Free AIOU Solved Assignment Code 6438 Spring 2021

Free AIOU Solved Assignment Code 6438 Spring 2021

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Course: Laboratory Organization, Management and Safety Methods (6438)
Semester: Spring, 2021
ASSIGNMENT No. 1

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Q.1   What is difference between specific objectives and general objectives? Support your answer with the help of examples.                                                                                                     

It is imperative for schools to have the latest and high quality science lab supplies these days. Science is different from any other subject. In order to understand its concepts, one has to look beyond the books and conventional classroom teaching. Effective teaching and learning of science involves seeing, handling, and manipulating real objects and materials. The knowledge that kids attain in classrooms would be ineffectual unless they actually observe the process and understand the relationship between action and reaction.

Effective teaching and learning of science involves a perpetual state of show and tell. Good schools combine classroom teaching with laboratory experiments to ensure that their students grasp each and every concept thoroughly. It is also believed that laboratory teaching and experiments that are being conducted there help encourage deep understanding in children. Children are able to retain the knowledge for longer when they see the experiments being performed in front of their eyes.

Aims:

Science lab equipment allows students to interact directly with the data gathered. They get a first-hand learning experience by performing various experiments on their own. Students are made to use the models and understand different scientific theories and concepts. It is also found that school science lab equipment and supplies make teaching and learning easy both for the teachers, as well as for the students. There are several scientific theories and concepts that are difficult to explain directly from the books. Anatomy models, physics science kits, and chemistry science kits for instance make it easy to understand the otherwise complex theories of science.

By virtue of equipping themselves with the latest and the advanced materials and supplies, schools are able to contribute a lot in the scientific advances yet to come. The advances and developments in the field of medical science and technology would not take place if schools did not prepare brilliant and dedicated scientists and researchers. Children develop interest in scientific research in science labs. When they observe various things and carry out different experiments, their reasoning skills are honed and they start thinking deeply on those theories and concepts. Schools thus play a vital role in bringing up the next generation of engineers and doctors.

To conclude, schools must have the latest science lab supplies and equipment to make science interesting and effective for students and to encourage them to make significant contributions in the field of physics, biology, chemistry, and other streams of science later in life.

Scientific laboratory technicians carry out the work that allows scientists to concentrate on, and perform, the more complex analytical processes in the laboratory.

You’ll be involved in a variety of laboratory-based investigations within biological, chemical, physical and life science areas. This can include sampling, testing, measuring, recording and analysing results as part of a scientific team. Your job is to provide all the required technical support to enable the laboratory to function effectively, while adhering to correct procedures and health and safety guidelines.

Your work will assist in the advancement and development of modern medicine and science. It plays an important role in the foundation stages of research and development (R&D) and in scientific analysis and investigation.

Objectives:

The nature of the work will depend upon the organization you work for. For example, within an environmental health department you may be involved in analyzing food samples to consider prosecution and to protect public health, whereas within the water industry your work will mainly focus on the collection and analysis of water samples.

  • perform laboratory tests in order to produce reliable and precise data to support scientific investigations
  • carry out routine tasks accurately and following strict methodologies to carry out analyses
  • prepare specimens and samples
  • construct, maintain and operate standard laboratory equipment, for example centrifuges, titrators, pipetting machines and pH meters
  • keep equipment in a clean and serviceable condition and ensure the safe removal of waste
  • record, and sometimes interpret, results to present to senior colleagues
  • use computers and perform mathematical calculations for the preparation of graphs
  • ensure the laboratory is well-stocked and resourced and that everything is clearly and correctly labelled
  • keep up to date with technical developments, especially those which can save time and improve reliability
  • conduct searches on identified topics relevant to the research
  • follow and ensure strict safety procedures and safety checks.

AIOU Solved Assignment Code 6438 Spring 2021

Q.2   Write basic requirements for designing a laboratory room?

A lab is a traditional form of active and experiential learning, which has some traits that set it apart from other forms of education and give it a distinctive character as a T.A. assignment. The lab T.A. often works closer with students for longer periods of time, and often has greater pedagogic responsibility. Safety, equipment, and other considerations also can distinguish the lab setting. Accordingly, it can be worthwhile to consider what specific challenges may arise in this setting, and what may be methods of dealing with these challenges.

The challenges/solutions listed below are not in any specific order. They are simply thoughts that derive from workshops with new T.A.s, from discussions with colleagues and students, and from my experiences as a lab T.A. and professor. Not all of the solutions suggested here may be appropriate for individual cases – you are of course responsible for thinking through which approaches you will or should take. This document will present possibilities. I encourage people to send me feedback so that I can improve this document. Finally, please do not find the number of concerns disheartening – I have generally found labs an extremely rewarding experience, but perhaps some of the below can make it even more so.

Academic honesty

Statement of concern: While honesty is an issue throughout academia, labs provide a different context. They are often conducted in a less controlled environment and involve group work, and there is more opportunity for students to cheat or to be confused about what is not acceptable. Copying others work is probably the biggest concern. Many studies show that cheating is not rare!

Possible solutions:

  • Inform students of cheating policy of University at the beginning of the course, and since you have some discretion, the specific policy for the lab. The last should be done in consultation with your advisor. This requires that you give some prior thought to the issue. It does not work well to figure it out as your are being confronted with a case of potential cheating.
  • Make it clear to the students what can be worked on jointly, and what they will be individually responsible for.
  • Document any cheating instances carefully, a paper trail is very important. Experience suggests that there is a good chance the student will challenge your assertion. These days your word against the student’s may lead to a dismissal of the charges.

Lab safety

Statement of concern: Safety is a primary concern for some labs, since they deal with hazardous substances or equipment. An accident is bad news all around. Some students do not have an innate understanding of what is safe and what isn’t, which puts the brunt of the responsibility on the T.A..

Possible solutions:

  • Go over safety procedures in class the first day.
  • Know who to call in an emergency, where the eyewashes are, the nearest phone, and so on. Make sure the equipment is working properly.
  • Do not be tolerant of horse play and impress upon the students the importance of safety. Perhaps consult with your advisor beforehand on what to do if a student persists in unsafe behavior.
  • Consult with your advisor in writing about any specific concerns.
  • If something happens, even if it seems relatively inconsequential, report it to your advisor or other appropriate people.

Student time management during the lab

Statement of concern: Labs can require completion in a set amount of time. Some students may still be struggling to finish well after the scheduled time, and you want to go home to study for the big test tomorrow. For some labs it is not possible for the students to finish the lab at some later time (due to equipment availability).

Possible solutions:

  • Run through the lab on your own so you are sure that it can be done in the time given, and if it is too long consult with your advisor on appropriate changes.
  • Give students a rough timetable of how they should be progressing through the lab.
  • Try to help those who are lagging, without giving them an unfair advantage or truncating their learning experience.
  • Make clear to the students (and yourself) what the consequences are if they run out of time.
  • Try to identify what may be causing some students to lag.

Performance, math and/or science anxiety

Statement of concern: Some students may be interested and very much want to succeed in the lab, but are greatly hindered by math or science anxiety, or by ‘performance’ anxiety. This is a real barrier for some students, and should be taken seriously. They may be quite well prepared, but still uneasy about using their knowledge and skills.

Possible solutions:

  • Take the time to help them achieve initial success. Coupled with positive feedback this may decrease subsequent anxiety.
  • If the lab format allows, pair the student with a student who has some of the ‘teacher’ in them, who is enthusiastic and successful. Sometimes people are less anxious if working with a peer instead of an authority figure.
  • Point out resources that are available (e.g. tutoring, Schaum’s outlines, etc.).

Academically unprepared students

Statement of concern: Labs may be based on the assumption that all students will have certain knowledge and skills, which they may not. In Geography and Geology stories of students who are not familiar with the mathematical concept of slope, nor with the idea of latitude and longitude, nor with the concept of scale, and who are not familiar with the Periodic Chart are just some examples of assumed knowledge. There may be a lack of appropriate prerequisites for the source, or poor lab design, but in intro labs it can also be basic science illiteracy.

Possible solutions:

  • If time permits, fill in the missing gaps for the students; teach them what they need to know. However, considering other demands this may not be possible, or may not be the best use of your time.
  • Direct the student to appropriate reference material, after kindly informing them they have some catching up to do in this particular area. If a persistent problem exists, develop or obtain supplemental material to help the student catch up.
  • Direct the students to the various sources of tutoring or help such as at the Learning Center. Some departments have tutoring services.
  • Possibly pair the student with another student who has a bit of the teacher in them and remembers the relevant background. However, make sure that this won’t compromise the second student’s learning experience.

Lack of guidance for the T.A

Statement of concern: I have seen every approach from rigidly designed labs where the T.A. has little discretion and is mainly following extensive instructions to the T.A. being given full responsibility for lab design (from breathing-down-your-neck to see you at the end of the semester guidance). For an experienced T.A. being left to one’s own devices can be quite a blessing, but for novices it can be a source of real frustration and abdication of the advisor’s responsibilities.

Possible solutions:

  • Request more guidance. Be as specific as possible with regard to a request for guidance – with what exactly is it that you need help?
  • Read how published lab materials handle the assigned lab. However, remember your other time commitments.
  • Seek guidance elsewhere (other T.A.s or profs) after making an honest effort to with your advisor. I hope and believe most of you will find your profs quite ready to help.

Implementing less than optimally conceived labs

Statement of concern: For many reasons such as imperfect conception, inappropriate audience, poor translation into a new context, labs will have flaws. Yet it is your job to effectively implement these flawed labs.

Possible solutions:

  • Familiarize yourself with the lab before hand so you can spot problems.
  • If important information is missing, provide it to the students in the form of a mini-lecture, handout, or other reference material (you likely don’t have the time or the background to revise the entire lab).
  • Consult with your advisor about possible changes to the lab itself. It is important to give feedback to your advisor when things don’t work effectively.
  • Consult with other T.A.s to identify possible problems ahead of time, and ask for their past solutions or ideas.

Antipathy to lab material

Statement of concern: If a lab course is a college requirement, not all students will be motivated by natural interest. Sometimes the antipathy has religious or philosophic roots. The negative comments or behavior of these students can affect other students.

Possible solutions:

  • Take the time necessary to help the student to successfully complete of lab. Such success may reduce the antipathy.
  • Be ready to argue, in a constructive fashion, for the relevance of the lab. Don’t apologize for the lab exercise or the subject matter.
  • Acknowledge that the subject matter can be challenging and foreign to some, but through exploration and experience can be mastered to varying degrees.
  • Just be enthusiastic toward science and the lab.
  • Ask yourself which students may truly benefit from your time, and spend little of it with the whiners.

Student – T. A. relationships

Statement of concern: One good thing about labs is that the joint experience and effort often allows the students to develop a sense of disciplinary community, to connect with their academic peers. T.A.s are often drawn into this. You must remember your role as teacher, evaluator, and the power/authority structure involved. How do you handle friendships, romantic or sexual overtures in such a setting?

Possible solutions:

  • Do not engage in any romantic or sexual relationships with your students.
  • If appropriate discuss why such relationships are inappropriate. That can be part of a student’s education.
  • Keep a paper trail if a student makes continued romantic or sexual overtures after being informed that they are inappropriate, and consult with your advisor, or other appropriate university officials immediately.
  • Be aware of the appearance of favoritism. Be professional.

Student frustrations with group efforts

Statement of concern: Due to the expense of materials, and limited facilities, it is common that students work collaboratively in labs. This is generally a good practice, for much intellectual endeavor is a collaborative enterprise. When the work is collaborative there is potential for a student to carry the group, or a student to do little and parasitize.

Possible solutions:

  • Discuss with students what their individual responsibilities to the group are; i.e. educate the individual on how to collaborate.
  • Reassignment of individuals to groups may work in some cases, but remember that reassignment of the student may just move the problem to another group.
  • Allow problem students to work on their own if conditions allow.
  • Use peer review within the class to modify individual grades based on group evaluation of an individual’s contribution (literature available from Dr. Harland on campus).

Students requesting exceptions (late labs, etc.)

Statement of concern: Because of the character of students at this urban institute (work, family and school obligations) this is more of a problem than at other universities. Labs, where continued involvement and performance are necessary, run into schedule and life conflicts more often.

Possible solutions:

  • Have a detailed, written formulation on the lab policy with respect to late labs and lab absences and make the students aware of the policy from the first.
  • Be consistent in granting of exceptions and be aware of setting precedents.
  • If possible build some appropriate slack into the lab (e.g. lowest grade dropped or the like).
  • Develop alternate exercises if appropriate, but make sure you consult thoroughly with your advisor.

Lab T.A. assignments that are too time-consuming

Statement of concern: You are hear to further your education and training, to gain experience in teaching, and to further the University’s teaching mission. Your assignment is 20 hours a week, but it is possible that this turns out to be insufficient for completion of your assigned duties (although this is not common in my experience). Some averaging may occur; e.g. 25 hours this week, 10 next, etc..

Possible solutions:

  • Keep a detailed time sheet and document the amount of time you are spending and how you are spending it.
  • Do not wait till the end of the semester to make the problem known.
  • Be prepared to defend how you are spending that time.
  • Approach the relevant powers in a constructive fashion, explaining that you are spending too much time and asking them how you can reduce it to the prescribed 20 hours or less.
  • Make sure you understand the extent of your T.A. duties from the start.

Labs that do not correlate with lecture material at the time

Statement of concern: Some students will expect a correspondence between the two as the semester progresses, and will express frustration if there is not.

Possible solutions:

  • Explain to the students that since lecture and lab are two different learning modes with somewhat different goals, they proceed at different paces and it may not be possible to keep them synchronized. Students can also be made aware that the lab is designed to be ‘self-sufficient’ if that is the case.
  • Talk to your advisor and try to synchronize the two more if there is a need to do so (e.g. if lecture material is necessary for lab completion).
  • If the lab assumes they are synchronized and that the student has obtained relevant information beforehand from lecture, then provide supplemental material to fill in the missing pieces necessary for completion of the lab.

Equipment failure

Statement of concern: If the equipment fails then the lab can come to a complete stop. What then? It may also cause delays when acquiring new functioning equipment. Some students may not be able to stay late to finish the lab.

Possible solutions:

  • Test out the equipment before lab.
  • Know where replacement equipment might be

Grading of subjective material

Statement of concern:

Often T.A.s for intro courses grade only multiple choice or fill-in-the-blank type student efforts. However, lab reports, or sketches, or write-ups involve more complex judgments during grading. Students may demand justification for the grade received. This can be compounded by the fact the student may be more willing to challenge a T.A. as an authority figure, than a professor.

Possible solutions:

  • In consultation with your advisor, develop as specific grading criteria as possible.
  • ‘Grading sheets’ with point attribution for various components of the lab project may help you be consistent (I’ve got examples). Also give feedback to the students as to grading criteria. Students especially appreciate it if this information is given before handing in the lab.
  • Peer review (grading by classmates) can be used to establish ‘consensus’. However, this assumes the students have the necessary expertise to conduct a review.
  • If possible give examples of past top-notch work, so students can see what is considered A work.

Responding to criticism of the professor or other T.A.s from a student

Statement of concern: Since you work more closely with students and represent a sort of ‘intermediate’ authority figure, students may be more likely to express frustration with the course, or with the instructor. You may or may not sympathize with the student, but may be uncertain how to respond.

Possible solutions:

  • Avoid getting into gripe swapping sessions, which may be gratifying, but are often unproductive.
  • If you think the criticism is unwarranted, then you might engage the student and try to explain why it is unwarranted, but do so in as positive a manner as possible.
  • Try to sort out with the student what their objective is. Do they just want to talk about it, or do they want some recourse? If they want recourse you might explain some of the options (e.g. talking to the professor, or talking to the department chair.).
  • If the criticism or frustration involves unprofessional behavior, discretely discuss the matter with the department chairperson, treating it is an allegation. However, it will always be better if the student brings their complaint directly to the chairperson, and that the T.A. avoid being a go-between.    

AIOU Solved Assignment 1 Code 6438 Spring 2021

Q.3   Describe how to clean up the biology laboratory? Write importance of cleaning the laboratory.

Planning for Spills

The consequences of any spill of biological material can be minimized by performing all work on plastic-backed absorbent liner to absorb spills. A simple spill kit should be readily available and should include the following items:


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  • Chlorine bleach or some other concentrated disinfectant
  • Package or roll of paper towels
  • Autoclavable bag
  • Latex or Nitrile gloves
  • Forceps for picking up broken glass
  • Biohazard Bag(s)

Spill Procedures

 Spills inside a Biological Safety Cabinet

  1. LEAVE THE CABINET TURNED ON.
  2. Put on gloves and a lab coat.
  3. Spray or wipe cabinet walls, work surfaces, and equipment with disinfectant equivalent to a 1:10 bleach solution. If necessary, flood the work surface, as well as drain pans and catch basins below the work surface, with disinfectant.
  4. Wait at least 20 minutes.
  5. Soak up disinfectant and spill with paper towels. Drain catch basin into a container. Lift front exhaust grill and tray and wipe all surfaces. Ensure that no paper towels or solid debris are blown into the area beneath the grill.
  6. Autoclave all clean-up materials before disposal in the biohazardous waste container.
  7. Wash hands and any exposed surfaces thoroughly after the clean-up procedure.

Spill Procedure of Infectious Agents

Spills of infectious agents will be handled by copiously spraying 10 percent bleach (no more than one-day old) on the contaminated area. After five minutes, the liquid will be blotted up and the waste paper discarded in the biohazard container. Spills of noninfectious liquids (cell culture medium for example) will be handled as though they were infectious. Any spill of greater than one ml of infectious liquid or a spill of a virus stock of greater than?0.1 ml must be reported to the immediate supervisor and the EH&S director and RO or ARO (797-2892) if the spill occurs on a surface not protected by absorbent, plastic-backed lab mat. (Any spill contained by absorbent material on which it occurred need not be reported to the biological safety officer.) They will then determine if the current containment procedures are adequate to have protected personnel, or if some type of evacuation of the facility is warranted.

Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for Clean up of Small Blood Spills

Follow these procedures for cleaning up spills of blood and blood products. The same procedures can be used for cleaning up other body fluids. For larger spills that go beyond your ability to clean with the supplies on hand, contact EH&S at 797-2892 or the University Police at 797-1939 or 911.

STEP 1: Required Personal Protective Equipment

Prior to beginning the clean up, don a pair of rubber, latex, PVC or similar type gloves and safety goggles.

STEP 2: Spill Kit Equipment

The following items may be needed in handling the spill:

  • 10% bleach solution (or Lysol, virex or other EPA reg. Tuberculocidal)
  • Gloves
  • Biological waste bag
  • Biohazard labels
  • Leak-proof sharps containers if sharps are involved (needles, broken glass)
  • Brush & dustpan, or tongs or forceps for picking up sharps
  • Disinfectant wipes

STEP 3: Spill Decontamination Procedures

Cover the spill area with a paper towel and then pour freshly mixed 10 percent bleach and water solution. Allow solution to soak into the contaminated material. Work from the outside edges of the spill inward when applying the bleach solution. Any glass, needles, or other sharp objects that may puncture the skin will not be picked up by hand. Only mechanical means such as a brush and dustpan, tongs, or forceps are allowed. Wipe up bleached material with paper towels or absorbent pads. It may be necessary to use a scrub brush to remove the material if it impacted a hard porous surface such as concrete. If non-porous surfaces, such as a carpet, have been contaminated, an outside vendor may be needed to clean the area.

STEP 4: Disposal

Place bleached material, gloves and other disposable materials into a labeled biohazard bag and place into either another labeled biohazard bag or container. Call EH&S for a pickup (797-2892) or autoclave. Keep biohazard waste container in a secured area until received by EH&S.

STEP 5: Decontaminate RE-Useable Equipment

Decontaminate with the bleach solution all potentially contaminated re-useable tools or protective equipment used in the cleanup. This includes dustpans, brooms, forceps, buckets, etc. Anything that cannot be effectively cleaned (bleach solution must be able to make contact with all surfaces) must be disposed as waste. After the contaminated area has been cleaned, use fresh water to remove bleach residue from all surfaces.

STEP 6: Wash Your Hands

If hand-washing facilities are not available at the job site, use disinfectant wipes and then wash your hands as soon as possible.

Biohazard Exposure

If you believe you were exposed (skin puncture or splash to eyes or mucous membranes) to biohazard material that had not been decontaminated with the bleach solution, follow these recommended steps:

  • Skin exposure: Vigorously wash affected skin with plenty of soap and water while removing contaminated clothing and shoes.
  • Eye exposure: Wash eyes for at least 10 minutes with copious amounts of water, lifting the upper and lower eyelids occasionally.
  • Contacting your supervisor, fill out a worker compensation form and visit Work Med for medical evaluation.

Lab directors should conduct audits of their department’s physical environment to identify safety hazards specific to their lab. Such audits typically do not need to interfere with the day-to-day lab processes, and they should be performed on a regular basis, at least monthly. Many changes can occur in a laboratory at any time, such as the movement of instruments, the placement of new equipment, or even the movement and stocking of lab supplies, and the implications of such changes for safety should be recognized.

When checking for physical environment safety, look to see that aisles are clear of boxes or other obstructions, especially if the pathway leads to a fire evacuation route. Loose wires from computers and keyboards need to be properly tied up. Make sure that lab floors are cleaned regularly; the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends that lab floors be wet-mopped at least daily in a biohazard area.1 Also, make sure anti-fatigue mats on the floor are replaced on a regular basis so that wear does not create slip or trip hazards. In histology areas, be sure to keep paraffin wax build-up from occurring on walkways in order to prevent dangerous falls. Use scrapers or other implements to remove any wax build-up as it occurs.

Ensure that laboratory safety equipment such as emergency eyewashes, showers, and fire extinguishers are unobstructed at all times. It is important to make sure there is easy access to bloodborne pathogen and chemical spill response kits. Electrical panels in the department should have three feet of clearance in front of them. Check all lab electric cords as well for fraying or other damage. Simple movement of equipment can easily damage a cord, and exposed wiring can be a cause of laboratory fires. Ensure that compressed gas tanks are secured to prevent tipping.

Cluttered lab work benches can also include hazards for workers. A messy workspace can contain hidden dangers such as contaminated sharps, infectious materials, and even unknown chemical hazards if there are unlabeled materials. Lab areas should be dusted regularly as well. Dust may contain molds and other air contaminants that can potentially interfere with laboratory testing, particularly in a microbiology laboratory. That is one reason why electric fans should not be used in a lab setting. Fans in the lab can circulate those air contaminants. Fans also interfere with safety airflow devices such as chemical fume hoods or biological safety cabinets, and they can even interfere with the lab room air flow that is maintained for staff protection.

Disinfection protocols

Because of the nature of the biohazardous materials used in laboratories, lab benches should not only be orderly; they should be disinfected after every work shift and after any spill occurs.2 This disinfection should take place with the use of an intermediate-level chemical germicide. While the CDC recommends the use of a 10 percent bleach solution as the disinfection standard,3 there are other products that can be used in the lab setting.

Commercially available lab cleaning products can be purchased in the form of pre-filled spray bottles, large containers of fluids, or even canisters of single-use wipes. Be careful when selecting any commercial product to make certain it is effective enough to eliminate most bacteria (including Mycobacterium tuberculosis) and all fungi and that it inactivates viruses. Many products that are sold cannot perform all of those disinfection functions, and labs that use insufficient products may inadvertently place their staff at risk for infection. According to the CDC, some commercially available germicides can rapidly kill ordinary vegetative forms of bacteria such as staphylococci and streptococci, but only select brands are effective against more resistant organisms such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, non-lipid viruses, and most forms of fungi. Check the information provided by the manufacturer to make sure that the disinfectant selected is potent enough for complete lab disinfection.

Some laboratory instrument manufacturers recommend the use of specific cleaners on their equipment because bleach products may harm instrument surfaces. These cleaners may not be effective for biohazard control in the lab setting, and while they may be used on the equipment, they should not be used for general counter or work bench disinfection as well. One good way to avoid harm to surfaces from repeated bleach use is to rinse the surface with water or even ethanol after the bleach has been used.

It is important to pay attention to the contact time needed for disinfectant chemical products to work effectively on laboratory surfaces. Whether using sprays or wipes, the disinfectant action does not occur immediately, and the wet product should be left on the counter or surface for a prescribed amount of time as designated by the manufacturer. Some products can take up to three to four minutes to kill the pathogens they are designed to eliminate. A common lab cleaning mistake is to wipe a disinfectant-treated area down with water or even paper towels to dry the area long before the contact time needed to complete disinfection has elapsed. This is a potentially dangerous practice that can lead to a laboratory-acquired infection. Staff education about the proper use of germicidal chemicals is critical for proper infection prevention in the work place.

Regular cleaning and disinfection of lab surfaces apart from those involved in testing per se are also necessary to maintain the safety of the physical environment. Routinely wipe down chairs, telephones, computers, and other small items such as timers and pens. These items can become contaminated when laboratorians handle them with gloves that were worn during patient sample handling. While PPE is designed for staff protection, studies have shown that contaminated surfaces and items also can lead to lab-acquired infections. A Salmonella typhimurium outbreak occurred in clinical and academic laboratories across the United States in 2017 that caused illness for 24 people. When affected lab staff were interviewed by the CDC, some stated they had not worn gloves or lab coats, and some said they used pens and notebooks at home that were used in the lab setting.4

Being prepared for an accident

To complete an assessment of the physical laboratory work space, correct any issues discovered and educate staff to prevent reoccurrences. Provide a review of good disinfection practices and the proper use of products if necessary. Putting those pieces together is important in creating a strong lab safety culture. Then, once the physical lab environment is in safe order, it is time to ensure that features are in place that will help staff to maintain safety in the event of an accident.

Accidents and spills of chemicals or biohazardous materials do occur, and it is necessary to have adequate spill clean-up supplies ready. Every clinical laboratory should have materials ready in the event of a spill of blood or body fluids. The spill kit should include absorbents, implements for handling broken glass, PPE, and disposal containers or bags. Place signs indicating the location of spill kits and check kits periodically to make sure all needed supplies are present. Chemical spill kits should also be available. Make sure sufficient amounts of absorbents and neutralizers are kept, based on the amount of chemicals stored and used in the department. All staff should be adept at spill clean-up procedures. Regular training is necessary, and conducting spill drills will enable staff to respond quickly and appropriately when an accident occurs.

A career in a laboratory setting involves working with complex procedures and hazardous materials. Regulatory agencies—and common sense—demand that staff be able to work safely every day. That can be accomplished by maintaining a clean and safe physical environment and by providing work practice procedures and education. Watch for physical hazards and for practices that are unsafe, and make immediate corrections so that a safe environment can be maintained.     

AIOU Solved Assignment 2 Code 6438 Spring 2021

Q.4   Keeping in view rules for storage of chemicals. Write the conditions or chemicals where these substances should not be stored:

         Acetic acid, Ammonium nitrate, Arsenic compound, Azides, chlorates, carbon, flammable liquids, hydrocarbons, hydrofluoric acids and dimethylesulphoxide (DMSO).

  1. Amides, Nitrates (except Ammonium Nitrate), Nitrites, Azides (Isolate Ammonium Nitrate and store away from all other substances)
  2. Hydroxides, Oxides, Silicates, Carbonates, Carbon (tore away from all other substances)
  3. Sulfur, Phosphorus, Arsenic, Peroxide (Store away from any water)
  4. Acids, Except Nitric Acid (Nitric Acid is isolated and stored by itself) (Acids are best stored in a dedicated and locked cabinet)

Laboratory notebooks are the means for keeping a permanent record of the details of an individual’s day-to-day research and development work in the laboratory or office. They provide a basic reference which the individual and others can refer to a later date; legal evidence with respect to the materials recorded, such as conception of an invention and the date thereof or date of reduction to practice and test results; in some instances are required for compliance with the provisions in many grant and contractual arrangements.

  • All entries should be made in a legible and orderly manner using permanent ink, preferably black. Make entries clear and complete so that someone else could repeat the experiment if necessary.
  • Avoid erasures. If an error is made, cross it out and make the correction immediately thereafter. Cancellations or insertions should be initialed, dated and explained (in the margin, if possible), by an appropriate notation.
  • Make sure the control page information is filled out prior to usage.
  • State the object and results of each experiment clearly and concisely. Give a complete, factual and self-explanatory account of the progress of the work and the procedure followed (reference to earlier work done by yourself or another maybe accomplished by noting a previous page of the same notebook or the page and number of an earlier notebook). All operating details and conditions should be reordered, indicating yields, conversion, etc., and identifying products. Describe and give quantities of all materials used. Explain all code numbers and abbreviations.
  • An entry dealing with a conception (invention, idea) should describe the thing conceived (Example: whether it is a chemical compound, a combination of compounds, a combination of a compound and a solvent, etc) as well as the utility for the thing conceived, how it is to be used and the method(s) by which it is to be prepared, including equivalent materials which could be used. Statements with regard to utility should be stated positively. Work toward practical implementation of an invention should start as soon as possible after disclosure in a notebook.
  • Negative or disparaging entries should be avoided. (Example: If a reaction was expected to produce a 2% yield but instead produced 1%, do not state, “ Process does not work”). Phraseology which expresses gratuitous comments or an opinion rather that a positive statement and should be avoided. This is not an instruction to omit the conclusion in an experimentwhich had less that the expected results. Be factual.
  • Each day’s work should, whenever possible, be started on a separate page with lines drawn diagonally across the unused portion of the previous page. (This gives legal evidence that additions were not made at a later date.) It is permissible, as stated above, to make reference to an earlier page by reciting “Continued from page…” It is extremely important that each page show the date of entry.
  • Each page must be signed and dated by the individual who makes the entry and does the work. In addition, each page should be witnessed (signed and dated), using the notation “Read and Understood”, preferably on the same day, but at least within one week. The witness should not be connected with the conception, should not have taken part in the experimental work performed by another, but should understand the technical field of the entry. Record the project number and the record book number on each page.
  • Where two or more individuals make a conception, it need only be entered in the notebook of one, but must be signed and dated by all the conceivers. Ideally, all the individuals should sign on the same day.
  • For copying purposes, graphs, charts, analytical data, etc. should be attached to the notebook pages with a permanent adhesive and should, when unfolded, be kept within the confines of the opened notebook. No entries should be made on the page beneath attached sheets and nothing must be obscured.Leave the heading at the top and the space provided for the witnessing signature at the bottom of each page exposed. Inserts should be signed and dated by the person making the entry and witnessed by another to provide the best legal evidence. If materials such as spectra, graphs, etc. are not kept in the notebook, they must be signed, dated and identified in such a manner as to provide a reference back to the pertinent page(s) of the Laboratory Notebook itself.
  • Research notebook should be keep in the laboratory or office in a file cabinet and protected from damage, they are legal evidence.  Report the loss of theft of a research notebook.
  • Record all analysis activities in your laboratory notebook. These should include calculations, weight slips, chromatograms and spectra, Records help future workers to learn from your mistakes so even negative results are equally important.
  • Record of temperature, humidity and atmospheric pressure (in case necessary) on periodic basis
  • Record of sample receipt and disposal
  • Record of calibration of test instruments, weighing balances and thermometers
  • Logbook records on usage of instruments, balances, pH meters, etc
  • Record on consumption of reference materials and working standards
  • Record inspection of safety devices such as fire extinguishers, safety showers, etc
  • Daily record on effluent treatment activities
  • Installation record of various instruments including IQ, OQ and PQ
  • Validation of chemists and methods adopted as standard test procedures
  • Date of preparation of reagents and standards along with their validity record
  • Daily housekeeping records

AIOU Solved Assignment Code 6438 Autumn 2021

Q.5   Explore important physical facilities for a science laboratory. Analyze whether all laboratories in Pakistani schools are well equipped with all physical facilities.

Science laboratories have been part of high school education for two centuries, yet a clear articulation of their role in student learning of science remains elusive. This report evaluates the evidence about the role of laboratories in helping students attain science learning goals and discusses factors that currently limit science learning in high school laboratories. The committee carried out its charge through an iterative process of gathering information, deliberating on it, identifying gaps and questions, gathering further information to fill these gaps, and holding further discussions. In the search for relevant information, the committee held three public fact-finding meetings, reviewed published reports and unpublished research, searched the Internet, and commissioned experts to prepare and present papers. At a fourth, private meeting, the committee intensely analyzed and discussed its findings and conclusions over the course of three days. Although the committee considered information from a variety of sources, its final report gives most weight to research published in peer-reviewed journals and books.

At an early stage in its deliberations, the committee chose to focus primarily on “the role of high school laboratories in promoting the teaching and learning of science for all students.” The committee soon became frustrated by the limited research evidence on the role of laboratories in learning. To address one of many problems in the research evidence—a lack of agreement about what constitutes a laboratory and about the purposes of laboratory education—the committee commissioned a paper to analyze the alternative definitions and goals of laboratories.

The committee developed a concept map outlining the main themes of the study and organized the three fact-finding meetings to gather information on each of these themes. For example, reflecting the committee’s focus on student learning (“how students learn science” on the concept map), all three fact-finding meetings included researchers who had developed innovative approaches to high school science laboratories. We also commissioned two experts to present papers reviewing available research on the role of laboratories in students’ learning of science.

At the fact-finding meetings, some researchers presented evidence of student learning following exposure to sequences of instruction that included laboratory experiences; others provided data on how various technologies contribute to student learning in the laboratory. Responding to the congressional mandate to meet the mathematics and science needs of students at risk of not achieving state student academic achievement standards, the third fact-finding meeting included researchers who have studied laboratory teaching and learning among diverse students. The committee took several steps to ensure that the study reflected the current realities of science laboratories in U.S high schools, addressing the themes of “how science teachers learn and work” and “constraints and enablers of laboratory experiences” on the concept map. At the first fact-finding meeting, representatives of associations of scientists and science teachers described their efforts to help science teachers learn to lead effective laboratory activities. They noted constraints on laboratory learning, including poorly designed, overcrowded laboratory classrooms and inadequate preparation of science teachers. This first meeting also included a presentation about laboratory scheduling, supplies, and equipment drawn from a national survey of science teachers conducted in 2000. At the second fact-finding meeting, an architect spoke about the design of laboratory facilities, and a sociologist described how the organization of work and authority in schools may enable or constrain innovative approaches to laboratory teaching. Two meetings included panel discussions about laboratory teaching among groups of science teachers and school administrators. The history of laboratories in U.S. high schools has been affected by changing views of the nature of science and by society’s changing goals for science education. Between 1850 and the present, educators, scientists, and the public have, at different times, placed more or less emphasis on three sometimes-competing goals for school science education:

(1) a theoretical emphasis, stressing the structure of scientific disciplines, the benefits of basic scientific research, and the importance of preparing young people for higher education in science;

(2) An applied or practical emphasis, stressing high school students’ ability to understand and apply the science and workings of everyday things;

(3) A liberal or contextual emphasis, stressing the historical development and cultural implications of science. These changing goals have affected the nature and extent of laboratory education.

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