AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8619 Autumn & Spring 2021. Solved Assignments code 8619 Educational Technology 2021. Allama iqbal open university old papers.
Course: Educational Technology (8619)
Level: B.Ed (1.5 Years)
Semester: Autumn & Spring 2021
ASSIGNMENT No. 1
Q.1 Write note on the significance of educational technology. Also discuss the
scope of educational technology in our schools.
Educational technology, sometimes shortened to EduTech or EdTech, is a wide field.
Therefore, one can find many definitions, some of which are conflicting. Educational
technology as an academic field can be considered either as a design science or as a
collection of different research interests addressing fundamental issues of learning, teaching
and social organization. Educational technology as practice refers to any form of teaching
and learning that makes use of technology. Nevertheless, there are a few features on which
most researchers and practitioners might agree:
1. Use of technology is principled: Technology means the systematic application of
scientific knowledge to practical tasks. Therefore, educational technology is based on
theoretical knowledge drawn from different disciplines (communication, education,
psychology, sociology, philosophy, artificial intelligence, computer science, etc.) plus
experiential knowledge drawn from educational practice.
2. Educational technology aims to improve education. Technology should facilitate learning
processes and increase performance of the educational system(s) as it regards to
effectiveness and/or efficiency.
In this short introduction we will try to give a preliminary definition of the field.
Educational technology is a very wide field. Therefore one can find many definitions, some
of which are conflicting.
• Technology means the systematic application of scientific or other organized
knowledge to practical task. Therefore, educational technology is based on
theoretical knowledge from different disciplines (communication, psychology,
sociology, philosophy, artificial intelligence, computer science, etc.) plus experiential
knowledge from educational practise (Natalie Descryver)
• Educational technology is the use of technology to improve education. It is a
systematic, iterative process for designing instruction or training used to improve
performance. Educational technology is sometimes also known as instructional
technology or learning technology. (Wikipedia:Educational_technology)
• The study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by
creating, using and managing appropriate technological processes and resources.)
• A definition centered on its process: “A complex, integrated process involving
people, procedures, ideas, devices, and organization, for analyzing problems, and
devising, implementing, evaluating and managing solutions to those problems,
involved in all aspects of human learning”
• “One definition of Educational Technology is that it is a systematic, iterative process
for designing instruction or training used to improve performance” (Encyclopedia of
• Lachance et al. (1980:183) also focus on the the process idea: la technologie
éducative en tant que processus systématique intégrant les diverses fonctions du
processus éducatif. Elle vise, d’une part, à analyser des problèmes reliés à
l’enseignement et/ou à l’apprentissage et, d’autre part, à élaborer, implanter et
évaluer des solutions à ces problèmes par le développement et l’exploitation des
ressources éducatives (cited by Lapointe, 1991).
• Educational Technology (Information Technology) according to International
Technology Education Association
1. Teaches with technology (uses technology as a tool)
2. Primarily concerned with the narrow spectrum of information and communication
3. Primary goal: To enhance the teaching and learning process
Concept and scope of eductional technology:
By scope of educational technology we mean the jurisdiction, the limits or the boundaries
within which it works. It needs demarcation of the boundaries within which the process of
education can go on. Being a fast growing modern discipline it is almost practical all
through and is expanding with a tremendous speed, aiming at all- round development in
the area of education.
The scope of Educational Technology can be accessed from the following points:
1. Determination of Objectives:
Educational Technology provides different methods and techniques for writing instructional
objectives in behavioural terms such as Bloom Taxonomy Magar’s Approach and RCEM
Approach. The needs and requirements of the people and hence education need be revised
from moment to moment. Educational technology helps in fixing-up the right objectives in
the light of the changed circumstances and changed environment.
2. Improvement in Teaching Learning Process:
It helps in improving the teaching learning process and makes it more purposive. It tries to
discuss the concept of teaching, analysis of teaching process, variables of teaching, phases
and levels of teaching, principles of teaching, maxims of teaching and relationship between
teaching and learning.
3. Development of Teaching Learning Material:
Teaching learning materials are also as important as anything else in the teaching learning
process. In this age of science and technology, the materials of teaching cannot be
Everything of the society including values of life need be reflected in the materials. Only
right type of material will be able to modify the behaviour of the learner suitably making
him a fit person for the society.
4. Improvement in Teaching Training:
The change of environment with ne curriculum and new materials need be handled by the
teachers. The teachers equipped with old strategies and methodologies of teaching will
Right type of training to the teachers is the need of the hour. Educational Technology can
render its valuable help in the training of teachers also. The use of video tapes and close
circuit T.V. will help the teachers to remodel and reshape their teaching behaviours suitably.
It includes micro teaching, simulated teaching, term-teaching, teacher effectiveness,
modification of teacher-behaviour, class-room interaction and interaction analysis, etc.
Need of educational technology in your life:
Educational technology is a field of study that investigates the process of analyzing,
designing, developing, implementing, and evaluating the instructional environment and
learning materials in order to improve teaching and learning. It is important to keep in mind
that the purpose of educational technology (also referred to as instructional technology) is
to improve education. We must define the goals and needs of education first and then we
use all our knowledge, including technology, to design the most effective learning
environment for students.
Instructional technology can also be seen as a process of solving educational problems and
concerns, which might include motivation, discipline, the drop-out rate, school violence,
basic skills, critical thinking, and the whole list of educational concerns. First, the problem is
identified, an analysis of the factors of the problem is made, and possible solutions to the
problem are presented. Then, the student population and the curriculum are analyzed. The
next step is to select the most appropriate instructional strategies for the particular
situation. Next, instructional materials and resources are selected that are suitable for the
curriculum and the mode of instruction chosen. Finally, the program is implemented,
evaluated, and revised as needed in order to meet the stated goals for school improvement.
The learning materials today have greatly expanded because of the various technological
advances. Instructional materials include more conventional materials, such as the
blackboard, overhead projectors, televisions, VCRs, overhead projectors, slide projectors,
and opaque projectors, as well as newer materials, such as the computer, various software
applications, LCD projectors, camcorders, digital cameras, scanners, the Internet, satellite,
interactive TV, audio and video conferencing, artificial intelligence, and so on.
Teachers in the public schools and faculty at universities need to understand what types of
materials are available, how to use them, why they should be used, when they should be
used, and how to integrate them into the teaching/learning environment in order to meet
the ultimate goal of improving education. Teachers also need to seriously consider how
these newer materials can affect what and how we learn and teach.
AIOU Solved Assignments Code 8619 Autumn & Spring 2021
Q.2 Distingush between salient feature of cognitivasm and behaviourism.
Behaviorism and Cognitivism are two movements in psychology that have significant
implications for viewing learning and education. Behaviorism is the study of behavior for the
purpose of identifying its determinants. Behaviorism employs mechanism as a fundamental
metaphor, which assumes that behavior is governed by a finite set of physical laws.
Cognitivism was a reaction to Behaviorism. It is the study of mental processes through the
scientific method and abstractions from behavior. Cognitivism employs mechanism and
information processing as the principle metaphors for interpreting findings.
The two movements differ particularly in their views on behavior. Behaviorism, whose
research subjects were mostly animals, views behavior as an irreducible consequence of
environmental stimuli, where as Cognitivism, whose research subjects are often humans,
sees behavior as a point from which to abstract the mental processes behind the behavior.
Cognitivism and Behaviorism are also similar in significant ways. They both use mechanism
as a fundamental assumption. Cognitivism goes beyond behaviorism in that it extends the
mechanical assumptions to the mind, not just behavior. But nonetheless both movements
view human action, mental or otherwise, as determined by physical laws.
The two movements also hold in common a contradiction; they use subjective metaphors as
the base for objective science. Behaviorism uses the stimulus and response metaphor to
interpret exhibited behavior in the world and sets its inquiry according to the affordances of
the metaphor. Similarly, Cognitivism uses information processing as a way to explain how
humans perceive, remember, and understand the world around them. Because cognitive
science bases its inquiry within the information processing metaphor, the conclusions about
mental processes are only as objective to the level that metaphor is subjective.
Though the two movements are different, cognitive does not escape all of behaviorism’s
criticism. Cognitive science, however, overcomes Behaviorism’s main faults, particularly that
reflexes and reinforcements cannot account for all human behavior and that animal
behavior is not the best predictor of human behavior.
Cognitivism also attempts to go beyond behaviorism by attempting to explain how humans
reason, make decisions, why they make errors, how they remember and mis-remember, in
other words, things that are very much part of the human experience but cannot be
explained by behavior alone. Nevertheless, with its roots in mechanism, cognitivism is still
subject to the reductionism that leaves no room for meaningful human action. Cognitive
science may have made advances over a strict stimulus/response view of the world, but a
metaphor of inputs and outputs to explain how humans think a feel does not reconcile
within mechanics and physical laws how humans are self-actuating. A machine, by default
has no inherent meaning or sentience, but in humans, something is doing the filtering, the
creating, and the development of meaning. A science that has at its core a metaphor that
assumes there is no action until acted upon cannot fully explain human behavior, mental
processes, or human meaning.
AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8619 Autumn & Spring 2021
Q.3 Educational technology facilitates learning. How?
Teaching with technology can deepen student learning by supporting instructional
objectives. However, it can be challenging to select the “best” tech tools while not loosing
sight of your goals for student learning. Once identified, integrating those tools can itself
be a challenge albeit an eye-opening experience.
The term “technology” refers to advancements in the methods and tools we use to solve
problems or achieve a goal. In the classroom, technology can encompass all kinds of tools
from low-tech pencil, paper, and chalkboard, to the use of course management tools or
high-tech tablets, online collaboration and conferencing tools, and more. The newest
technologies allow us to try things in physical and virtual classrooms that were not possible
before. What you use depends fundamentally on what you are trying to accomplish.
CELT is here to help you (novice, expert, and everyone in between) find creative and
constructive ways to integrate technology into your class. If you are looking to flip your
class, make use of Canvas, or simply want to experiment with some new instructional
technologies, we can help.
Technology Changes Teaching, Not Teachers While all the faculty members interviewed for
this article believe technology has great power to influence their teaching, no one feels it
fundamentally changes them as teachers. “I’ve always wanted a very interactive classroom,”
Smithey says. “I want it to be very theoretically based and I know exactly what I want my
students to learn. I think technology has improved the quality of what we can access.”
Smithey also emphasizes the importance of technology being used for a clear purpose. “I
never want to use technology just for technology’s sake but to support my students’
Professor Tomarken feels that integrating statistical software and visual models into his
courses means he comes into class “better prepared” but doesn’t think it changes him as a
teacher. “I usually am pretty interactive with the class.” He does, however, credit the
accessibility of computers with reducing the “passivity factor” in his classes. “They have to
type things in, they have to click on the mouse. I think it’s pretty lively in a lot of ways.”
How Technology Enhances Learning Professor Owens, Smithey, and Tomarken all feel they
can see technology enhancing their students’ learning, particularly when students use the
technology directly. David Owens requires his students to do at least one group project
entirely over the Internet. “They’re not allowed to do it face to face,” Owens says. “They
aren’t allowed to say, “I’ll call you tonight.’ They have to do everything virtually. In this
project, they have a lot to figure out about group process, what things are done best face to
face, what things are done best asynchronously, what things are done best in an
anonymous chat room. And they figure it out. It’s…so much more powerful than my sitting
up there saying “the group process models show…”
Professor Smithey requires her students to complete a series of computer assignments from
a course CD that she has developed. Smithey values these pre-class assignments because
they save classroom time and improve the quality of class discussion. “When the students
complete their CD assignments, they come to class with a common context. We are able
then to discuss particular class dilemmas or teaching dilemmas that everyone has watched,
analyzed and reflected upon. So, we can start there and go with our class discussion rather
than having to take 20 or 30 minutes of class showing the video and asking the specific
questions. They’ve done all that in the computer lab.”
Technology can also improve the dynamics between teachers and students, often leading to
enhanced learning. “Students can see you’re doing a lot of work to further their education
and I think that there’s an appreciation factor that ultimately contributes to their own
motivation,” Tomarken says.
Students who may question how much their professors care about teaching can also see
evidence of the time and trouble taken to prepare for class. “I think sometimes graduate
students, or possibly even undergraduate students, go in with the mindset that this teachers
doesn’t really give a darn about teaching and I think using technology is a real way of
communicating ‘yes I do,’” Tomarken adds.
Technology Brings Challenges Introducing technology into the classroom can also bring a
set of challenges. First among them is finding the time needed to incorporate new
technology into courses. Professor Smithey not only uses the technology herself but also
requires her student to produces multi-media projects during the semester. “If you’re going
to ask the students to do such a challenging project, you have to be available to them. You
have to have support. There has to be some relief time to learn about the technology. You
don’t have to know the details of technology but you have to understand it well enough
that you can envision what your students need to know about using it.”
The technology itself can fail, leaving an instructor to resort to back up. Technology also
changes rapidly and it takes time to keep up with technical changes that influence how
equipment and software perform in the classroom. Professor Owens points to a digitized
news show he purchased from CBS: “I have the CD in here and one of my fears is that
someday I’ll pop it in the classroom and it won’t work. It’s a constant upkeep.”
Professors Tomarken and Owens also note that having computers in the classroom can
distract students from the class itself. Teaching in a classroom equipped with computers
“actually introduces the potential for students to be doing something on the computer that
doesn’t have anything to do with the class,” Tomarken says.
AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8619
Q.4 Explain the terms goals and objectives. Also discuss the importance of using behavioural objectives for developing learning aids and particularly teaching subject matter.
Both terms imply the target that one’s efforts is desired to accomplish. Goals are generically
for an achievement or accomplishment for which certain efforts are put. Objectives are
specific targets within the general goal. Objectives are time-related to achieve a certain task.
A goal is defined as
1. The purpose toward which an endeavor is directed.
2. The result or achievement toward which effort is directed or aimed.
An objective has a similar definition but is supposed to be a clear and measurable target.
Attributes of goals vs. objectives
Differences in scope
Goals are broader than objectives in the sense that goals are general intentions and are not
specific enough to be measured. Objectives are narrow and are set for certain tasks in
Goals are general while objectives are specific. Goals are just general intentions towards the
attainment of something while objectives are precise actions for accomplishment of a
Goals may be intangible while objectives ought to be tangible. Goals may be directed at
achieving non-measurable things while objectives may be targeted at getting measurable
things or tasks.
Differences in time frame
Both have a certain time frame. Goals usually have a longer time-frame than objectives.
Objectives are usually precise targets set for a short term. Goals may be set for a longer
term but many objectives may be set within that goal.
Measuring goals and objectives
Goals may or may not be measured, but in most cases objectives are measurable.
“I want to achieve success in the field of genetic research and do what no one has ever
done.” This is a goal.
“I want to complete the thesis on genetic research within this month.” This is an objective.
Importance of using behavioural objectives for developing learning aids and
particularly teaching subject matter:
Civilization is built on several fundamental principles, but perhaps one of the least
understood or valued is that of accountability. In this age of widespread democracy,
accountability is taken to mean a variety of things, and is a major focus of recent education
reform efforts being made at national and state levels. One constant in any system of
accountability is that to be meaningful, it requires measureable results based on agreed-
upon goals and objectives. Well-stated, clear objectives are fundamental to all professional
teaching and measures taken to hold teachers accountable for what their students learn. It
also means, in my opinion, that the employers of teachers are also accountable for
providing the necessary professional resources to the teachers for them to carry out their
professional instructional duties. Anything short of that is simply dishonest. The information
on this section of the site is updated as conditions warrant.
First of all, I invite you at this point to check out my program entitled “Catalyst: Tools for
Effective Teaching 2.0.” It is an update of the original and begins with a thorough tutorial
on how to write behavioral learning objectives. It also includes modules on lesson planning,
classroom management, teaching methods, and much more.
For many, if not most teachers, learning objectives are central to all lesson plans they
develop themselves or adapt from those written by others. That said, objectives that are
used in education, whether they are called learning objectives, behavioral objectives,
instructional objectives, or performance objectives are terms that refer to descriptions of
observable student behavior or performance that are used to make inferences about
learning – certainly the ultimate aim of all teaching. At some point, almost every teacher,
especially new teachers and teacher education students, must learn to write these types of
objectives. Here, such objectives are referred to as learning objectives. Acquiring this skill is
something of a rite of passage in the process of becoming a teacher, yet it is a skill that
requires practice, feedback, and experience. Over the past 30 years or so, the emphasis on,
and attention paid to learning objectives has waxed and waned as different ideas change
about how best to express instructional intent. To clarify a bit, I have included arationale for
developing and using learning objectives that meet demanding behavioral criteria. It
provides in-depth information that you might find helpful. Any skill is learned more
effectively if the learner understands the reason for learning and practicing it. Developing
this skill in relation composing learning objectives is no exception.
Learning objectives are about curriculum, not instruction. They are concerned with ends,
and not necessarily means. This is a key point. Many tend to confuse learning objectives
with objectives a teacher may have that relate to student conduct or behavior in a
classroom. Properly constructed behavioral learning objectives are about the evidence of
learning; they specify what behavior a student must demonstrate or perform in order for a
teacher to infer that learning took place. Since learning cannot be seen directly, teachers
must make inferences about learning from evidence they can see and measure. Learning
objectives, if constructed properly, provide an ideal vehicle for making those inferences.
The purpose of a learning objective is to communicate. Therefore, a well-constructed
behavioral learning objective should leave little room for doubt about what is intended. A
well constructed learning objective describes an intended learning outcome and contains
three parts, each of which alone means nothing, but when combined into a sentence or two,
communicates the conditions under which the behavior is performed, a verb that describes
the behavior itself, and the degree (criteria) to which a student must perform the behavior.
If any one of these three components is missing, the objective cannot communicate
Therefore, the parts of a learning objective are:
1. Conditions (a statement that describes the conditions under which the behavior is to be
2. Behavioral Verb (an action word that connotes an observable student behavior)
3. Criteria (a statement that specifies how well the student must perform the behavior).
A learning objective is the focal point of a lesson plan. It is a description of an intended
learning outcome and is the basis for the rest of the lesson. It provides criteria for
constructing an assessment for the lesson, as well as for the instructional procedures the
teacher designs to implement the lesson. A learning objective determines the criteria for
any assessment rubric. As you will see, without a learning objective that clearly
communicates specific student behavior or performance, it is difficult, if not impossible to
determine exactly what a particular lesson is supposed to accomplish.
In order to write learning objectives, one should begin with an understanding of the
particular content to which the objectives will relate. Understanding in more than one way
the content to be learned should be a goal of teachers as well as students. This implies that
teachers or others who prepare objectives as part of lesson plans or curriculum documents
and guides should have more than superficial knowledge of the appropriate content.
Writing a series of objectives that are within a body of content, but which have neither
internal nor external consistency with that body of content is not a productive use of time.
However, the purpose of this is not to delve into the area of curriculum consistency, but
rather present some pointers to help the reader write better objectives. So, with that in
mind, let’s begin.
AIOU Solved Assignments Code 8619 Autumn 2022
Q.5 Critically examine the instructional strategies. Which strategies do you think
more appropariate for teaching learning process in Pakistan.
As a student, you may have noticed that you do different activities in different classes.
Sometimes you get into groups to work on an assignment. Sometimes the teacher reads
something aloud to the class then assigns them a project. Other times you read quietly to
yourself or aloud in class and then discuss with your classmates. You may then present your
work to the teacher as a group or write your answers down in an essay as homework. These
are all different ways your teachers help students understand the objectives of a lesson.
While there are many different types of students and classes, people learn best when they’re
stimulated and engaged. In order for teachers to accomplish this, there are different
teaching methods and plans. These are collectively called instructional strategies. Let’s talk
about some different strategies.
After selecting the learning objectives and assessments for the course, we need to think
about the various instructional activities we will use to engage students with the material
and enable them to meet the objectives. Of course, the key is to align instructional
strategies with the other two components. Many instructional strategies are flexible, and
can be used in service of several learning objectives, but some of them are better suited for
a particular set of objectives. In most cases, we will need to use a combination of
instructional strategies. This table focuses on two of three components of course design.
Lectures Transmit information which supplements or enhances reading; promote
understanding via explanations; respond to student misconceptions or
difficulties; create or engage interest in a new area; motivate reading or
Discussions Practice thinking and communicating in the subject/discipline; evaluate
positions, arguments, or designs; defend own position; identify problems,
conflicts and inconsistencies; get feedback from/about students; draw on
students’ expertise and prior knowledge
Case studies Actively involve students in learning; apply disciplinary methods of analysis;
practice problem solving; practice high-level cognitive skills (i.e.,
application, analysis, synthesis, evaluation); think critically; blend cognitive
and affective dimensions (if the case has ethical or controversial
dimensions); develop collaborative skills; relate knowledge to real world;
formulate arguments and counterarguments
Writing Develop systematic relationships among ideas; application, analysis,
synthesis and evaluation; reflect on own thinking; record the evolution of
own thinking; practice disciplinary conventions (e.g., APA style); practice
responding to feedback and revising
Labs/Studios Develop disciplinary and process skills; obtain immediate feedback and
respond to it; develop metacognitive skills (e.g., awareness of own
strategies); evaluate results or product of own work; approximate real life
Compare and contrast perspectives; practice high-level cognitive skills (i.e.,
application, analysis, synthesis, evaluation); develop meta-skills such as
leadership, communication, conflict resolution; strategize and plan how to
tackle complex problems and distribute work
Recitations Practice problem solving; review material; check student understanding;
identify and correct misconceptions; individualize instruction; answer
Evaluation; practice giving constructive feedback; self-reflection; defend
vision for own work
Sometimes called community-based instruction, service-learning places
equal emphasis on the service component of the experience and the
learning outcomes for the student
Explore areas of interest in depth; conceive of, plan, and execute a research
or creative project from beginning to end; work independently; seek
Projects mentorship from an expert in the field.
Which strategies do you think more appropariate for teaching learning process in
Pakistan at present is struggling to upgrade its failing school system in terms of a more
relevant curriculum to 21st century requirements, better ways of learning and teaching and
a transparent and viable assessment system. However, success in improving the system
hinges on the vital factor responsible for imparting the curriculum in the classroom, i.e., the
So far, some strides have been made in improving the curriculum aims and objectives which
focus on critical thinking skills. The new textbooks also stress the same aims by using
questions that require thinking before answering. The main objective is to do away with rote
learned answers and develop the skills needed for a complex 21st century.
How do students perceive the learning process in our schools? To quote a few students on
the subject of classroom teaching/learning will clarify the importance of the teacher’s
pivotal role in the learning process:
• “Most of the classes are very boring because the teacher keeps on speaking without any
• Classes are usually dull and boring, involving long lectures.
• Teacher comes in class, asks someone to read the topic out of the book. Finishes the
course beforehand and then kind of wastes time.
• He comes and hurriedly keeps on dictating the topic. Children with good listening skills
and who are good at making notes understand but the others are left behind. But, he tries
to make children actually understand the topic.
• Teachers do not explain well; do not put effort in the work they do; their overall standard
of teaching is poor; control in the class over students is poor; style of teaching is incorrect.”
Nevertheless, teachers are still a long way away from implementing the new methodology
in the classroom. The idea of improving teachers’ skills is being recognised by both private
and public schools and in service teachers are required to attend workshops to learn more
from the educational point of view. However, the unskilled teacher who attends these
workshops is often at a loss to gain much from this experience. For one, educational
research proves that a teacher will teach as he/she has been taught.
The past 30 years of schooling in Pakistani schools has focused on rote learning geared
towards the examination system. Teachers themselves are the product of such an
environment and to take on new techniques for use in the classroom without understanding
the underlying efficacy of such methods negates this type of learning. Maybe most will try
and practice some methods backed by the present methodology but the old ways come
back time and again. Consequently, the course to be run in an academic year will not wholly
benefit from better forms of learning in each and every topic handled by the teacher.
To make up for the deficit, teachers are then provided by school administrations with a
breakup of the syllabus in each subject incorporating the new methodology. The premise is
that even if the teacher has no clue about learning/teaching methods, they will at least go
along as best they can with what is provided as the correct mode of teaching. However, it is
quite possible that the teacher is following a pattern verbatim without understanding its
worth and unable to add or subtract to improve on it. The result is “rote learning” by the
teacher who then manages to perform in class according to the administration’s
requirements. To state the obvious, improvement in teachers’ skills is actually not taking
Command over subject matter is a starting point for most teachers who take up the
profession. However, school administrations often ask teachers to teach subjects that are
not their forte. The process then becomes a matter of learning facts from the prescribed
textbook and just focusing on the content accumulated there. The teacher will not acquire
the passion or commitment to teaching a subject forced on them. Mostly, important
subjects such as Islamiat, Pakistan Studies, History, Geography and Social Studies have
suffered at the behest of teachers ill equipped to teach them. These subjects aim at giving
awareness of good citizenship skills much needed in a weak educational climate within
Teacher education in Pakistan must be taken seriously if the quality of education has to be
improved in schools. The new four-year degree in education is again being mishandled and
rote learning of content knowledge is becoming the norm.
The courses indicated have recommended books published abroad and unavailable to
those initiating this degree as affiliates to a university. The sum total of teacher training is
giving them knowledge of this and that and hoping for the best.
AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8619 Autumn & Spring 2021