Free AIOU Solved Assignment Code 827 Spring 2021

Free AIOU Solved Assignment Code 827 Spring 2021

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Course: Secondary Education (827)
Semester: Spring, 2021
Assignment No.1

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Q.1 What is the difference between Aims and Objectives? Write a note on objective of Education Policy 1998-2010.

National Education Policy 1998-2010 (Govt. of Pakistan, 1998) gives the directions that mechanism shall be developed to integrate internal and external assessment. Internal assessment shall be reported separately either on the certificate or a part of a composite assessment. Autonomy will be given to the Examination Boards and Research and Development (R & D) cell will be established in each Board to improve the system.

VIEWS OF NATIONAL EXPERTS ABOUT EXAMINATION system has been one of the burning issues with the large number of Committees, Commissions and Conferences. The recommendations of these were reviewed under the following headings to suggest ways and means to improve the system of examination. Schedule of Examination 1. All Boards, by regulation should fix the dates of their respective examination and announce them soon after the commencement of the new academic year. In the case of natural calamities and other extraordinary circumstances, special examination be held for them in prevented from taking regular examination (Govt. of Pakistan, 1966, 1978). 2. The grouping of subject in the date sheets should be so revised as to reduce the number of examination days (Govt. of Pakistan, 1973). Conduct of Examination 1. Supervisory staff should be carefully selected in consultation with or on the recommendation of the employing agencies (Govt. of West Pakistan, 1969. Govt. of Pakistan, 1973) 2. Only these centers, where necessary facilities are provided should be approved the Board for holding examination (Govt. of West Pakistan, 1969, Govt. of Pakistan, 1971). 3. Heads of institutions where examination centers are located should be the principal supervisors of the centers. They may be allowed recruit invigilation staff from amongst trusted teachers and should be solely responsible for proper conduct of examination (Govt. of Pakistan, 1971, 1978).

To ensure effective invigilation, the number of invigilators should be increased to maintain a ratio of 1:20 (Govt. of Pakistan, 1971). 5. Examination agencies should compensate the supervisory staff for any damages they might suffer in performing their examination duties. In view of the personal danger to invigilators in the honest discharge of their function, the Board should consider framing rules, which would enable them to take action on the basis of confidential reports from invigilators (Govt. of Pakistan, 1971). 6. Action should be prescribed against persons who create disturbance in or outside the examination hall (Govt. of Pakistan, 1971). 7. Instead of paying D.A. to the supervisory staff, the rate of their remuneration be increased by 50% and they should be paid only T.A (Govt. of Pakistan, 1971). 8. Examination should be held during holidays from the 2nd week of March to 2nd week of April every year (Govt. of Pakistan, 1978). 9. Cases of unfair means should be dealt with seriously. If any teacher is found to be assisting in the use of unfair means, he should be proceeded against for removal from services and declared unqualified to act as a teacher in any institution (Govt. of West Pakistan, 1969) 10. The conduct of examination at centers where conditions for holding examinations are not conducive may be entrusted to a senior administrative officer who should be given adequate authority and power to deal with the situation properly (Govt. of Pakistan, 1971, 1988). Question Paper/ Model Paper 1. Training courses for paper setters and examination for setting the question paper and making the answer books should be organized (Govt. of Pakistan, 1978). 2. Model papers, containing objective type and improved essay type question should be prepared and supplied to educational institution (Govt. of West Pakistan, 1969, Govt. of Pakistan, 1973). 3. The language of the question paper should be made as simple, precise and clear as possible (Govt. of West Pakistan, 1969). 4. The paper-setters should prepared an answer key to all items set in the question papers for onward transmission to the examiners for maintaining a uniform assessment standard (Govt. of West Pakistan, 1969).

Boards should appoint a committee of moderators. This committee should be made responsible for checking the content-validity and other questions of question paper before they are used in the examination (Govt. of West Pakistan, 1969). 6. Question papers should contain essay type question, short answer question and multiple- choice items with appropriate proportion. Specific item for objective type questions should be given and answer hooks retrieved after the expiry of the fixed time. The remaining time could be allocated the easy type questions (Govt. of West of Pakistan, 1969, Govt. of Pakistan, 1971, 1978). 7. Teachers who teach the subject should set question papers, external paper setters may be eliminated gradually (Govt. of Pakistan, 1975). 8. A committee of subject specialists should evaluate the question papers after examination and pin-point its defects (Govt. of Pakistan, 1975). 9. Teachers of a particulars class should not be paper setters in that subject. Thus teachers of intermediate colleges should not set papers of the intermediate examination but may set papers for the matriculation Examination. In the same way teacher of degree classes should set papers for the intermediate examinations (Govt. of West Pakistan, 1969). 10. For a 100 marks paper, there should be 20 questions, all compulsory and carrying 5 marks each. Short answer not exceeding 200 words to each question should be required expected in Mathematics for which this requirement should not apply (Govt. of Pakistan, 1975). 11. The teachers of the subjects may be associated with the framing of question papers. Model sets of question from several experienced teachers may be obtained and moderators may be appointed. They should make the final choice of questions included in particular papers of any examination (Govt. of Pakistan, 1971, 1973). Assessment of Answer Scripts 1. Up to intermediate level, school teachers should also be considered to be qualified to act as examiners (Govt. of West Pakistan, 1969). 2. No examiner should get more than 200/250 answer books to examine or be an in more than two subject or be an examiner of the same subject at the same examination for more than 3 consecutive years (Govt. of West Pakistan, 1969, Govt. of Pakistan, 1973, 1978). 3. A teacher should not be appointed an examiner of the scripts of his own college or school (Govt. of West Pakistan, 1969, Govt. of Pakistan, 1978).

AIOU Solved Assignment Code 827 Spring 2021

Q.2 Discuss how to deal with the issue of access and equity at secondary level of education?

The vital and unavoidable means to inculcate civilization and development in society is undoubtedly quality education. The quality of education is deteriorating day by day in Pakistan especially the quality of secondary education has an alarming situation needing special attention of the high ups. According to Ground Water, Brennan McFadden (2003), the success or failure of young people very much depends on secondary school, as the significant identity formation activities take place here which have long lasting impact on young people’s lives. Everyone in the society has fundamental right to acquire education but that education must of some standard which enables an individual to be an active member of the society and unluckily, the standard of education is deteriorating rapidly. Since its birth, the hottest issue in Pakistan has been standard of education; the educationalists of our country have been really worried about. The individuals of the society have their own view point regarding standard of education in Pakistan. The efforts of every government in Pakistan to raise the educational standards have been limited only to prepare educational policies in papers. No practical implementation of recommendations presented in any educational policy to rise educational standard has ever been found. The present education system of Pakistan has totally failed to let the young generation know, why Pakistan came into being and what the motive behind the movement for Pakistan was. The devastating result of slackness in improving the education system is evident in every aspect of life. The people in power can easily be held liable for this deterioration. Besides ideological confusion, the most dangerous aspect which is also morally degrading is the deteriorating standard of education. Pakistan’s educational documents are not acceptable abroad due to our poor educational standards. The claims of government of Pakistan regarding literacy rate of 47% is totally wrong. The actual figures of literacy rate is at about 20% at secondary level according to independent analysts and educational organizations. The private schools are not at all serving the cause of education but only earning money and are playing as tuition centers to prepare students for board exams, without providing any sort of quality education and any kind of opportunities for intellectual growth. It is worth noting to specify that government of Pakistan is paying very poor attention to education by allotting 2.9 percent of the GDP. Educational standards at secondary level are deteriorating due to this less attention. Education is the most powerful weapon and fundamental force in the life of mankind. It plays a vital role in forming the fate of a person and the future of mankind. It provides chances to acquire knowledge and competencies to function in a global environment. The educational standard of education is a direct consequence of the quality of teachers and teaching methods used by them. Competent and effective teachers are keys to a strong and standardized educational system. Teachers are duly expected to be proficient in the use of instructional technologies and class room management techniques. This is also expected from them to have a thorough knowledge of the developmental levels of their students. To acquire, sustain and extend their skills, teachers are also expected to be well informed of commendable practices and to exhibit a plan for professional development. Teacher has to prove the level of competency and effectiveness by taking responsibility for the success of all learners. Education department in Pakistan has to face brutal criticism for saddening and deteriorating condition of educational system. But the authorities of the department, so confidently, sing songs of success. If government aims to develop the educational standard at secondary level, necessary and sufficient steps must be initiated, because secondary education is a connection between primary and high education and is considered of immense importance for learning of an individual.

The reasons of poor quality of education are Poor Quality of Curriculum, Biased Selection Procedure of Teachers, Poor Incentives to teachers, Inefficient School Administration, Poor Assessment System, Political Influence in Schools, No health facilities in Schools, Non-Availability of Modern Facilities of teaching, Lack of Co-Curricular Activities, Lack of Fair Inspection, and Lack of Financial Support.

Some recommendations for improvement in situation are to develop curriculum of secondary level keeping in view the societal needs and demands, to maintain a strict selection criteria for teachers at secondary level with attractive incentives, to deploy effective and efficient administration in schools with democratic and fair attitude, to use modern techniques for evaluation at secondary level for student’s assessment, to eliminate politics from educational institutions, to provide proper health facilities, to use modern teaching methods in schools, to provide the students ample opportunities to participate in co-curricular activities, to develop a transparent system of inspection and monitoring, to provide teachers quality professional training, to increase budget of education, and to start media campaign for public awareness. Secondary education is always taken as first step towards getting the opportunities and enjoying the benefits of economic and social development. If quality education at secondary level will be made sure, it will drive the students a path of acquiring more education either academic or technical and it will have great impact on the enrolment not only at the levels below secondary level but above this level as well. Nothing by only quality education can make young generation better dedicated citizens of the society and drive the country towards the path of prosperity. More focus on the provision of quality secondary education has also become the demand of the time due to the fact that market is in demand of a more sophisticated labor force and only quality education at secondary level can help achieving this goal.

The bulk of the secondary schools come under the aegis of the Ministry of Education. They follow a common curriculum, imparting a general education in languages (English and Urdu ), Pakistan Studies, Islamiyat and one of the following groups: Science, “General” or Vocational. The Science group includes Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry and Biology; the “General” group includes Mathematics or Household Accounts or Home Economics, General Science and two general education courses out of some 40 options. The Vocational group provides choices from a list of commercial, agricultural, industrial or home economics courses. There are also “non-examination” courses such as Physical Exercise of 15-20 minutes daily and Training in Civil Defense, First Aid and Nursing for a minimum of 72 hours during grades 9 and 10.

The Secondary School Certificate Examination (SSCE) taken at the end of the tenth grade is administered by the government’s Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education. Admission to the “intermediate” colleges and Vocational schools is based on score obtained at the SSCE. The grading system is by “divisions” one to three. In order to be placed in the First Division, a student must score a minimum of 60 percent of the total of 1000 “marks;” those obtaining 45 to 59 percent are placed in the Second Division ; and those getting between 264 and 499 out of 1000 are placed in the Third Division, while below 264 are declared failed. For those accustomed to U.S. grading, these norms would appear low. Those in the First Division would compare favorably with A students in American schools.

AIOU Solved Assignment 1 Code 827 Spring 2021

Q.3 What are the principles of curriculum construction?

Importance of Curriculum — Curriculum plays very important role in the field of education. For every course curriculum is a backbone which reflects the structure of the course and clears all the dimensions, aims and objectives instructional strategies and so on.

Role of Curriculum — Curriculum should be relevant to the changing time, if there is a lag between the requirements and components in the curriculum then all task of teaching-learning becomes futile.

Up to Date Curriculum — Curriculum should be update. In the modern scenario many changes are taken every day. — Not only information but building of knowledge is equally important .

Effective Implementation —In this regard all these changes should be reflected in the curriculum then and then only application of earning is possible.

Modern trends in Curriculum Development: — 1) Digital Diversity — Present age is an age of ICT technology has touched to all the wakes of human life. Technology has made various tasks easy, convenient and of quality. — To survive in the concern field, it is necessary for everyone to have a knowledge and skill of technology. — Education makes man enable to contribute, it strengthens the capabilities.

2) Need based Curriculums — Researches in all the fields resulted in to specialization. — Need based curriculum is the foremost need of the present education system. Many universities are developing need based short term programs for this purpose. — Mumbai University has introduced courses like – certificate course in Power Point, certificate course in tally, certificate courses

3) Modular Curriculum with credit base system — Modular curriculum gives real freedom of learning especially in the open learning system his approach has been adopted at first — But now majority of traditional universities also accepting his system; this is a real emerging trend in the modern curriculum.

4) Online Courses — Need based and choice based curriculums are available online also. E.g. course era .com has introduced many useful need based courses for free of cost. — Government also takes initiative for this e.g. Right to Information certificate course has been introduced by Government of India to the Indian people. This course is free and online.

5) 21st century skills — All the curriculums of various courses should focus on 21st century skills. Skills like — Collaboration, critical thinking, effective communication, multitasking stress management, empathy are must for all the personals.

 6) International Understanding — Globalization has made converted the world in to global village. — We should consider world as a one family and for this international understanding must be inculcate through curriculum.

7) Constructivism — Constructivist approach believes that learner should be given freedom to construct his/her knowledge. Spoon feeding must be avoided. — If a learner is fully active in construction of knowledge then learning process will be highly effective. — In all the curriculums constructivist strategies must be given important place.

Curriculum Reforms in Pakistan — Curriculum Reforms have been underway since 2001 in Pakistan after a long period of neglect and stagnation. — From 2001-2003 curriculum ‘revision’ was undertaken in measured and tempered phases to keep the influential religious lobby in government at bay.

Continue…. — In 2005 -06, curriculum of all grades and subjects (grades I-XII ) underwent a comprehensive reform in response to critiques — The persistent charges against the curriculum in use have been that it is: exclusionary, ideologically driven, bigoted, generating negative stereotypes with outmoded content and resistance to change; — All of which, leads to irrelevance and poor learning levels as corroborated by the latest National Education Assessment System reports (NEAS 2006 and 2008)

Continue….. — The comprehensive national curriculum reforms began in 2005 embedded in three mega concurrent initiatives of the Ministry of Education — i) The National Education Policy Reform Process (NEPR) — ii) the National Curriculum Reforms, and the undertaking of the first ever National Education Census (NEC) of all service delivery units in Education (www.moe.gov.pk)

How the information age, workplace, media and greater democracy impact curriculum development four main challenges face the education system

Challenges Impacting Curriculum Changing Workplace Greater Democracy Mass Media Information Age

Information Age — More information has been produced — Information are made available to anybody, anywhere and anytime. — Has the present curriculum in educational institutions taken into consideration these developments?

Changing Workplace — Automation and computerization is another development that is rapidly changing the workplace and type of job performed. — The workforce of the future will need to acquire skills in shorter periods of time and at faster rate to keep pace with knowledge that is fast competitive and relevant.


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Influence of The Media — The onslaught of the media 24 hours a day and 7 days a week have brought with it both positive and negative content. — A plethora of forces are competing for the attention of children, adolescents and adults. — Are schools adequately preparing children with the skills and knowledge to make wise decision?

Modern Trends —Constructivism, modular curriculum, credit system, Information technology these all are the emerging trends in curriculum development.

Conclusion — Constructivism, modular curriculum, credit system, Information technology these all are the emerging trends in curriculum development. — These trends should be given proper justice while developing curriculum. — Educators should learn to work together with their students, and with other experts in creating content, and are able to tailor it to exactly what they need.

AIOU Solved Assignment 2 Code 827 Spring 2021

Q.4 What are the main prints of Quid-i-Azam message at Education Confrence 1947.

Youth and Nojawan are the most fascinating words to be heard. That is the reason, in political processions, rallies and protests, the most repeatedly heard slogan of political parties is, ‘Mairy Nojawano’ or ‘’Pakistan kay Jawano’’. These phrases of calling out youth and addressing them has its deep roots in Pakistan movement and its political history. During Pakistan Movement, major contribution of different student federations cannot be overlooked. Young students of different provinces played their vital role in spreading the message of an independent land with their demonstrated faith, unity, discipline, determination, sacrifice and relentless work.

From the struggle of Pakistan Movement to the recent PTI’s government youth had a major contribution. It would not be an overstatement to claim that youth is viewed as the key factor behind majority of the social and political changes and revolutions not only in Pakistan but around the world.

Youth comprises 60% of Pakistan, as 60% of Pakistan’s total population is below 35 years and we are world’s second country with highest number of youth population. Considering them an asset means taking complete benefit of their energies and potentials. When it comes to utilization of youth power, it requires great efforts to plan strategically. If we train and equip them to make place in national and international job markets, they will be able to contribute in development and productivity of the country. However, if we did not set goals and leave them unskilled and economically disengaged, they are likely to prove disastrous for nation’s future. A directionless and disintegrated youth can become an easy prey in the hands of enemies.

Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah had high hopes from Pakistani youth and in all his important addresses to students, he stressed upon youth’s vision in life. While addressing students in Lahore on October 31 he said:

‘’Pakistan is proud of her youth, particularly the students who have always been in the forefront in the hour of trial and need. You are the nation’s leaders of tomorrow and you must fully equip yourself by discipline, education and training for the arduous task lying ahead of you. You should realise the magnitude of your responsibility and be ready to bear it’’ (Jinnah, 1947).

The father of the nation seemed thoroughly inspired and hopeful with their role in different fields of life. He did not view them as bookworms but as the leaders and makers of the nations. In short, he regarded them the backbone of the nation having an important role in the development of the society. But at the same time he forbade them from getting involved in politics and becoming puppets in the hands of political parties. If we view Pakistani youth, neither we find visionary leaders nor the committed patriots. They are good to go in political rallies to hoot and burn cars yet do not know the destruction they are causing to their own land and assets.

The worst is viewed during Covid, when they felt honoured and partying at the closure of educational institutes yet seemed fearful to modify themselves as per the challenges of the present times. Keeping in mind all the aspects, Pakistani state must not be ashamed that we did establish schools with books and curriculum yet failed to produce enlightened learners.

The confession doesn’t make the issue complicated yet it provides clues for its resolutions. Our political parties, majority with feudal backgrounds never seemed serious towards educating minds, fearing decline of their political careers. Political parties in power focused more on hoarding and piling wealth in their Swiss accounts or working on noticeable projects such as metro buses or motorway but never tried to work on youth’s education and development. The major issue we need to address is to set directions for the youth. That can only be attained through education and awareness of youth.

Quaid also believed in training the youth through educational reforms. In order to show relevancy of Quaid’s vision to education system we need to view his message to the first Education Conference in November 1947, when he said: “the future of our state will and must accordingly depend upon the type of education we give to our children, and the way in which we bring them up as future citizens of Pakistan”.

It is unfortunate that our education system is nonetheless creating robots and rote learners, incapable of understanding true meaning of Quaid’s vision. Even after seven decades of independence, we have failed to discard Gora’s curriculum primarily designed to produce clerks or baboos in the subcontinents. We did not put in effort to review our curriculum for the betterment of our nation.

However, we cannot wholly depend upon education system to bring betterment in our youth. In order to meet the challenges of the present times, we need other factors such as parental counseling, media’s role and envisioned leadership. Home is the basic institution in laying the foundation of an individual and the home environment leaves deeper impression on building the personality of future’s citizens. Usually parents seem ignorant of their crucial responsibility and hold schools responsible for children’s grooming and skill development. While educational institutions primarily focus on transferring theoretical knowledge rather than grooming the minds or developing the critical thinking of their students. Print, social and electronic media have become the biggest influencer but sadly the relentless race of rating put them in competition of money making and not a tool of learning and teaching for the youth. Our leadership is more into their personal interest rather than focusing on youth’s development and training for better Pakistan. This is how our youth has lost its track and got completely aimless, disillusioned and even destructive in some cases.

To conclude, we need to own this broken, shattered, lost and visionless youth. It’s never too late to amend things and we as a nation, need to realise before it gets completely devastated. If we will not value our youth, they might be used as an explosive against us or become puppets in the hands of anti-state elements. It is the duty of every citizen to realise this mistake and try to correct it before it really gets too late.

AIOU Solved Assignment Code 827 Autumn 2021

Q.5 Elaborate the Aims of Education in Pakistan at National level.

Pakistan is located in the South and West Asia region neighboring borders India, Iran, Afghanistan and the Arabian Sea. Total population of Pakistan in 2010 is 173 million. About 64% people live in rural areas whereas 36% people live in urban areas.

Introduction:

This paper is designed to give a report on education in Pakistan. In this paper, the different roles, facts, and policies are reviewed which were designed for providing education in the country. Different education system, development challenges and causes are discussed.

The education is now become one of the most defining enterprises of the 21st century with the emergence of globalization and increasing competition. In this fast world, education and technology are the basic keys for survival and progress of Pakistan respectively. Pakistan is determined to respond positively to emerging needs, opportunities and challenges of globalization. Education is one of the golden key that is considered as a big change and progress. Progress and prosperity of the country depends on the kind of education that is provided to the people.

WOMEN IN EDUCATION

In Pakistan, the rate of women’s literacy remains low as compared to men’s. Women have a low percentage of participation in society. The status of women in Pakistan especially in rural areas is low which is due to social and cultural obstacles. One of the strangest aspects in Pakistan is that some place especially in northern tribal areas the family is against of educating girls. The situation in NWFP and Baluchistan is most critical. The rate of women literacy is 3-8%. Many organizations have opened such schools in these areas that provide education. Unfortunately, the government has not taken any steps or measurements to promote literacy to girls’ education in these areas. “In 1981 only 7% of women in rural areas were literate, compared with 35% in urban areas. Among men, these rates were 27 and 57 percent, respectively”.

This backwardness of the women is due to the non-equal treatment with them.In developed countries male female are considered equally. This unequal treatment with women takes the country to backward. In Pakistan a system of education with equal opportunities of education to male and female must be provided.

BACKGROUNG OF EDUCATION POLICY

In 2005, the Government of Pakistan has decided to review the National Education Policy to achievable in the field of education to overcome the problem regarding conflicts and achieve a knowledge that permits every person to realize his duty.

This policy review will result in a policy which is applicable to all providers of education in Pakistan in which formal and non-formal states are included.

In Pakistan context the essential part is ideological bases and historically provided by Islam as an ideology derived from Islamic religion. Islam is the fundamental source of providing values for our daily life. It also provides an ethical conduct which is an essential precondition for social development.

/////Policy & Planning

Pakistani education sector is the most neglected sector. The literacy rate in Pakistan is 49.9% as of 2008. Education Policy has to be nationally developed and owned. It is simplistic and unprofitable to prepare it at the federal level and thrust upon the provinces. In Pakistan till now at least nine documents have issued that have the status of a policy. Each policy was prepared with varying degree and involvement of the federating units.

Main development Challenges

Following are the main issues and challenges in adult literacy and non-formal education:

  • There is no separate budget allocation for adult literacy from total expenditures on education; the 10% is spent on other, which includes adult literacy, NFBE, teachers training, madrassahs reform, etc.
  • There is a lack of a coordination b/w organizational structure and institutional mechanism for literacy.
  • Due to lack of training of teachers and of formalized curriculum and non-existence of effective research in the field of literacy and continuing education the professional base of adult literacy initiatives remained under developed.
  • ..Local language is being ignored or not even taught to learn basic literacy.
  • ..The link between basic and post literacy is missing in existing literacy programs’, which resulted in bad situation on the part of learners and teachers.
  • The basic literacy need to be properly equipped with skill based post literacy programs, that support learners/teachers to go beyond reading, writing and numerous generating skills and sustainable improvement in their lives.
  • In the past years due to political instability and insecurity in the country creates a big challenge for all nation.
  • Public private partnership is also a not properly linked in literacy programs; it needs to be streamlined through proper facilitation and coordination.

Private sector in Education

Pakistan has highlighted some facts recently in new publications regarding primary level education sector.

  1. In Pakistan children rate going to private schools has rapidly growths to about 1/3rd of total
  2. Private schools are largely present in both urban and in rural areas.

These publications have also argued that

  1. In private schools the Quality of education is better than public (gauged through testing) even when one controls for income and such factors, and
  2. Cost of provision of this education, per child, is lower than in the public sector.

In education private investment is encouraging. At national and provincial levels there shall be regulatory bodies to regulate activities and smooth functioning of privately-managed schools and institutions of higher education through proper rules and regulations.

For setting-up of educational facilities by the private sector a reasonable tax rebate shall be granted on the expenditure. Through Education Foundations matching grants shall be provided for establishing educational institutions by the private sector in the rural areas or poor urban areas. In collaboration with the Ministry of Education existing institutions of higher learning shall be allowed to negotiate for financial assistance with donor agencies. Schools which are running on non-profit basis shall be exempted from all taxes. According to the principles laid down in the Federal Supervision of curricula, Textbooks and Maintenance of Standards of Education Act, 1976 the Curricula of private institutions must conform. In consultation with the government the fee structure of the privately managed educational institutions shall be developed.

Causes of Downfall:

There are numerous causes for the downfall of education in Pakistan which are below.

Economical Negligence:

Pakistan has remained a weak economy of the world as it got nothing in its just assets that were snatched by India. The conflict between these two countries on Kashmir issue has hardly allowed the government to allocate funds in budget for other sectors while the education is not an exception in this regard. Till now just 2% of GDP is allocated for the betterment of education which is quite inappropriate to meet education demand. All the funds are not given through a proper channel and a fake audit report is generated that the funds utilization has been spent on education purposes.

Rapid growth in poverty:

According to 2002 Economic Survey Report, “Most of the inhabitants of Pakistan are poor and 40% of them live under poverty line, about 70% of its population dwells in villages. About 300,000, young ones are jobless. They have no access to good education”.

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This report shows that how much difficulties and troubles have been faced by this poor and suppressed class of the country. The main occupation of people is agriculture which is yearly generated which cannot fulfill their daily and basic needs of life. It is also noted that only 1% landlords hold almost 95% of lands in Pakistan which is totally unfair. This unjust division of land creates a huge economical problem which not only for the poor but also the government.

Political Negligence:

“If you want to destroy the future of any nation, no need to wage war with them; defunct their education, they will remain no more live on the map of the world.”

still now no politician has paid attention in improving the standard of education so far, as far as the question of history of development of education in Pakistan is concerned. In case of Sindh, in early 1970s, lingual riots took place and a new cancer of copy culture was introduced and boosted up by politicians to prevail among the people. No official steps were taken in curbing this fatal disease. Now, the result is that throughout the country Sindhi students are understood the out come of copy culture and basic rights in every walk of life are denied to them, because however, they may be genius and creators but the fact remained that they lack in management and unable move the economy of the country just because they bear a title of COPY CULTURE. It was a political conspiracy based on totally bias. Being a Sindhi, I do not favour Sindhis that they are not given a proper share in different walks of life, whatever is happening to them is the only out come of wrong and misled policies which have been blindly followed up by them. Patriotism is the very hinge for all virtues, living in the same country everyone at first is Pakistani then Sindhi, Punjabee, Balochee and or Pathan, respectively. So, now it is our turn to turn a new leaf and pace with our other provincial brothers to improve the management of our beloved country Pakistan, believing in “united we stand, divided we fall”. Education has become a question of survival for us; less developed man cannot bring the change in improving the skills that are vital for the uplift of the education.

2011 is Pakistan’s Year of Education.

It’s time to think again about Pakistan’s most pressing long-term challenge.

The economic cost of not educating Pakistan is the equivalent of one flood every year. The only difference is that this is a self-inflicted disaster.

The announcement made by the prime minister that 2011 will be the ‘Pakistan Year of Education’ high lightens the future goals. The Pakistan Education Task Force has argued ever that Pakistan needs to give the highest possible to priority to education for good reasons.

Due to unavailability of education there is a no single chance that the government will reach the development goals by 2015 on education. While on the other hand, India, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka are all on their way to achieving the same goals. As compared with India it improving education rate is ten times that of Pakistan, whereas Bangladesh’s is twice that of Pakistan.

Pakistanis have a constitutional right to universal education. In the 18th Amendment it has discussed that education has become now a right and no longer a privilege as it was in past times. Article 25A give a scenario where a citizen can take the government to court for not providing them access, or even be the grounds for a suo moto action.

At current rates of progress, no person alive today will see a Pakistan with universal education as defined in our constitution. Balochistan would see it in 2100 or later.

Just one year of education for women in Pakistan can help reduce fertility by 10 per cent, controlling the other resource emergency this country faces.

There are 26 countries poorer than Pakistan but send more of their children to school, demonstrating the issue is not about finances, but will and articulating demand effectively. It is too easy, and incorrect, to believe that Pakistan is too poor to provide this basic right.

Pakistan spent 2.5 per cent of its budget on schooling in 2005/2006. It now spends just 1.5 per cent in the areas that need it most. That is less than the subsidies given to PIA, PEPCO and Pakistan Steel. Provinces are allocated funds for education but fail to spend the money.

We presume the public school system is doing poorly because teachers are poorly paid, this is untrue. Public school teachers get paid 2/3rds more than their equivalent private low cost school counterparts; they earn four times that of the average parent of a child in their school. Despite this, on any given day 10-15 per cent of teachers will be absent from their duties teaching.

There is demand for education that is partly being addressed by low cost private schools, even one third of all rural children go to these schools (public schools can cost Rs.150 per month, low cost private schools the same or up to Rs.250). Despite the large presumption of the media, both domestic and international, this gap is not actually being addressed by Madrassahs. Only six per cent of students go to Madrassahs.

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