AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8623 Autumn & Spring 2023

Aiou Solved Assignments code 8623 Autumn & Spring 2023 assignments 1 and 2 Non-Broadcast Media in Distance Education (8623) spring 2023. aiou past papers.

AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8623 Autumn & Spring 2023

Course: Non-Broadcast Media in Distance Education (8623)
Level: B.Ed (1.5 Years)
Semester: Autumn & Spring 2023
Q.1 Explain the steps for choice of media and also identify the factors affecting the media.

They know the importance of social media to their business and it’s on you to make it happen with a social media plan. Results don’t just happen. So how do you craft a winning social media plan that drives growth for your client? It’s not easy to find the balance, especially when you’re working solo. The battle for attention is fiercely competitive and the social media market is increasingly crowded. The platforms themselves don’t make it any easier, with algorithm changes and new features being added constantly. This is nowhere more evident than on Facebook. Even though there are 2 billion monthly Facebook users, organic reach for business Pages continues to decline rapidly.
What does this mean for you when you’re planning out your client’s social media activities?
You need a social media marketing plan to keep your efforts on course to delivering value and return on investment (ROI) for your clients. Here’s how to structure your plan in seven steps:
Step 1 – Set goals for your social media plan
“Alice: Would you tell me, please, which way I ought to go from here?
The Cheshire Cat: That depends a good deal on where you want to get to.
Alice: I don’t much care where.
The Cheshire Cat: Then it doesn’t much matter which way you go.”
– Lewis Carroll, Alice in Wonderland
If you don’t have a goal, you’re not going to get anywhere. At least, not anywhere meaningful. Setting goals is the first port of call when crafting your plan.
But, how do you determine what goals should be included in your social media plan?
Align your goals to your client’s business objectives
Where does your client want to get to? It’s so important to have this clear before you start developing a plan. You can also ask them what they’ve done in the past, what worked and what didn’t. Once you understand your client’s business goals, you’ll be able to prioritize the actions that will help achieve those goals.
If you haven’t been doing this up until now, answering this simple question will have a profound impact on your ability to prove your effectiveness as a social media manager.
Agree on the goals of your social media plan
Now that you know what your client’s business goals are for the quarter, you can set goals for your social media plan. The SMART system is a helpful tool to help you define your goals. Here’s a quick overview of the system:

  • Specific – what exactly are we trying to achieve?
  • Measurable – what are the numbers, so we’ll know when we’ve achieved it?
  • Achievable – how is this going to get done?
  • Relevant – is this the right goal for this time and place? Are we the right people for this goal?
  • Time-sensitive – when will this goal be achieved?
    For more help with SMART goals, Smart Insights shares common mistakes on setting marketing objectives and the 10 measure design tests to make sure you’re focussing on metrics that matter. Following the SMART goal process will help you come up with a goal that’s in clear alignment with your client’s business objectives. Achieving your goals will naturally yield results your client needs and deliver ROI.
    Step 2 – Decide which networks to focus on
    When you don’t have a huge team behind you, you need to know which networks will deliver the best results for your clients. And, you need to be ruthless when prioritizing where to focus your efforts. The good news is not all networks are equally valuable to your client’s business. This can be due to demographics, how the different platforms are used or because of the type of product or service your client offers.
    Factors affecting the media:
    The problem of selection of the best medium or media for a particular advertiser will vary greatly, depending on the particular situation, circumstances and different other factors in which a person is conducting individual business. Media selection involves a basic understanding of the capabilities and costs of the major media. The problems which the advertising has to face in the selection of media are:

Profile of the target market

Coverage or exposure




Copy formulation

Media cost and media availability.
In addition to these problems there are a number of other major factors which influence the decision of the advertiser and therefore, the same must be considered while selecting the media. The most significant of these factors are:

Objectives of the campaign

Budget available

Research concerning client

The product

Type of message or selling appeal

Relative cost


The potential market

Miscellaneous factors.
The media selecting decisions should be made by having a comprehensive understanding of these factors. But it should be kept in mind that in many cases it is the combination of these factors that determines the selection of media, and not any one individual factor.
The Objectives of the Campaign
This factor is in some respects quite closely related to the preceding factor. In those cases when the advertiser uses a medium to advertise in an area where retail distribution is not adequate, his/her decision on media selection is influenced both by his/her distribution pattern and the objectives he/she has in mind.
The objectives of the campaign also influence media selection from a somewhat different standpoint. An institutional advertising campaign may be run in a different media than would a product advertising campaign for the same company. In the case of product for which the dealer is very important in the ultimate sale to the consumer, and far more significant than the influence of consumer advertising, the advertiser may select media primarily for the effect the^will have on dealers. So, the objective of influencing dealers will be the prime factor in the selection of the medium to use.
The Budget Available:
The advertising budget is concerned with two major decisions about how the advertising effort will be carried out. First, how much is to be spent for advertising in the coming period? Second,, how much budget is to be allocated to different areas within the company’s total sales territory? And how much budget be allocated for media? Because the budget determines the weight of advertising effort which is an important variable in determining the effectiveness of the entire advertising effort. The product might be one for which actual demonstration on TV would be highly desirable. Yet the advertiser would be unable to sponsor (or even cosponsor) such a programme because its cost would exceed the total advertising budget. The advertiser might believe it desirable to use a multi-colour advertisement in a magazine not only to reach desired prospects, but also to influence the trade favourably. But if he still finds that his budget does not permit even that type of ad in the magazine, then the advertiser must turn to a medium in which he can get sufficient participation or a sufficient schedule of insertions to achieve an effective programme. So the availability of funds must be considered in planning-and selection of media.
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AIOU Solved Assignments 1 Code 8623 Autumn & Spring 2023

Q.2 Discuss the utility of chalkboard/blackbaord, bulletin board and flannel board in the teaching learning process.

utility of chalkboard/blackbaord:
Using blackboard (chalkboard) is a must for teaching in schools and colleges.
Though the technology has gone up with high visual interactive boards taking the place of chalkboards, the teaching with a chalkboard is still irreplaceable.
The chalkboard has many advantages both for the teacher and also the students. Using the board makes the subject more narrative, easy to teach for the tutor and also let the student understand better.
Advantages of chalkboard for teachers:

Ease of presentation: A teacher can quickly deliver the subject by writing on the chalkboard. Students do not like oral presentation without some writing done.
The chalk board with clear graphs and display make it easy to read, understand and also note down the topic for students

In math’s use of a blackboard with chalk to write problems is the only way of teaching to the students.

For languages where students find it difficult for some spellings, the teacher can scribble it on the board to copy.

In science, for biology subject’s teacher can draw diagrams as this helps even students draw them in their books and thereby get practice for writing in exams.

In physics, derivation can be easily derived in a manner understandable to students by use of a chalkboard.

 In chemistry stoichiometry of equation, formulas, chemical reactions can well be taught by use of a board.

Gain attention and interest of students in the subject: Students and audiences do not like long speech lectures. They may remain interested for the first 10 min. or so, and their minds stay away from class. This can be avoided by using chalkboard writing as both combinations of hearing and writing will keep their attention and interest in class intact for a longer time.

Writing on blackboards helps students take note of class. This class note helps them to study the topic easily at homes or during exams.
Bulletin board:
Bulletin boards serve multiple purposes. They can convey a variety of information from meeting announcements and parent news to curriculum overviews and displays of student work. They can also make learning visible. Why: Bulletin boards reflect a class or school’s identity. In and outside the classroom, bulletin boards that make learning visible show what we value, offer opportunities for reflection, help learners make connections within and across subject matter, and contribute to a shared and public body of knowledge. Bulletin boards can also foster a sense of belonging to a learning community. What: Bulletin boards that make learning visible focus on what was learned as well as what was done. They reveal the learning process as well as product, and balance content learning with learning about learning. They often include what the adult learned as well as the students. Here are some questions to guide you when deciding what to include on your bulletin board (see Creating Bulletin Boards worksheet):
• What is your goal in making the board and who is your audience?
• What kind of learning are you most excited about? What are your students excited about?
• What might you include that would promote additional learning?
• Is your commentary or interpretation supported by what you share on the board?
Covered in colored cloth, a flannel board is a beautiful way to teach very young children about the alphabet, allegorical tales and more. A flannel board, or felt board, helps a child explore stories, use their imagination, improve fine motor skills and open up their creativity with shapes, colors and objects. Sturdy but covered in soft cloth, a flannel board is a benefit to small children as well as teachers who are looking for a way to change up typical teachable moments.
Flannel Board Ideas
Made for retelling simple stories from classic books such as Mother Goose or the Brothers Grimm, flannel boards are fun on many levels. Add googly eyes, buttons and other craft items to increase the level of play on a flannel board. Get creative.
For counting, cut out tan triangles and use them for cones and add up the scoops of ice cream or semicircle shapes in a wide variety of colors. Make monsters by trimming the corner on one side of a square and add hair, eyes, mustaches and more. Have a competition as to who can come up with the scariest, most colorful or decorated monster on a flannel board.
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AIOU Solved Assignments 2 Code 8623 Autumn & Spring 2023

Q.3 Discuss the importance of slides and films strips projects in educaion?

Media range from the simple and available, such as chalkboards, to the complex and costly, such as television or video, film or filmstrips. You are not likely to use all the instructional media that we discuss in this book. In fact, you should not attempt to. However, after considering the factors in media selection, compare what you already have with the media described here. Select a few that are feasible. You can change them after carrying out an evaluation such as the one discussed at the end of this chapter. You can also incorporate some of the ideas suggested here to modify media currently in use. From our experience, the novice lecturer tends to use too many instructional media, leading to confusion among the students. On the other hand, the old professor tends to resist trying out new technologies, and sticks to old, tried methods, which may prove unexciting. A middle course is the best. Now let’s move on to discuss some specific media.
Photography: Photos, Slides and Slide-tapes, Filmstrips
The commonest photographic products that we use as instructional media are photographs (black and white or coloured), slides or film strips.
Advantages of Photography
A picture tells more than a thousand words.
Photographs, slides and filmstrips are easier to produce than drawings or paintings. They can ‘tell a story’. They make ‘invisible’ things become visible and they are easy to use in self-instruction. They are useful to compare different events. In fact, photography is a graphic method to capture and record reality. Whenever you are limited in space or time and cannot show real objects or events to your students, photography can help you with realistic visual representations of the objects or events.

Figure 6.10 Photography
A logical sequence of photographs can be combined into a story which will be either self-explanatory or require only a little text. In ready made filmstrips, the photo story is usually accompanied by a text for the instructor, or a cassette tape which presents the story to the audience. Self-instruction is also facilitated by photographs. This advantage is often used in textbooks.
Imagine you would like to demonstrate the shape of bacteria to 500 students in the lecture hall. Only five microscopes are available, and two of them are out of order. Since bacteria cannot be observed with the naked eye, micro-photography can solve this problem.
The capacity of photography goes beyond micro- and macro-exposures. Infra-red or X-ray exposures are particularly interesting in scientific lectures. They can make things, such as the bones in our bodies or the digestive system in living organisms, visible.
When comparing time sequences or different locations, photography is unbeatable. The change of the clinical picture during a disease or the effect of a drug to cure a disease, can easily be shown by a photograph. So can changes in the weather.
Look at these photographs of the birth of a tornado.
Overhead Projector
Transparencies are acetate or plastic sheets, normally about letter size (A4), on which you can write your information. The transparency is then used with an overhead projector to show the written material on a screen or wall (Figure 6.8). This instructional medium is probably next to the chalkboard and handouts in frequency of use. Unlike chalkboards, which are restricted to small classes, the OHP can be used with medium or large classes. Use it to demonstrate visually important points, show diagrams, highlight issues, build up information as you teach, and to support other methods of communication visually.
Before you make transparencies, you should plan them carefully just as you planned your printed media.

Figure 6.8 A lecturer using an overhead projector
Study Figure 6.8. Notice the position of the presenter and the pointer (marker/pen) being used. Do you always face your students when you use an overhead projector or do you face the screen?
Preparing an Overhead Transparency
Here are some useful steps in preparing overhead transparencies.
 Select the material that you will use for your transparencies. If there is no acetate paper, then clear plastic sheets, or old but well cleaned x-ray plates will do.
 Measure your page according to the size of the OHP screen. Leave a margin at the sides, top and bottom. This will ensure that all your information can be displayed at once if necessary.
 Plan your text and diagrams carefully. Try to summarize the main points. You should not attempt to convey your entire talk on the OHP,
 Remember that you can also add information to your original transparency as you talk. This can be done by using special pens.
 Choose your colour pens. There are basically two kinds of pens which you can use for writing or drawing on transparencies: (a) spirit-based pens whose images are permanent, meaning that the writing or drawing can only be erased using special solvents such as methylated spirits, and (b) water based pens whose images can be erased with plain water.
 Use large bold lettering and clear simple drawings with as few lines and labels as possible (Laver, 1990).
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AIOU Solved Assignments Code 8623 Autumn & Spring 2023

Q.4 Discuss the characteristics of optional and essential meida and also specify the process of media utilization.

If mediators describe the physical agencies which make communication possible, characteristics describe the essential qualities of a medium. These qualities exist, to some extent, independently of either the mediators that constitute the medium, the effects the medium has, or the way people use it. It is reasonable to view characteristics as a high level description of what a medium’s possibilities. They state what can happen when people take advantage of a medium’s potential. Viewed from this perspective, the potential inherent in characteristics sees realization in a medium’s actual effects (a third, still to be examined, view of media).
Restating this view slightly, characteristics express abstract qualities that are inherent to various combinations of physical agencies (mediators). Mediators are concrete and observable. Characteristics are also observable, but are an abstraction related to the way mediators are used. Using biology as a metaphor in which we can express this vocabulary, a discussion of “biological mediators” might say that a bird has wings and a fish has fins. A similar discussion of “biological characteristics” might say that a bird is capable of flying and a fish is capable of swimming. In this view, the difference is one of structure versus behavior. Characteristics are, then, a view of the essential behavior of media.
In a third perspective of characteristics, they describe the essential relationship of a medium’s mediators (as agency) to agents (the people that use media) and acts (the messages we transmit via media). In this view we see a medium’s mediators as having specific essential impacts on the messages and communicators that a medium mediates:
? A capacitive filter, for instance, will slow the message flow and deliver messages in bundles. The slowed message flow can be regarded as an expression of a characteristic of media. The bundled message flow can be regarded as an expression of a characteristic of media. Both characteristics describe the relationship of a medium to its messages.
? Simultaneous and parallel interfaces between communicators, in another instance, entail both interface symmetry (both communicators have the same interface) and a requirement for synchrony (both communicators must use the medium at the same time). Both synchrony and interface symmetry can be regarded as characteristics of media. Both characteristics describe the relationship of a medium to its users.
Each of these perspectives, characteristics as potential, characteristics as behavior, and characteristics as relationship, contributes to the description of what constitutes a medium’s characteristics. Each perspective is correct. None is entirely complete. One shows how characteristics (as potential) work to create effects (as realization). One shows how mediators (as structure) work to create characteristics (as behavior). The third shows how characteristics express the relationship between mediators and the people and messages which they mediate.
Message Characteristics and Communicator Characteristics
The third view is, perhaps, the richest. It views characteristics as the intersection of medium and agent communicator; of medium and communication act. Characteristics are not, in this view, a simple function of mediator selection. Characteristics instead represent an interaction effect in which mediators have individual and collective effects on both messages and the people that create and receive them. Characteristics can be regarded as behavior or effects in this view, but they are effects and characteristics of clusters of mediators rather than of media per se. This view provides, moreover, in its description of characteristics as expressing the relationship between media and both agents and acts, a useful way of organizing the characteristics of media:
? Media can be said to have message characteristics, including message speed, the distance a message can traverse, the persistence of a message, and the medium’s bandwidth.
? Media can also be said to have communicator characteristics, including audience size, interactiveness, synchrony, ease of use, and interface symmetry.
These characteristics should be regarded as a few obvious selections from a probably infinite variety of media characteristics. Some of the characteristics of media will, like those named above, be easy to observe in a reliable manner. Others will not. It will be relatively easy to operationalize a scale on which the relative speed of media in delivering messages can be compared. It will be extremely difficult to operationalize a set of definitions that classify media as “hot” or “cool” (McLuhan, 1965). It will be relatively easy to state the senses that a medium affects and a summary measure of how many senses are affected. It will be relatively difficult to create a true measure of a medium’s information bandwidth.
This study views characteristics as a summary statement of a medium’s relationship with its messages and mediators and will repeatedly use this view as a tool for comparing computer conferencing with other media. We will tend to take the easy road, concentrating on a small range of characteristics which are relatively easy to operationalize and reliably observe. The characteristics either:
? make sense as key differentiating characteristics of communication media from the standpoint of existing models of communication.
? are exposed in our study of computer conferencing as key to differentiating computer conferencing from other media.
? are exposed in this chapter, particularly in the discussion of mediators, as key to differentiating media.
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AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8623 Autumn & Spring 2023

Q.5 Discuss nature and role of non-broadcast media in distance education?

Non Broadcast Media
Non Broadcast audio is completely the opposite of broadcast (Obviously!) The main powers that non broadcast material can have, is that it enables you to pause, stop, rewind and fast forward video and, or audio as and when you feel like or if there is a need too. As non broadcast is not live or a continuous stream of media, it can also be played at any time of any day etc. Some examples of this can be videos on YouTube. You are able to view freely and leisurely as and when you please. The same goes for BBC iPlayer or your music on iTunes. Non broadcast can also be playing a CD, Listening to your iPod or MP3 player, or even watching a dvd on your TV. all of these examples mentioned are linked with each other because they can all come to a halt at any time and are not broadcasted as a continuous stream.
where this is from 
Advantages & Disadvantage 

  • the advantages are it has no TV licence 
  • you can access it when you want 
  • it is also potentially better quality ( more than one colour not black and white ) 
  • more accessible
  • your also in control which is important and even more exciting because you can do many things with it 
    The difference between Broadcast, and Non Broadcast, is that one has satellites and transmission masts to produce good media material that is only controlled by certain people ( not everyone ) and has a few features to the public, where as the other may want more internet connection for iPlayer and many more and we are able to locate and access the material, if it was to be pause, rewind, fast forward or to even stop a.
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