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ENG514 Assignment 1 Spring 2023 – Assignments – Solution VU
ENG514 Assignment 1 Spring 2023
Credit: Maha Malik
Broad Types of Listening:
- One-way listening
- Two-way listening
- One-way listening—typically associated with the transfer of information (transactional listening).
- Two-way listening—typically associated with maintaining social relations (interactional listening).
· Bottom-up Processes:
These are the processes that the listener employs to piece together the message from the speech stream, progressing from the parts to the whole. Bottom-up processing entails perceiving and parsing the speech stream at increasingly larger levels, beginning with auditory-phonetic, phonemic, syllabic, lexical, syntactic, semantic, propositional, pragmatic, and interpretive perception and parsing (Field, 2003: 326).
· Top-down Processes:
Top-down processes involve the listener moving from the whole to the parts (their prior knowledge and content and rhetorical schemata). In other words, the listener uses their knowledge of the communication context to predict what the message will contain and then uses parts of the message to confirm, correct, or add to this prediction. In this case, the inference is the most important process.
Note: For guidance, consult the module no. 3.
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