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Free AIOU Solved Assignment Code 6462 Spring 2021
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Course: Test Development and Evaluation (6462)
Semester: Spring, 2021
Level: B.Ed (Hons) 4 Year
Assignment no :1
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Q.1 Construct a table of specification on the basis of SOLO Taxonomy?
Table of specifications is a two –way chart which describes the topics to be covered in a test and the number of items or points which will be associated with each topic . sometimes the types of items are described as well. Table of specification is a chart that provides graphic representations of a related to the content of a course or curriculum elements and the educational objectives.
- The definition of table of specification .
- The table of specification basically is like a table chart that goes over topic that will be on a test. This table chart is split into two charts and each sub topic is numbered under the main topics that are being covered for the test. This type of table is mainly used by teachers to help break down their outline on a specific subject. Some teachers use this particular table as their teaching guideline by breaking the table into subjects, the teacher’s main points, how much time spent on the point, and what assignment/ project can be done to help the student learn the subject to ensure the valid measure of the must rational objective and course contents..Meaning of the table of specification Table of specification is a plan prepared by a classroom teacher as a basis for test construction. It is important that this be carefully prepared because it
- Table of specifications allow us to ensure that our test focuses on the most important areas and weights different areas based on their importance/time spent teaching . A table of specifications also gives us the proof we need to make sure our test has content validity . The most important of table of specifications is to achieve balance in the test and to identify the achievement domains being measured and to ensure that a fair and representative sample of questions appear on the test . What is the purpose of table of specifications:
- What are the benefits of table of specifications Helping in building a balance test . Achieve the reliability and validity of the test Giving students self-confidence about the justice of the test Selecting a representative sample Give true weight for each lesson
- 5-emphasis and space provided in the test . 4-textbook chapter topics . 3-amount of time spent on those topics . 2-topics covered in class. 1-course objective . Table of specifications are designed based on : Things should be taken into account when building a table of specification s
- 3-construct the table 2-break the domain into levels (e.g knowledge, comprehension , application, analysis, and synthesis and evalution) 1-identify the domain that is to be assessed . A table of specification could be designed in 3simle steps:
- Relative weight for the importance of content = ( The number of the class period for one subject ÷total class period ) ×100%Formula A
- Relative weight of the subjectClass period spent on subjectContent %303 %101Vocabulary %101Speaking %202language %101Listening %202Writing 100%10Total class periods for teaching the unit
- Formula B Relative weight for the objectives = (The number of objectives in each level ÷ The objectives of the Unit ) 100%
- Objectives Topics Totals 100% Knowledge and Comprehension 45 % Application 35% Analysis, Synthesis And Evaluation 20% Totals 100% Reading 30 % Vocabulary 10 % Speaking 10 % language 20 % Listening 10 % Writing 20 % Number of questions 9 7 4 20
- Formula C Identify the number of questions in each topic for each level of objectives:- The total number of questions x relative weight of the topics x relative weight of objectives
- Objectives Topics Totals 100% Knowledge and Comprehension 45 % Application 35% Analysis, Synthesis And Evaluation 20% Totals 100% Reading 30 % 2.7 2.1 1.2 6 Vocabulary 10 % 0.9 0.7 0.4 2 Speaking 10 % 0.9 0.7 0.4 2 language 20% 1.8 1.4 0.8 4 Listening 10 % 0.9 0.7 0.4 2 Writing 20% 1.8 1.4 0.8 4 Number of questions 9 7 4 20
AIOU Solved Assignment Code 6462 Spring 2021
Q.2 Discuss how to write best MCQ’s quality. Give suggestions to improve the answers?
- Use Plausible Distractors (wrong-response options) • Only list plausible distractors, even if the number of options per question changes • Write the options so they are homogeneous in content • Use answers given in previous open-ended exams to provide realistic distracters
- Use a Question Format • Experts encourage multiple-choice items to be prepared as questions (rather than incomplete statements) Incomplete Statement Format: The capital of California is in Direct Question Format: In which of the following cities is the capital of California?
- Emphasize Higher-Level Thinking • Use memory-plus application questions. These questions require students to recall principles, rules or facts in a real life context. • The key to preparing memory-plus application questions is to place the concept in a life situation or context that requires the student to first recall the facts and then apply or transfer the application of those facts into a situation. • Seek support from others who have experience writing higher-level thinking multiple-choice questions.
EXAMPLES: Memory Only Example Which description best characterizes whole foods? a. orange juice b. toast c. bran cereal d. grapefruit Less Effective Less Effective More Effective BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY 2001 Annual University Conference 2 Memory-Plus Application Example Sally’s breakfast this morning included one glass of orange juice (from concentrate), one slice of toast, a small bowl of bran cereal and a grapefruit. What “whole food” did Sally eat for breakfast? a. orange juice b. toast c. bran cereal d. grapefruit Memory-Plus Application Example Which one of the following best illustrates the law of diminishing returns? a. The demand for a farm product increased faster than the supply of the product. b. The population of a country increased faster than the means of subsistence. c. A machine decreased in utility as its parts became worn. d. A factory doubled its labor force and increased production by 50 percent. Ability to Interpret Cause-and-Effect Relationships Example Why does investing money in common stock protect against loss of assets during inflation? a. It pays higher rates of interest during inflation. b. It provides a steady but dependable income despite economic conditions. c. It is protected by the Federal Reserve System. d. It increases in value as the value of a business increases. Ability to Justify Methods and Procedures Example Why is adequate lighting necessary in a balanced aquarium? a. Fish need light to see their food. b. Fish take in oxygen in the dark. c. Plants expel carbon dioxide in the dark. d. Plants grow too rapidly in the dark. Effective Effective Effective Effective BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY 2001 Annual University Conference 3 3. Emphasize Higher-Level Thinking (continued) Faculty Comment: “I had previously thought that these higher-level questions would require a lot more work than they do. I also enjoy being more creative as I cast the topic into a unique setting that requires my students not only to recall but also to apply concepts. However, what has surprised me most is how much more my students ‘enjoy’ higherlevel assessment questions than recall questions. ”
- Keep Option Lengths Similar • Avoid making your correct answer the long or short answer
- Balance the Placement of the Correct Answer • Correct answers are usually the second and third option
- Be Grammatically Correct • Use simple, precise and unambiguous wording • Students will be more likely to select the correct answer by finding the grammatically correct option
- Avoid Clues to the Correct Answer • Avoid answering one question in the test by giving the answer somewhere else in the test • Have the test reviewed by someone who can find mistakes, clues, grammar and punctuation problems before you administer the exam to students • Avoid extremes – never, always, only • Avoid nonsense words and unreasonable statements
- Avoid Negative Questions • 31 of 35 testing experts recommend avoiding negative questions • Students may be able to find an incorrect answer without knowing the correct answer BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY 2001 Annual University Conference 4
- Use Only One Correct Option (Or be sure the best option is clearly the best option) • The item should include one and only one correct or clearly best answer • With one correct answer, alternatives should be mutually exclusive and not overlapping • Using MC with questions containing more than one right answer lowers discrimination between students
- Give Clear Instructions Such as: Questions 1 – 10 are multiple-choice questions designed to assess your ability to remember or recall basic and foundational pieces of knowledge related to this course. Please read each question carefully before reading the answer options. When you have a clear idea of the question, find your answer and mark your selection on the answer sheet. Please do not make any marks on this exam. Questions 11 – 20 are multiple-choice questions designed to assess your ability to think critically about the subject. Please read each question carefully before reading the answer options. Be aware that some questions may seem to have more than one right answer, but you are to look for the one that makes the most sense and is the most correct. When you have a clear idea of the question, find your answer and mark your selection on the answer sheet. You may justify any answer you choose by writing your justification on the blank paper provided.
- Use Only a Single, Clearly-Defined Problem and Include the Main Idea in the Question • Students must know what the problem is without having to read the response options
- Avoid the “All the Above” Option • Students merely need to recognize two correct options to get the answer correct 13. Avoid the “None of the Above” Option • You will never know if students know the correct answer 14. Don’t Use MC Questions When Other Item Types Are More Appropriate • limited distractors or assessing problem-solving and creativity
AIOU Solved Assignment 1 Code 6462 Spring 2021
Q.3 Highlight the role of assessment in teaching and learning process
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The Role of Assessment in Teaching and Learning Successful student learning is most effective with an aligned system of standards, curriculum, instruction, and assessment. When assessment is aligned with instruction, both students and teachers benefit. Students are more likely to learn because instruction is focused and because they are assessed on what they are taught. Teachers are also able to focus, making the best use of their time. Rhode Island’s learning standards describe educational objectives – what students should know and be able to do by the end of a course or grade level – but they do not describe any particular teaching practice, curriculum, or assessment. Without standards, districts and schools don’t have goals to shoot for. By matching what is taught in the classroom to the standards in each subject area, students (and their parents and teachers) will know what teachers should be teaching, what students should be learning and what they will be tested on. Curriculum provides a “map” for how students will master the standards. Decisions about what that map looks like are made by districts, schools, and teachers. This map includes the materials (e.g. lesson plans, assignments, tests, resources) that will make learning possible. Teachers are responsible for providing instruction by identifying teaching practices that are effective for all students, since not every student learns or retains information in the same way. This is where teachers get to be creative in how they engage students in learning. Assessments are the tools and methods educators use to what students know and are able to do. Assessments range from teacher questioning techniques to statewide assessments like PARCC. Assessments are only useful if they provide information that is used to improve student learning. Assessment inspires us to ask these hard questions: “Are we teaching what we think we are teaching?” “Are students learning what they are supposed to be learning?” “Is there a way to teach the subject better, thereby promoting better learning?” Student Learning Standards Curriculum Instruction Assessment Why do we have so many different assessments? One assessment cannot answer every question about student learning. For example, if a teacher wants to know if students learned the material she just taught and where they may be struggling to adjust the next day’s instruction he/she may give a short quiz of a few questions on a specific skill. If he/she wants to know if the students mastered the material taught in the first semester and is ready to learn more challenging content he/she may give a longer test that measures several skills. A comprehensive assessment system includes both state and local assessment of student learning. State assessments which are given annually provide a valuable “snapshot” to educators and families and help us see how we’re doing compared with other districts, compared with the state as a whole, and compared against several other high-performing states. State assessments only account for about 1% of most students’ instruction time. Results from state assessments which are part of a comprehensive assessment system keep families and public at large informed about school, district, and state achievement and progress. Local assessments measure student progress and achievement in numerous ways, including classroom tests, which our teachers develop, administer, and grade. The methods and assessments that define a districts’ assessment system are determined by schools and districts. Formative assessments, such as classroom assignments, homework, and quizzes and tests, occur while the content is still being taught. These assessments inform teachers of what students know or do not know and provide feedback, so teachers can adjust accordingly. This is the type of assessment that occurs most often. School-wide or district-wide assessments help guide instruction and curriculum development and help schools and districts identify additional programs or resources that might be needed support student learning or professional development teachers may need to improve instruction. District or school wide assessments are administered periodically throughout the year and are common across the school or district in which they are administered. These assessments often measure instructional units or groups of standards, but typically not the depth and breadth of the standards at one time.
AIOU Solved Assignment 2 Code 6462 Spring 2021
Q.4 How do you define an objective and an outcome? Differentiate between objectives and outcomes with the help of examples.
What Is the Difference Between an Objective, Goal, and Outcome?
Objectives, Goals and Outcomes
Every program should know where it is coming from (goals and objectives) and what it is trying to accomplish (outcomes).
Without the direction of goals and objectives there can be no outcomes because outcomes are specific and measurable aspects of your organization’s goals and objectives. All of these measurable items should be determined during your organization’s planning process.
The Planning and Evaluation Process
Evaluation is a fluid and ongoing process occurring throughout the lifespan of your organization and your programs.
Starting with goals derived from your mission statement will help you set the direction for your program. Once goals are defined, objectives will help you nail down what must actually be accomplished to achieve these goals.
Outcomes are the third piece of this puzzle, providing the measurable effects the program will accomplish. When outcomes are reached new goals or objectives may need to be set, but when outcomes are not achieved it may be time to reassess.
In the end, the most important practices are staying true to your mission and ensuring that you are meeting your clients’ needs.
Why Do We Need Outcomes?
This fact is inescapable: stakeholders want results! Funders want to know their money is making a difference, volunteers want to change the world, employees want to see their hard work pay off, and clients want efficient and effective services.
Goals and objectives are extremely important, but how will your organization know it has, is, and will continue achieving its purpose for existence? The answer lies in the outcomes.
How to Define Outcomes
Outcomes come in many different shapes and sizes, and while some are quite common (i.e. number of people served) others are extremely unique. Outcomes can be quantitative or qualitative, and the only limitations on creating outcomes are measurability and imagination. Do not shy away from creative outcomes as long as you can develop a method to measure them.
Outcome indicators are valuable tools that help determine when benchmarks for outcomes are being met. These are specific quantitative measures such as number of, percent of, and so on; however, they can be used to represent qualitative outcomes.
For example, if you operate an after-school program about bullying and want to measure a percent increase in students’ knowledge about bullying, your outcome indicators could include the percent of students who reach a specific score on a quiz about bullying. Outcome indicators can also be separated out into different demographic units to help your organization better understand if outcomes are being met within different units of your constituents.
AIOU Solved Assignment Code 6462 Autumn 2021
Q.5 Why there is a need to evaluate the students’ progress? Discuss.
#1 Collecting Useful Data
Carrying out regular assessments and collecting student samples of work is a useful way of gathering informative student performance data.
This data is helpful when monitoring the progress of individual students across a range of learning areas, as well as tracking their achievement throughout the year. The data can be used to identify where a student is placed in relation to their personal learning goals, the other students in the class or other targeted benchmarks. You can collate this in a personal filing system, or why not create a student portfolio?
A student portfolio also has the added benefit of helping a student see their own learning journey and enables work to be passed on to their next teacher when the year ends. For more information on student portfolios, read Ali’s blog The Student Portfolio | Hints and Tips for Teacher Handover.
Did you know, whole school data walls are now commonly being displayed in staff rooms and offices?
These are a great visual way to inform teachers of the academic progress of each student in the school. Information collected from classroom assessments and work samples is displayed on these data walls, creating a whole school approach for the responsibility of monitoring student progress.
#2 Improving Teacher Instruction
One great benefit of monitoring student progress is that it allows the teacher to evaluate the effectiveness of their own teaching. If the majority of the class is finding it difficult to understand or demonstrate a specific objective, it may not be the ability of the students that is the issue.
You may need to re-evaluate the delivery method through which the concept is being taught.
To do this, it is especially important for teachers to assess their own instructional strategies to see if they are working.
A collection of work samples and pre and post tests may indicate that there is a need for the teacher to adjust their instructional strategies to better meet the needs of the students. At times, the need to re-teach a specific lesson may be required.
We have a number of pre and post test resources for this very purpose, however any simple literacy or numeracy test can be undertaken before and after teaching content. For more information on these tests, read Holly’s blog Pre and Post Tests | Are they Beneficial in the Classroom?
Monitoring student progress can help teachers to make more informed instructional decisions and change their teaching style to improve the quality of their teaching.
#3 Ensuring Achievement for Every Student
Monitoring student progress on a regular basis also enables the teacher to analyse a student’s current performance level for a specific skill.
As a result, teachers can provide students with assistance in achieving their personal academic goals. With information from assessments and samples of work, the teacher can work with the student to establish achievable learning goals and help each student to stay on track. With ongoing monitoring of the students, teachers can establish an achievable and individual rate of progress for each student, or conversely intervene when required.
We have a number of learning goals resources to help students and teachers stay on track in a range of key learning areas:
Teachers can also use the information collected to provide students with valuable feedback. With this feedback, students gain greater personal responsibility for their own learning and become more aware of their own academic performance.
#4 Identifying Students At Risk
Lastly, an important benefit of ongoing monitoring of student progress in the classroom is that the teacher is able to identify students at risk and provide intervention when required. Additional support and instruction can be given to at-risk students and areas that need to be retaught or taught differently can be identified. Monitoring all students on a regular basis ensures that no student ‘slips through the gap’. It also highlights those students that require extension and more challenging tasks.