AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8623 Autumn & Spring 2023

Aiou Solved Assignments code 8623 Autumn & Spring 2023 assignments 1 and 2   Broadcast Media in Distance Education (8623) spring 2023. aiou past papers.

AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8623 Autumn & Spring 2023

Course: Broadcast Media in Distance Education (8623)
Level: B.Ed (1.5 Years)
Semester: Autumn & Spring 2023
Q.1 Explain the nature and essential characteristics of broadcast media with reference to distance and non-formal education.
The term ‘broadcast media’ covers a wide spectrum of different communication methods such as television, radio, newspapers, magazines and any other materials supplied by the media and press. What types of information are available in the broadcasting media?
The broadcasting media provides valuable information, for example speeches, documentaries, interviews, advertisements, daily news, financial markets and much more. The latest (newest/most up-to-date) information can be found here.
Where can I find it?
Transcripts (hard copies) of interviews, speeches, programmes, etc., are often available from the supplier of the information, e.g. SABC, M-Net, the specific radio station, etc.
Nowadays many of these transcripts etc., are made available on the Internet. The following are just a few links, there are many more.
Broadcast media is radio and television. Even amidst the pop culture dominance of the internet, broadcast media still commands the largest share of the advertising pie nationwide. Put the audio and visual media to work for you as your company earns larger market share, stronger branding, and increased sales. If you are looking for cost-efficient lead generation, you need to be looking at radio and television advertising.
Not only are radio and television the main media for advertising today, they are continually developing new ways to reach their audience. The SyFy cable network launched a show (“Defiance”) that combines interactions on a video game with the plot of a series show. Radio stations are supplementing on-air campaigns with digital media to provide on-air and on-screen promotions to those who stream the station through their computer.
Multiple studies have shown that combining radio and television can help advertisers reach audiences not achievable with only one medium or the other.
Distance education was started to revolutionaries the concept of higher education throughout the world and was considered as an attractive mode to democratize higher education. Distance educationhas emerged to be a popular non-formal channel to provide answer to equity, access, flexibility and cost-effectiveness. The first clear statement on distance education was made in the Report of the Education Commission (1964-66) where it is mentioned, “There must also be a method of taking education to the mill ions who depend upon their own effort to study whenever they have time to do so. We consider that correspondence or home-study courses provide the right answer for these situations.”
The Education Commission further stated, “It is obvious that these universities should not be the only agencies which should organize correspondence courses. Provision of correspondence courses should also be one important function of the extension service of developmental departments of government such as agriculture, industries and health. This should prove to be a valuable method of conveying to the educated and the neo-l iterate al like such knowledge and improved techniques as the departments concerned will to put across.“
The recommendation of the Education Commission was incorporated in the National Policy of Education ( 1986) that “……Part time educational and correspondence courses should be developed on a large scale at the university stage. Such facilities should also be developed for secondary school students, for teachers and for agricultural individual and other workers. Education through part time and correspondence courses should be given same status as full time education. Such facilities will bring smooth transition from school to work, promote the cause of education and provide opportunities to a large number of people who have the desires to educate themselves further but cannot do so on a full time basis.”
Moore ( 1972) gives more clear definition of distance education “The family of instructional methods in which the teaching behaviors are executed apart from the learning behaviors … so that communication between the learner and the teacher must be facilitated by print, electronic, popular and mechanical, or other devices.” Thus, the term flexible and open, distance education seems to be more appropriate because it is “arrangement to enable people to learn at the time, place and space which satisfies their circumstances and requirements.”
The concept of ‘Distance Education‘ is not new, and can be traced as far back as the first century. The Apostle Paul wrote to the early Christian Churches, teaching them from a distance even from his prison cell. But, organizational use of distance learning methods was first introduced in the 19th century. One of the first universities to deliver distance learning in an organized manner was Pennsylvania State University which established its first distance learning network in 1886.
Today, distance education calls upon an impressive, range of technologies to enable teachers and students who are separated by distance, to communicate with each other either in real time (synchronous) or delayed time (asynchronous). Due to modern communication and technologies, today the educational transactions through distance mode is being utilized by students and teachers engaged in both formal and open system of education. Rai (2000) has defined three types of distance education systems, viz., Institute-centered, Person-centered and Society-based.
(i). Institute – Centered Distance Education  System:  In  this  system there is a predominance of systematic models of education. The institutional mission focuses on the cost-effectiveness and cost-efficiency of the system. Academics become consultants to the institution for material design and development. All other functionaries in the institution are assigned key functions with accountability and individual responsibility.
(ii). Person – Centered Distance Education system: Under this system of distance education, the programmers are more individualized and negotiable as the aim is to serve the individual learner. Individualized learning is personally negotiated and is followed up by tutors/counselors.
(iii). Society Based Distance Education System: In the society based distance education system learning, materials are developed in accordance with the needs of the community. These are used in community situations where the teacher strives to involve the entire community i n the study of the learning materials. The teacher functions as a facilitator to identify learning goals, to evaluate learning materials, etc.
Before discussing the various media and technologies of distance education, appropriate to deliberate upon its objectives in brif the distance education attempts :

to provide an opportunity of education to those who had discontinued their formal education due to one reason or other at any age and class. The working persons, economically and otherwise disabled persons or persons residing in remote areas may improve and advance their academic career through distance education;

to provide quality education and training to large number of students at lower costs than conventional education system;

to make access to higher education;

to promote education as a lifelong activity by providing necessary access to the masses, particularly to the disadvantageous groups like those living in rural areas, the employed, women, weaker sections of the society and many others wishing to acquire and upgrade knowledge and skills, at their door steps;

to provide a flexible and diversified innovative education system which is open in the methods of learning, pace, place, eligibility criterion as well as in every operation of the program;

to promote courses leading to gainful employment, tailored to specific vocational/professional needs, as also being relevant to local needs;
In order to achieve the objectives of distance education and to make the education, meaningful, exciting, interesting level accessible to all, the new technologies need to be linked with the process of learning. The new technologies are not only capable of overcoming the barriers of distance but also able to change the very nature of the instructional process.
Media and Technologies in Distance Education
Media in distance education is a kind of delivery system, which includes all kinds of mechanical devices directed to educational use. These devices are used to communicate knowledge or ideas to a large number of people who are located in far off rural and remote areas. Distance education program can be enriched and made more attractive, effective and satisfying for learning by using a variety of media i n accordance with the content. The facilities that can be provided for these programmes should attempt an exploitation of the potential of the variety of powerful media rendered by modem technology.
Taylor (1997) offers the following classification of the model of distance education and the associated delivery technologies –
First Generation – The Correspondence Model

Print material
Second Generation – The Multimedia Model

Printed material



Computer-based learning (CAI, CM!, CBT, CAL, etc.)

Interactive Videodisc and tapes
Third Generation – The Tele Learning Model

Audio tele-conferencing

Video conferencing

Audio graphic communication

Broadcast TV/Radio and Audio Tele-conferencing
Fourth Generation-The Flexible Learning Model

Interactive Multimedia (IMM)

Internet based access to WWW resources

Computer mediated communication
A variety of media are used in distance education by the open universities as well as by the institutes of distance learning. They can be basically classified into two groups:
(1) print media and
(2) non-print media.
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AIOU Solved Assignments 1 Code 8623 Autumn & Spring 2023

Q.2 Elaborate the planning process of broadcast media.

There are so many types of media. Have you ever wondered how a company chooses? This lesson takes you through the process of media planning and looks at some examples.
What Is Media Planning?
You are creating advertising for a new product. To complete this task, you need to go through the media planning process. Media planning in advertising is the making of decisions to deliver a message to the target audience.
The Process
Now that you understand what media planning is, it is time to review the process. The process includes:
Market analysis
Establishing the media objective
Setting the strategy

Evaluation and follow-up
Let’s look at these steps in more detail.
Market Analysis
Performing a market analysis involves determining who your audience is. The audience is the number and type of people your advertising targets. The audience can be classified according to age, sex, income, occupation, etc. Performing this analysis will help you to project costs and determine the right media for your campaign.
Establishing the Media Objective
The media objective is the goal of the media plan. To establish this objective, you must determine your goal for reach, frequency, circulation, cost, and penetration. Reach is the amount of people the message is in front of over a period of time. Frequency is the average number of times the message is in front of those people. Circulation is used for printed advertisements. This is the number of prints that are produced and sent out. Cost is broken down into two different sections: cost per thousand (CPM) and cost per person (CPP). It is important to understand the cost as you are budgeting. The cost will tell you which form of media is the best option for your business. Penetration is the number of audience members reached by the advertising. The company must determine if it wants to take over a market or just reach a certain group prior to setting the penetration goals and strategies.
Setting the Strategy
Now that you understand who you are marketing to and how much it will cost you, you will need to make a decision about what type of media you will use. Some options include Internet, television, radio, newspaper, consumer and business publications, and interactive media platforms. Which option reaches the largest audience? How often will it reach the audience? Does it fit in your budget?
Now you have a plan. Now it’s time to set it in motion. This is when you buy media. Media buying is the purchasing of the space in the selected media. This involves committing to the media provider, submitting the ad, and paying the bill. This is the exciting part. You see all your hard work come together.
Evaluation and Follow-up
After everything is said and done, it is time to see how successful your media plan was. To do so, you need to follow-up and evaluate the results. Ask yourself, ‘Did we meet media objectives? How successful were the strategies?’ The success of this media plan will determine future media plans.
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AIOU Solved Assignments 2 Code 8623 Autumn & Spring 2023

Q.3 Discuss the role of educational TV with reference to Pakistan?

Television has been given considerable importance in many countries as a source and a tool of teaching.  The success stories of using television for education in many countries has negated the concept that television is basically on entertainment oriented medium and it is hostile to thoughts.  Television is adaptable and can follow different approaches when used in the different educational situations.  The medium is used for formal, non-formal and informal education.  To support formal education, television usually function as supportive and reinforcement tool.  Television can be attached with school curriculum and time tables.  When systematically organized it takes the form of school broadcast.  In non-formal education, television has a more specific role to play. When used as a part of multi-media communication tool, television can directly or indirectly teach the subject matter.
Importance of television to communicate information, idea, skills and attitudes has been affirmed by researches.  You should attempt to study various reports published on educational television in different countries in different situations.  In the words of Director BBC “next to home and school I believer television to have a more profound influence on human race then any other medium of communication.”
If media is to work as an effective teaching tool then certainly it is helping hand towards, achieving the aim and objectives of education.  Media is an agent of boost cultural economic and social development activity.  Television, as an important mass medium disseminates education through formal and information methods.
Television also continues to benefit the masses by making them conscious of the environment, rights, duties and privilege.  It is a source of teaching etiquettes, language skills, hobbies, social relations and religious believes.
Role of television is neither fixed nor easily tangible and measurable. The role is directly related to the question of how the planners are serious and determined to use television.  The role could either be enormous or, on the contrary very meager depending upon the specific tasks and available resources.  Generally television can help to achieve the following objectives:
a)        Social quality in education
b)        Enhance quality in education
c)         Reduce dependency on verbal teaching and teachers
d)        Provide flexibility of time and space in learning.
e)        Stimulates learning
f)         Provide mass education opportunities.
As far the impact of education television it should rather be studied in more narrow and specific areas.  In the world of scram; TV is more effective in teaching mathematic, science and social studies.  Where as history, humanities, and literature has not benefited from this medium the same degree.
The impact of television on macro level should be studied in three areas namely;
i)          Teacher’s Competencies
ii)         Student’s Competencies
iii)        Effects on general viewers
AIOU is a distance learning institution.  Students in this system are not supposed to come at campus for class study.  However, the “open learning system” of AIOU is not absolutely parallel to that of independent studies by the private and external students who are registered with the boards or universities and appear only for the final examination.  They get degree on successful completion of terms.  AIOU learning system is more systematic and disciplined.
For the purpose of educational programme of AIOU, electronic media is used for a variety of purposes depending on the requirement of the courses and teaching methodologies.  Follow is the summary of various uses of television;
i)          To show practical application of principle already written in the textbooks and to show the laboratory work and demonstrations.
 ii)        To humanize distance education and to improve language skills and teaching skills by showing model teaching techniques.
iii)        To show real life situation and microscope things on magnified scale
iv)       Animations, dramatic presentations, slow motions and case studies.
AIOU has so far produced more than four hundred television programmes and many non-broadcast audio-visual cassettes.  Slide tapes and flip charts are also used as visual media.  Television is used in sciences, technical and vocational subjects. The demonstration through television helps to substitute the laboratory experiments.  In social science and language, television is used to show real life situation. Television also helps to understand information, which is too complex for the written or spoken explanation.
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AIOU Solved Assignments Code 8623 Autumn & Spring 2023

Q.4 Write a detailed note on the british broadcasting cooporation (BBC).

The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster. Its headquarters are at Broadcasting House in Westminster, London, and it is the world’s oldest national broadcasting organisation and the largest broadcaster in the world by number of employees. It employs over 20,950 staff in total, 16,672 of whom are in public sector broadcasting. The total number of staff is 35,402 when part-time, flexible, and fixed-contract staff are included.
The BBC is established under a Royal Charter and operates under its Agreement with the Secretary of State for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport. Its work is funded principally by an annual television licence fee which is charged to all British households, companies, and organisations using any type of equipment to receive or record live television broadcasts and iPlayer catch-up. The fee is set by the British Government, agreed by Parliament, and used to fund the BBC’s radio, TV, and online services covering the nations and regions of the UK. Since 1 April 2014, it has also funded the BBC World Service (launched in 1932 as the BBC Empire Service), which broadcasts in 28 languages and provides comprehensive TV, radio, and online services in Arabic and Persian.
Around a quarter of BBC’s revenue comes from its commercial subsidiary BBC Studios Ltd (formerly BBC Worldwide), which sells BBC programmes and services internationally and also distributes the BBC’s international 24-hour English-language news services BBC World News, and from, provided by BBC Global News Ltd.
From its inception, through the Second World War (where its broadcasts helped to unite the nation), to the 23st century, the BBC has played a prominent role in British culture. It is also known colloquially as “The Beeb”, “Auntie”, or a combination of both (as “Auntie Beeb” or “Auntie B”)..
In 1927 the government decided to establish the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) as a broadcasting monopoly operated by a board of governors and director general. The BBC was funded by a licence fee at a rate set by parliament. The fee was paid by all owners of radio sets. The BBC therefore became the world’s first public-service broadcasting organization. Unlike in the United States, advertising on radio was banned.
John Reith was appointed director-general of the BBC. Reith had a mission to educate and improve the audience and under his leadership the BBC developed a reputation for serious programmes. Reith also insisted that all radio announcers wore dinner jackets while they were on the air. In the 1930s the BBC began to introduce more sport and light entertainment on the radio.
The BBC began the world’s first regular television service in 1936. This service was halted during the Second World War and all BBC’s efforts were concentrated on radio broadcasting. In 1940 John Reith was appointed as Minister of Information
Writers such as J. B. Priestley, George Orwell, T. S. Eliot, William Empson, and Charlotte Haldane were recruited by the BBC and radio was used for internal and external propaganda. This included broadcasting radio programmes to countries under the control of Nazi Germany. These radio programmes went out in 40 different languages
The BBC television service was resumed in 1946 and by the early 1950s it became the dominant part of its activities. Its broadcasting monopoly came to an end with the introduction of commercial television under the Independent Television Authority in 1954. This was followed by the introduction of commercial radio stations in 1972.
It has been claimed that BBC is the most universally recognizable set of initials in the world. For example, by the end of the 20th century an estimated 150 million people were listening to BBC World Service radio.
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AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8623 Autumn & Spring 2023

Q.5 Discuss the school broadcast media of Japan.

The broadcasting system in Japan is divided into the public sector, represented solely by NHK (Nippon Hoso Kyokai, or the Japan Broadcasting Corporation), and the commercial sector.
NHK collects the mandatory viewing fees from households which own TV sets and makes it the source of fund for its wide activities. It operates a nationwide network with 2 MW radio, 1 FM radio, 2 VHF television and 2 BS televison channels. Also, it has a shortwave overseas radio Radio Japan.
As of 1992, there are 177 commercial broadcasting companies, 36 of which operate both TV and radio, 82 only TV and 59 only radio. Local TV stations form tie-up networks with major key companies in Tokyo, i.e. NTV, TBS, Fuji-TV (CX), TV-Asahi and TV-Tokyo. Majority (roughly 80%) of programs are provided by these dominating stations. Those commercial broadcasting companies rely on advertising revenue. As you can imagine, sponsors are very sensitive to the audience ratings, hence TV stations tend to make junky programs which only aim at raitings.
TBS-Aum scandal and undelying problem in TV journalism 
All Japan’s newsmedia reported TBS-AUM scandal on March 26, 1996:
Tokyo Broadcasting System Inc. (TBS) executives confirmed at a news conference Monday that network employees had shown a group of AUM Shinrikyo followers a videotaped interview with anti-AUM lawyer Tsusumi Sakamoto. …
Sakamoto and his family were abducted and murdered about a week after the tape?s screening, on Nov. 3, 1989, allegedly by AUM followers. Police believe that AUM leader Shoko Asahara ordered the killings after being told about the interview. …
The taped interview, which was never aired, was supposed to have been for a TBS news report about the cult. The AUM members, including high-ranking cultist Kiyohide Hayakawa, were allowed to see the tape before the report was aired and, after protesting about it, TBS decided not to air the interview, according to prosecutors and some AUM followers.
(Mainichi Daily News)
Many people say that TBS got many scoops on Aum issue, including exclusive interview with Shoko Asahara, after it showed the video tape. Did they make a deal with Aum for audience ratings? Is “wide-show” program really a journalism?
This type of problems have been repeated. It seems that the problem is not only for the TBS but for all Japan’s TV journalism. Japan’s (TV) journalism is in danger!
Satellite broadcasting and Cable TV * 
…At the end of May 1995 the new opening of terrestrial stations was stopped. The Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications (MPT) judged that, in dawning age of multichannel television typified by the proliferation of satellite broadcasting and cable TV, there was no need for any further increase in the number of regional TV stationsthat have difficulty operating without the support of a major Tokyo-based broadcaster.
The development of media using satellites is making commercial headway. Japan Satellite Broadcasting Inc., Japan’s first private satellite broadcasting company, launched its service in April 1991. Moreover, 11 companies using communications satellites got off the ground in 1995. Two private companies broadcasting musicdigitally via satellite using PCM technology wereoperating as of April 1996, and fourcompanies commenced around-the-clock programming using communications satellites in 1992 and 1993.
Muliplex broadcasting, which utilizes the gaps to provide bilingual broadcasts, stereo sound, emergency broadcasts, and so on. In April 1996, MPT proposed in a report that all commercial TV stations should be obliged to provide teletext and sound commentary broadcasts for sight- and hearing-impaired viewers.
Until recently cable TV was used only in those areas where reception of radio waves in poor, such as secluded mountain regions and outlying islands. However, urban cable TV, defined as having over 10,000 tap-offs, more than five independent channels, and two-way functions, is now becomming an important medium in metropolitan areas, offering a multitude of programs on mumerous channels. Tokyo’s first cable TV station began broadcasting in the spring of 1987. As of March 1995 there were 61,606 cable TV stations around Japan, with 10.3 million subscribers, including 170 urban cable TV stations (Feb. 1995) with 2.0 million subscribers (Dec. 1994).
HDTV and Digital
Hi-Vision TV, the Japanese version of hight-definition television, is being developed primarily by NHK. With roughly twice the scan lines of standard TVs, Hi-Vision TV has made possible high-resolution, high-detail images. Apart from broadcasting, it is attracting attention in the fields of arts, medicine, and education.
TV broadcasting is also being influenced by the tide of digital technology. The standard so far has been analog technology, in which pictures and sound have to be transmitted on separate radio waves. But with digital technology, one radio wave can be compressed without loss of quality, four to seven channels can run on one conventional analog frequency band. In Japan two companies plan to begin digital services in 1996, although the timing of its introduction in satellite broadcasting is uncertain [see next section]. Since Hi-Vision TV uses analog technology [for encoding], its proponents are opposed to the introduction of digital technology.
Digital Boradcasting
On June 30, 1996, the Japanese satellite JCSAT-3 aired the first experimantal digital broadcasting. It is PerfecTV, the joint venture of four big Japanese trading companies, and will start commercial service in October ’96, prividing 61 TV and 104 sound channels selection. The registration fee will be 2,800 yen with about 50,000 yen for antenna and decoder, and monthly charge will be 2,190 yen for 12 channels set.
The U.S. DirecTV will enter the Japanese market, while Mr Murdoch, who recently took major stock of TV Asahi, announces that he will begin 100 channels J Sky B within two years. Thus, Japanese people will be able to enjoy a few hundreds programs shortly.
The ground broadcasting companies keep cool on the satellite fever. They think it is difficult for these new commers to provide quality programs to satisfy so many channels (I doubt current ground programs have any quality, then).
Another problem will be antenna. As of June 1996, current services with analog Commercial Satellite (CS) gain only a hundred thousand subscribers, while those using Boracasting Satellite (BS) achieved more (NHK’s BS has 7 million and Wowow 2 million). Because CS services require different antenna than BS service, they experience a serious handicap in Japanese housing situation. Many experts wonder if people dare to put one more antenna for the new digital satellite programs.
{===============} AIOU Solved Assignments Code 8623 Autumn & Spring 2023,

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