerning the best way to restructure medical education in light of the exponential increase in scientific knowledge. Among several branches of Medicine, Microbiology with fundamentals on infectious diseases, contributed immensely to the prevention and management of many communicable diseases which in turn reduced the mortality and morbidity. A thorough understanding of medical microbiology and immunology requires not only knowledge of disease and disease processes and the interaction of microbes and their hosts (human and zoonotic), but also an understanding of the structure, function, and physiology of organisms fundamentally different from humans. It is appropriate therefore that these areas of science be integrated into the ‘introductory’ years of medical school, providing a sound basis for clinical medicine. In the last century the mass of deaths are attributed to Infectious diseases take an example of Influenza millions perished in in 1918 – 1919, however it is a strange it may not happen today? The emergence of AIDS in 1981 made us to know that we are in trouble with emerging infections. After 30 years of AIDS pandemic, it continues to be a challenge with few solutions and a hope to live long in with anti-retroviral treatment. There are several other similar issues including the drug resistance with a question that drugs which saved several humans in the last half of the century will be thrown out of shelves. Many Medical colleges in the developing world teach Microbiology as a core subject in the middle of undergraduate curriculum and students will be successful with theoretical knowledge and few teachers take interest to transform the theoretic knowledge to practical use of evaluation to control and treat infectious diseases. In the present Indian context under educational regulations Microbiology taught as a Fairy Tale, where we show few things which are not at all relevant to the challenges the students are facing in 21st century. This in turn brought apathy among the students. This missing link has got great impact on understanding of several disease conditions and infections contributing to the missed Diagnosis. If we sincerely interact with Medical students, they say that they were losing interest as there is no enthusiasm created by the outdated teachers on the problems, they perceive in the clinical studies. It is time to review our present training methods of our undergraduates in Microbiology, need immense revival of methodology of teaching. We should make them clinical Microbiology practitioners rather than historians of Microbiology. Many topics are taught as a matter of duty and not for real application. We have to delete several unnecessary topics. There should be many topics on implication of antibiotics on health and disease. . The Medical education is going through commercialization and marketing of the results, which is going to affect the nation’s health, and future Medical care. With the ever increasing amount of knowledge and complexity of the concepts involved in medical microbiology and immunology, it is critical that students entering medical college should have a high level of competency to “demonstrate both knowledge of and ability to use basic principles of statistics, chemistry, biochemistry, and biology needed for the application of the sciences to human health and disease.” In short, the educational strategies in medical microbiology and immunology in modern medical education should provide solid support for professional and personal learning goals that lead to life-long learning and support the “foundation” of clinical medicine. Medical education has been and continues to be complicated by turbulence in the healthcare as it becoming an industry. This instability has been linked to intense managed care pressures that force clinical faculty to bring in more income from patient care. To enhance the development of knowledge, values and skills in contemporary medical education, modernization practices have founded a new series of principles.

AIOU Solved Assignment 2 Code 6455 Spring 2021

Q No4 Describes student centers methods of teaching biology with illustrate examples.

The educational system as a whole is one which has experienced significant changes over the last 50 years or so. Traditional educational models have been very teacher-centered, with teachers providing direct instruction with little to no room for student engagement opportunities or empowerment in their own learning.

Over the last ten years, the traditional classroom model has changed dramatically with a shift in the model of content delivery. One of the most prominent themes in K-12 education currently is student-centered instruction, and teachers today utilize a myriad of student-centered learning strategies to equip, prepare, and produce students capable of success after graduation.

Benefits of a Student-Centered Approach to Learning

A student-centered approach varies greatly from the traditional teacher-centered instructional model. In a student-centered approach to learning, classrooms move from direct instruction to a more community-driven environment, one which supports student empowerment, conversations, critical thinking skills, independence, and problem-solving techniques. In student-centered classrooms, the change begins with the teacher. Student-centered learning strategies do require and involve students in the overall planning process, implementation, and assessments. As educators continue to refine and hone their instructional practices, here are several strategies for implementing a student-centered classroom:

Student-Centered Teaching Strategies

Choice Boards

Choice boards allow students to select activities they will complete to practice a skill or demonstrate understanding. In this approach to learning, students are given ownership and empowerment opportunities while teachers differentiate their instruction. Choice boards can be utilized not just for assessment purposes, but also to introduce new material, for supplemental practice, or as a combination of multiple parts of a lesson or unit.

Jigsaw/Stations/Centers

Although an older concept, the Jigsaw method has evolved and been combined into a center/station approach. In its most basic form, this strategy involves students utilizing cooperative learning as they seek to put the “puzzle” together. Each student takes responsibility for an individual component of knowledge, then takes knowledge learned and gained and applies it to the larger body of work (puzzle). I have seen this concept used at the elementary, middle, and high school level with teachers establishing stations and centers in their classroom to help facilitate the individual or small-group knowledge piece of the Jigsaw strategy, leading to some type of presentation, discussion, competition, or other strategy used to demonstrate learning.

Inquiry-Based Learning

In this learning strategy, student questions, ideas, and analysis are highlighted and fostered, focusing on the student perspective regarding a particular open question or problem. This strategy is particularly useful for initial student engagement, leading students to move beyond basic knowledge to a deeper understanding of critical thinking, evidence-based reasoning, and creative problem solving. Within inquiry-based learning, various components of a lesson can include case studies, group projects, and research projects, among others. More in-depth connections to the material provide opportunities for students to hone skills that are highly valuable in the world in which we now live.

Project-Based Learning and Problem-Based Learning

Teachers have their own educational jargon, and often-times, you will hear “PBL” used in teacher discussions. Two learning strategies being implemented more often are project-based learning and problem-based learning. In project-based learning, students work on longer tasks that culminate in the creation of an original presentation or product. This learning strategy depends heavily on student collaboration, communication, and creativity, with the teacher serving as a facilitator student work and progress.

Problem-based learning includes shorter projects that examine a current problem, and through definition, research, and causes of the problem, students collaboratively evaluate solutions to the chosen problem, solve the problem, or report potential solutions and/or findings. Both of these learning strategies utilize relevant, real-life connections to the outside world, providing students valuable experience with problem solving and critical thinking opportunities that will behoove them after graduation.

Flipped Classrooms

Teachers continuously seek ways to maximize instructional time within the classroom. A learning strategy that takes this into account is the use of a flipped classroom. In this learning format, new or introductory content is delivered to students outside of the classroom, with teachers incorporating many of the strategies already discussed such as choice boards or jigsawing to allow student choice in their learning. Learning material can include readings, videos, pre-recorded presentations or direct instruction, or research assignments.

In this model, classroom time is used by the teacher to facilitate learning and help students gain practice applying knowledge learned outside of the classroom. Instead of the typical “exit ticket,” in which students hand in a ticket showing mastery or further questions about understanding, students use “entrance tickets,” in which they enter the classroom with a completed assignment, written response, quiz, or blog post serving as their “ticket.” Ultimately, the flipped classroom model can incorporate multiple student-centered learning strategies, making it very popular in schools today.

The educational model of content delivery as we know it is changing. Now more than ever, student-centered approaches to learning are critical. Just as school leaders seek to build capacity in their teachers, we must seek to build capacity, leadership, critical thinking skills, and complex problem solving in our students. Student-centered learning strategies provide empowerment opportunities that allow a deep dive into more than just mandated assessments or canned, standards-based curriculum. Utilizing the strategies discussed can set you on a path to producing students ready to make a difference in an ever-changing, global society.           

AIOU Solved Assignment Code 6455 Autumn 2021

QNo.5 Write a notes on the following:

         (a)     Outdoor practical work for teaching of biology.

To date, many studies have been conducted on the importance of laboratory work while teaching science. Currently, science educators and teachers agree that laboratory work is indispensable to the understanding of science (Cardak et al., 2007; Ottander & Grelsson, 2006; Tan, 2008). The role of laboratory work in science education has been detailed by some researchers (Lazarowitz & Tamir, 1994; Lunetta, 1998). The main purpose of laboratory work in science education is to provide students with conceptual and theoretical knowledge to help them learn scientific concepts, and through scientific methods, to understand the nature of science. Laboratory work also gives the students the opportunity to experience science by using scientific research procedures. In order to achieve meaningful learning, scientific theories and their application methods should be experienced by students. Moreover, laboratory work should encourage the development of analytical and critical thinking skills and encorage interest in science (Ottander & Grelsson, 2006).

There are concerns about the effectiveness of laboratory work in helping the students understand the various aspects of scientific investigation (Lazarowitz & Tamir, 1994; Schwartz et al., 2004). Teachers usually want to develop students higher order thinking skills, like critical thinking, through laboratory work; but to what extent they can achieve this is controversial (Bol & Strage, 1996; Ottander & Grelsson, 2006). Therefore, it is important to analyze the purposes related to laboratory work, as the purposes need to be well understood and defined by teachers and students alike for the practical work in the laboratory to be effective.

In spite of efforts to better define the purposes and role of laboratory work in science education, research has shown that teachers see laboratory activities as contrived (Tan, 2008; Tobin, 1986). In general, teachers cannot see laboratory activities as conceptually integrated with theoretical science lessons. In addition, teachers fail to understand that laboratory activities may provide opportunities for students to produce new knowledge through scientific investigations. According to a research conducted by Kang and Wallace (2005), teachers perceive laboratory work solely as an activity for the purpose of verification. Researchers have also uncovered that teachers do not think of the laboratory as an environment where scientific knowledge claims are discussed.

Different reasons have been shown for the problems relating to laboratory work (Tan, 2008). According to Bencze and Hodson (1999), problems in laboratory work arise when students blindly follow the instructions of the teachers. Some researchers, on the other hand, claim that the laboratory, instead of being a place for science and experiments, has become a place where tasks set by the teacher are carried out. No attention is given to the methods or purposes during laboratory work, only the set tasks are carried out (Hart et al., 2000; Jimenez-Aleixandre et al., 2000). Wilkinson and Ward (1997a; b) have connected the problems with laboratory work to a poor evaluation of the purposes of the tasks undertaken in the laboratory.

The multiple purposes of laboratory work has been the subject of discussion worldwide for many years. Multiple lists of these purposes have been prepared for different levels of education. Many of these lists focus on carrying out experiments through scientific methods and technical skills. While some strongly emphasize effective objectives, others have dwelled on other purposes (Johnstone & Al-Shuaili, 2001; Reid & Shah, 2007). When university biology laboratories are considered, the general purposes of laboratory work may be:

– Supporting or strengthening theoretical knowledge,
– Experiencing the pleasure of discovery and development of their psycho-motor skills,
– Teaching how scientific knowledge may be used in daily life,
– Increasing creative thinking skills,
– Gains in scientific working methods and higher order thinking skills,
– Developing communication skills,
– Developing manual dexterity by using tools and equipment;
– and allowing students to apply skills instead of memorizing (Bayraktar et al., 2006).

There are many factors affecting the attainment of the above targets. These factors are: the attitudes of the teacher and the students towards the laboratory, student communications, laboratory manuals and the approaches used in laboratory instructions. Many studies have shown that teachers are not aware that the different practical activities in the laboratory have different objectives (Nott & Wellington, 1997; Wilkinson & Ward, 1997a). The teachers agree that carrying out a traditional laboratory work is a good thing without fully considering what the real purpose of the practical activity (Ergin et al., 2005).

Hirvonen and Viiri (2002) have reported that as a result of learning practical skills and scientific learning methods, students experience an increase in motivation and teachers gain the opportunity to evaluate the knowledge of their students.  When this occurs, the theory-practice connection in student teachers was measured at the highest level. In addition, the researchers suggested that the nature of science and scientific knowledge requires a different approach to learning. Although it offers a biased view of the nature of science, laboratory work gives the impression that research is the core domain of science.

Sahin-Pekmez et al. (2005) examined science teachers’ thinking on the nature and purpose of practical work in the context of the National Curriculum for Science in England. Data was collected through individual interviews with science teachers about their classroom practice. The findings suggest that little attention is being given to procedural understanding in terms of ideas relating to the quality of data. It is argued that this is a key limiting factor in the development of pupils’ ability to engage in genuine investigative work.

Ottander and Grelsson (2006) investigated the ideas of biology teachers on the role of laboratory work. According to the results of this study, teachers agree that laboratory work is an important part of biology and science lessons. However, teachers focus on the most common purposes of laboratory work, such as building the connection between theory and practice and increasing motivation. Furthermore, teachers do not consider the purposes of laboratory work as being concerned with scientific process skills. Moreover, the interpretation of the learning outcomes of experimental activities differs between students and teachers.

The importance of laboratory work in science education is well known. However, there is a lack of clarity regarding the purposes of laboratory work and the perceptions and experiences of the students do not conform to known purposes (Reid & Shah, 2007). It is important that biology student teachers ideas about the purposes of laboratory work is understood in order for the expected outcomes to be acquired from laboratory work and for the proper planning of lessons.    

         (b)    Classroom activities for teaching of biology.

Biology activities and lessons allow students to investigate and learn about biology through hands-on experience. Below is a list of 10 great biology activities and lessons for K-12 teachers and students.

1. Cells

The Cell as a System: This activity enables students to explore the components of a cell and how they work together as a system.

Objectives: Students will identify major cell components; know structures and functions of components; understand how the parts of a cell interact together.

Resources:
Cell Anatomy
 – Discover the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

Cell Organelles – Learn about the types of organelles and their function within cells.

15 Differences Between Animal and Plant Cells – Identify 15 ways in which animal cells and plant cells differ from one another.

2. Mitosis

Mitosis and Cell Division: This lesson introduces students to the process of cell mitosis.

Objectives: Students will understand the processes of cell reproduction and chromosome replication.

Resources:
Mitosis
 – This stage-by-stage guide to mitosis describes the major events that occur in each mitotic stage.

Mitosis Glossary – This glossary lists commonly used mitosis terms.

Mitosis Quiz – This quiz is designed to test your knowledge of the mitotic process.

3. Meiosis

Meiosis and Gamete Production: This activity helps students explore meiosis and sex cell production.

Objectives: Students will describe the steps in meiosis and understand the difference between mitosis and meiosis.

Resources:
Stages of Meiosis
 – This illustrated guide describes each stage of meiosis.

7 Differences Between Mitosis and Meiosis – Discover 7 differences between the division processes of mitosis and meiosis.

4. Owl Pellet Dissection

Dissecting Owl Pellets: This activity allows students to explore owl eating habits and digestion through dissecting owl pellets.

Objectives: Students learn how to examine, gather, and interpret data through owl pellet dissections.

Resources:Online Dissections – These virtual dissection resources allow you to experience actual dissections without all of the mess.

5. Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis and How Plants Make Food: This lesson explores photosynthesis and how plants use light to make food.

Objectives: Students will discover how plants make food, transport water, and the importance of plants to the environment.

Resources:
The Magic of Photosynthesis
 – Discover how plants turn sunlight into energy.

Plant Chloroplasts – Find out how chloroplasts make photosynthesis possible.

Photosynthesis Quiz – Test your knowledge of photosynthesis by taking this quiz.

 

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