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Aiou Solved Assignments code 8624 Autumn & Spring 2023
AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8624 Autumn & Spring 2023. Solved Assignments code 8624 Elementary education 2023. Allama iqbal open university old papers.
Course: Elementary education (8624)
Level: B.Ed (1, 5 Years)
Semester: Autumn & Spring 2023
ASSIGNMENT No. 2
Q. 1 Information commission technology revotationalised the field of instruction Discuss and elicits educative value.
Technology has and will continue to change all industries. Often, the effects of technology on any industry are disruptive in nature. Take the transport industry for example; the predicted commercialization of self-driving technology threatens millions of jobs across the world. Take the publishing industry for example. The rise of the online media has forced traditional publishing companies to rethink their business plans. A similar change is taking place in the education sector. The increasing use of technology is changing the manner in which basic processes in education are being carried out. Here are some of the most profound ways how technology has changed education so far. 1. Increasing Accessibility One of the most profound ways in which technology has changed education is that is has made it more accessible than the way it was a few decades before. It is now possible for anyone to access formal educational courses, thanks to online courses. In practice, all institutions of higher learning now offer a number of their courses on an online basis. Also, we now have fully-fledged universities that thrive by offering all their courses online. As a result of this process, it is now easy for anyone to access a desired educational course online. Thus, technology has broken the geographical barriers that limited access to education in the past. 2. Flexibility As a result of the rise of online courses, it is now easy for anyone to learn at their own pace, rather than being forced to adhere to strict timelines. Technology has made it possible for individuals to learn from anywhere as opposed to the way things were before when individuals had to travel to physical schools to access education. Interestingly, online learning means that people can learn at varying pace, depending on their ability and the amount of time that they are willing to devote to their learning effort. Given learning materials are delivered to learners online, learners can schedule their learning timetables as they wish. 3. Interaction between teachers and students In the past, teachers relied on actual meetings to interact with their students. It was only during physical meetings that teachers could deliver learning materials and instructions to learners. However, nowadays, this kind of absolute dependence on physical meetings is gone. It is easy for teachers and learners to stay in touch via email and other internet-based services such as file-sharing and Instant Messaging applications. Although the need for physical meetings between teachers and students remains vital, technology has provided a means in which teachers and learners remain in touch all the time. 4. Online Tests and Assessments It is now possible for institutions to test their learners online. Furthermore, institutions can now assess the ability of their learners online and determine the performance of the learners, without necessarily requiring the learners to attend physical assessment sessions. Apart from the obvious advantage of flexibility e-assessments, as they are now commonly known, have the reputation of being highly efficient and impartial. Students can now use e- assessments to accurately gauge their performance. Similarly, education institutions can accurately and efficiently assess their learners using online assessments, thus saving time, money and other resources in the process. 5. New Content Technology has made it possible for learners to access new content easily. For example, it is now possible for learners to access e-books from anywhere and at any time. Besides, we now have digital versions of many popular textbooks. Although some of the free digital versions of
important textbooks are not complete, they still make it easy for learners to access content online. More so, we now have full eBooks versions of popular textbooks. Learners now do not have to own hard copies of their textbooks for them to get the learning content. EBooks continue to revolutionize the way learner’s access and use content as part of the learning and teaching process. 6. Special Needs in Education For years, special needs have been an important issue in education. It is easy for the traditional classroom environment to work against the interests of learners with special needs. Either way, the highly standardized and often rigid procedures that learners and teachers have to go through in the traditional classroom environment may fail to address the individual needs of some learners. On the contrary, the highly flexible, interactive and accessible nature of learning provides a wonderful environment for individuals to learn in ways that suit their personal needs, capabilities or even challenges. More so, teachers can now use various technology applications to help learners with particular needs learn better. 7. Lifelong Learning Gone are the days when people would forget everything about education the moment they stepped out of college. In the current knowledge-driven world, people have to learn new skills all the time. Learning is now part of life for everyone. New demands at work mean that people have to learn new ways of doing things. Similarly, emerging life issues force people to acquire new sets of skills all the time. The good news is that with the rise of new technology-based educational courses such smooch, individuals can learn almost anything at any time. Thus, technology has made learning a truly life-long activity. 8. The Rise of Mobile Learning Content Credit: Flickr Mobile learning applications help learners to access content on their mobile devices. The rise of mobile learning can be traced to the changes regarding internet accessibility that are taking place currently. In the recent past, leading tech companies such as Google and others have been emphasising on the growing importance of mobile. Their underlying belief is that people are increasingly restoring to using mobile devices to access the internet. Therefore, the argument has been that content providers should focus on optimizing content for mobile viewing. These changes are affecting education in various ways. However, primarily, we are now experiencing the rise of developers and content providers who are developing mobile-focused education apps and content respectively. Interestingly, it appears that we are set to experiencing this trend over the coming years. 9. Making Learning Fun Again One of the main ways in which technology has changed education relates to the various forms in which learning content is now delivered. As a result of technology, it is no longer necessary to stick to using one form of content in the process of teaching and learning. Teachers can now use videos, animations and other forms of content to enhance the process of learning. Furthermore, it is now common for learners and teachers to use games as a way of enhancing the process of learning and teaching. As a result of the use of various forms of content, learning and teaching are now fun and more meaningful than the way it was in the past. 10. Cost Reduction Technology has contributed to significant reductions in the costs of accessing education. To education providers, the use of technological applications to change the manner in which basic processes are conducted has led to drastic reductions in the amount of money the institutions spend. Similarly, to learners, technology has led to drastic reductions in the costs that the learners have to incur in the course of accessing education. Therefore, reductions in costs, as a result of the use of various technological applications to change the manner in which learning and teaching take place, has benefited all the stakeholders in the education sector. In conclusion, technology has changed education in various ways. From making education more accessible and meaningful to enhancing the manner in which teachers and learners interact during the process of learning, technology has had many profound and positive effects on education.
Aiou Solved Assignments 2 code 8624 Autumn & Spring 2023
Q.2 Describe the effect of students of grouping on teaching learning situation .Enlist different kinds of anxiety and aggression students.
Group Work in the Classroom Group work can be an effective method to motivate students, encourage active learning, and develop key critical-thinking, communication, and decision-making skills. But without careful planning and facilitation, group work can frustrate students and instructors and feel like a waste of time. Use these suggestions to help implement group work successfully in your classroom. Preparing for group work
• Think carefully about how students will be physically arranged in groups. Will it be easy for groups to form and for all students to be comfortable? Also think about how the layout of your classroom will impact volume. Will students be able to hear one another clearly? How can you moderate the activity to control volume?
• Insist on professional, civil conduct between and among students to respect people’s differences and create an inclusive environment. Designing the group activity
•Identify the instructional objectives. Determine what you want to achieve through the small group activity, both academically (e.g., knowledge of a topic) and socially (e.g., listening skills). The activity should relate closely to the course objectives and class content and must be designed to help students learn, not simply to occupy their time. Roberson and Francine (2014) emphasize that for group learning to be effective, students need a clear sense that group work is “serving the stated learning goals and disciplinary thinking goals” of the course (280).
•Make the task challenging. Consider giving a relatively easy task early in the term to arouse students’ interest in group work and encourage their progress. In most cases collaborative exercises should be stimulating and challenging. By pooling their resources and dealing with differences of opinion that arise, groups of students can develop a more sophisticated product than they could as individuals. See our teaching tip “Group work in the Classroom: Small-Group Tasks” for some ideas.
•Assign group tasks that encourage involvement, interdependence, and a fair division of labour. All group members should feel a sense of personal responsibility for the success of their teammates and realize that their individual success depends on the group’s success. Johnson, Johnson, and Smith (2014) refer to this as positive interdependence and argue that this type of cooperative learning tends to result in learners promoting each other’s success. Knowing that peers are relying on you is a powerful motivator for group work.
• Decide on group size. The size you choose will depend on the number of students, the size of the classroom, the variety of voices needed within a group, and the task assigned. Groups of four-five tend to balance the needs for diversity, productivity, active participation, and cohesion. The less skillful the group members, the smaller the groups should be (Gross Davis, 1993).
• Decide how you will divide students into groups. Division based on proximity or students’ choice is quickest, especially for large and cramped classes, but this often means that students end up working together with friends or with the same people. o To vary group composition and increase diversity within groups, randomly assign students to groups by counting off and grouping them according to number. Another idea is to distribute candy (e.g., Starburst or hard, coloured candies) and group students according to the favour they choose. o For some group tasks, the diversity within a group (e.g., gender, ethnicity, level of preparation) is especially important, and you might want to assign students to groups yourself before class. Collect a data card from each student on the first day of class to glean important information about their backgrounds, knowledge, and interests. Alternately, ask students to express a preference (e.g., list three students with whom they would most like to work or two topics they would most like to study), and keep their preferences in mind as you assign groups.
• Allow sufficient time for group work. Recognize that you won’t be able to cover as much material as you could if you lectured for the whole class period. Cut back on the content you want to present in order to give groups time to work. Estimate the amount of time that subgroups need to complete the activity. Also plan for a plenary session in which groups’ results can be presented or general issues and questions can be discussed.
• Try to predict students’ answers. You won’t be able to expect the unexpected, but by having some idea about what students will come up with, you will be better prepared to answer their questions and tie together the group work during the plenary session.
• Design collaborative work in multiple forms: pairs, small groups, large groups, online synchronously, online asynchronously, etc. Some students might be better at contributing after they have had time to digest material, while others might be better at thinking on the spot. Other students will defer to others in large groups but actively contribute in pairs. All roles should be valued and included. The group activity
• Share your rationale for using group work. Students must understand the benefits of collaborative learning. Don’t assume that students know what the pedagogical purpose is. Explicitly connect these activities to larger class themes and learning outcomes whenever possible.
•Have students form groups before you give them instructions. If you try to give instructions first, students may be too preoccupied with deciding on group membership to listen to you.
•Facilitate some form of group cohesion. Students work best together if they know or trust each other, at least to some extent. Even for brief group activities, have students introduce themselves to their group members before attending to their task. For longer periods of group work, consider introducing an icebreaker or an activity designed specifically to build a sense of teamwork. Types of anxiety Many people with anxiety experience symptoms of more than one type of anxiety condition, and may experience depression as well. It’s important to seek support early if you’re experiencing anxiety. Your symptoms may not go away on their own and if left untreated, they can start to take over your life.
• A person feels anxious on most days, worrying about lots of different things, for a period of six months or more.
•A person has an intense fear of being criticized, embarrassed or humiliated, even in everyday situations, such as speaking publicly, eating in public, being assertive at
•work or making small talk. A person feels very fearful about a particular object or situation and may go to great lengths to avoid it, for example, having an injection or travelling on a plane. There are many different types of phobias
A person has panic attacks, which are intense, overwhelming and often uncontrollable feelings of anxiety combined with a range of physical symptoms. Someone having a panic attack may experience shortness of breath, chest pain, dizziness and excessive perspiration. Sometimes, people experiencing a panic attack think they are having a heart attack or are about to die. If a person has recurrent panic attacks or persistently fears having one for more than a month, they’re said to have panic disorder.
Aiou Solved Assignments code 8624 Autumn & Spring 2023
Q.3 differentiate between management control and discipline. It is observe that some teacher do not have impose discipline in the classroom what is about their teaching that seems to keep their classes free of disciplinary problem.
Difference between Classroom Management Discipline and Control A key component of teaching is effective classroom management. This is the set of steps you follow to ensure that your students pay attention, don’t distract each other and generally stay on task. This is different from discipline, which is just one part of classroom management.
Where discipline describes the consequences you give students for not following the rules, classroom management describes a more general set of procedures, most of which are aimed at avoiding problems rather than responding to them. Classroom Setup The classroom setup is an example of classroom management that is not discipline. After a few weeks of teaching, it becomes fairly clear which students should not be sitting near one another, as certain friends (and enemies) will distract one another and the children around them for the entire lesson. Discipline would be punishing these children every time they disrupt the class; classroom management is moving them somewhere else to keep the disruption from happening in the first place. Rules another example of the difference between discipline and classroom management is the classroom rules. Classroom management is when you make the rules clear to the children, either through discussion or by teaching through another method. Posting these rules in a prominent place is another way to help manage your classroom — by making the rules clear to children and making them visible, you make it less likely that the rules will be violated. Discipline is how you respond to violations of these rules. This makes rules an excellent way to highlight these differences — classroom management is the front end of the rules and discipline is the back end. Students Classroom management is also a matter of keeping students occupied, either in a lesson, discussion or activity. When children have something to focus on, they are less likely to create their own stimuli by “zoning out” or misbehaving. So, particularly for younger years, it is strongly recommended that teachers overplant their lessons in order to always give the children something to do. Discipline is a matter of dishing out consequences when students go off task, whether the lesson is well-planned or not. In general, the more thoroughly occupied students are, the less discipline they will need. Tone setting a final example of a difference between classroom management and discipline is the general tone you set. You set a tone in classroom management by your confidence, the way you present yourself and how well you relate to students. If you do these well, your classroom will be well-managed because it will be clear to students who is in control. . Teachers who are good at what they do impose discipline all the time. From day 1. The trick is that you’re not recognizing it as discipline. Every teacher has their own flavor for this sort of thing, and some will depend on what, exactly, the teacher teaches. I am an ESL/TEFL teacher. Some bits:
•Day 1 of class I will have students write their names on a piece of paper and stick to the front of their desk. Names are very powerful. You have been responding to your name all your life from your friends and your authority figures. As a teacher I am automatically the authority figure in this scenario.
• •In my particular case, unless there is a reason why I cannot, I will arrange desks in a circle. This is a) conductive to conversation, which is what my class is largely about, and b) means that you can’t “hide behind” the person behind you. Everybody is equally on display. If you are playing games on your phone, I will see it. If you are texting, I will see it. If you are passing notes, I will see it. o I don’t care. But I see you doing it.
• I do a lot of “timed” activities. Not in a, “if you don’t write all these definitions in 5 minutes, you fail” sort of way, but more in a, “Okay! Come up with a list of ten topics! You have two minutes! Go, go, and go!” This tends to fire students up right away and get invested in the task immediately. Invested students are highly focused, motivated, and working hard. This is, um, the essence of discipline.
• If possible, I will walk around the room a lot while students are working independently/with groups/partners. This a) will encourage students to ask me questions if I walk by, b) allows me to monitor their conversations for understanding
and interject with correction if necessary/helpful, and c) if I’m wandering around the room, students are less likely to start screwing off if I’m literally right there.
• I tend to be lax about things involving sitting next to friends or whatever. Again, I typically run a conversation class. I want the students to talk to each other, and in some age groups they will be shy if paired with students of the opposite sex or whatever. However, if people become a problem, I will separate them. After class, I’ll pull them aside and ask them why they think I separated them. “We were talking too much.” “Are you going to do it next class?” “No, we’re sorry.” “Then next class you can sit together again. Don’t make me do it again, though.” Managing disciplinary issues may be one of the most challenging aspects of teaching. This lesson describes discipline concerns teachers face in the classroom and identifies factors that contribute to them. Discipline and Classroom Management Martin is a teacher who knows how challenging classroom management can be. His first few years of teaching were rough; he made many mistakes as a disciplinarian, including classic mistakes like trying to be his students’ friend and then coming down too harshly when they overstepped the murky boundaries. Every day felt like a battle, and it left him exhausted. Things turned around when Martin stepped back and took a close look the types of misbehavior he was seeing, and then investigating why. One of the most important components of effective teaching is classroom management. Classroom management is the action teachers take to keep their classroom running smoothly throughout the year, enabling their students to succeed. Things like organizing the environment and setting, communicating clear expectations, and providing instruction that keeps students attentive and focused are all methods of classroom management. Types of Student Disciplinary Problems Like most teachers, Martin can easily identify disciplinary problems. Students act out in a variety of ways, impacting their own ability to learn as well as those around them. Some of the types of disciplinary problems that are most common are:
• Disrespect – students speak and act in a disrespectful way to adults and peers
• Defiance – students openly refuse to listen to adults or follow directions
• Bullying – students consistently intimidate others, often to make themselves feel better
• Aggression – students become physically or verbally violent
PREVENT DISCIPLINE PROBLEMS 1.Be organized. Disorganization leads to lulls in your class which lead to kids getting bored
and misbehaving. Plan your lessons well, have your supplies ready, and be as organized as possible. Think right now about what items you seem to be constantly displacing and figure out a system to help you keep track of them. 2.Deal with problems while they’re still small. Don’t wait to deal with issues until they’re big. Instead, address every small issue that comes up in your class. Dealing with them while they’re small will help to keep them from growing into bigger, more overwhelming problems. We talk a lot more about this in the post The Tiny Mistake that Could Ruin Your Whole Year.
3.Have good control procedures. Intentionally develop procedures that prevent problems.
For example, requiring students to use a cover sheet will prevent cheating. These types of procedures should make it as easy as possible for students to choose to do the right thing and as difficult as possible for them to misbehave or make poor decisions. Need help developing good procedures? Check out the book The First Days of School or for elementary teachers,
4. Teach your procedures well. It’s not enough to just think of good procedures; you have
to teach them to your students. And teaching them requires 4 basic steps: clearly explain the procedure, practice it with them, correct any parts that were done incorrectly, and have them redo the procedure until they have it right. If you don’t take time to properly teach your procedures, you’ll end up being frustrated the whole year when students.
5. Keep your students engaged. The more engaged your students are in learning, the less they will cause problems. So let your passion for teaching show and make your subject come alive. Also, remember that the one who is working is the one who is learning, so don’t just lecture all day. Get your students involved. One great way to do that is with writing-to- learn. Check out this post to find out 5 easy ways you can implement writing to learn in your classroom.
6. Move around the classroom. Don’t be stuck at the front of the room. Feel free to walk
around as you teach. Not only does this provide some variety, but it also helps you keep a better eye on what the students are doing. Does it look like Greg may be texting? Walk back towards his desk for a closer look without interrupting class.
7.Develop a rapport with your students. If we want our students to follow us, they need to respect us and know that we care about them. So invest in their lives. Be genuine and admit your mistakes. Be kind and approachable. Compliment them, write them kind notes, and attend their extracurricular events when possible. Give them the benefit of the doubt and show them that you love them.
Aiou Solved Assignments 2 Autumn 2023 code 8624
Q.4 Differentiate between measurement and evaluation. What is the differences between the standardized test and teacher made test. Difference between “assessment” and “evaluation?”
Confusion reigns over these two terms, and their usage wanders, depending on context. In this book we will use the following distinction: Assessment is the process of objectively understanding the state or condition of a thing, by observation and measurement. Assessment of teaching means taking a measure of its effectiveness. “Formative” assessment is measurement for the purpose of improving it. “Summative” assessment is what we normally call “evaluation.” Evaluation is the process of observing and measuring a thing for the purpose of judging it and of determining its “value,” either by comparison to similar things, or to a standard. Evaluation of teaching means passing judgment on it as part of an administrative process. Ideally, a fair and comprehensive plan to evaluate teaching would incorporate many data points drawn from a broad array of teaching dimensions. Such a plan would include not only student surveys, but also self-assessments, documentation of instructional planning and design, evidence of scholarly activity to improve teaching, and most importantly, evidence of student learning outcomes. But that is not all. A comprehensive evaluation of teaching would necessarily include various types of peer assessment, more commonly referred to as “peer observation.” Comparison # Teacher-Made Test: (1) Learning Outcomes and Content Measured: They are used to evaluate the outcomes and content of what has been taught in the classroom. (2) Purpose: The tests are required to suggest placement of the child in relation to the class. Mainly used to know the students’ progress and to improve the teaching learning programme of a particular school. (3) Construction: They are prepared by the classroom teacher. These tests are constructed hurriedly. Experts not involved in its construction. (4) Test Items: Quality of test items unknown and is generally lower than items of standardised tests. The questions may or may not be objective type. They may be generally of short answer type or essay Type. (5) Method of Administration: The teacher is the master of the situation. He is free to administer the test according to his own lines of thinking. (6) get Method of Scoring:
Teacher prepares his own scoring key. Usually such scoring can only be done by a person equally competent as the teacher. (7) Interpretation of Scores: Scores can be compared and interpreted only in the context of the local school situation. The teacher-made tests do not have norms. (8) Norms: The teacher-made tests are not tested for objectivity, reliability and validity. Teachers, satisfaction covers all these characteristics of a good test. Comparison # Standardised Test: (1) Learning Outcomes and Content Measured: They are used to evaluate outcomes and content that have been determined irrespective of what has been taught. (2) Purpose: The tests are required to suggest placement of the child in relation to the sample in which the test has been standardised. Used mainly in research work, guidance, counselling, selection and for administration purposes. (3) Construction: Use sophisticated procedures and time consuming for its construction. It is a collaborative venture. It has to involve experts along with practising teacher in its own construction. (4) Test Items: Generally quality of items is high. They are pre-tested and selected on the basis of difficulty and discrimination power. The questions are bound to be of objective type. The test has to be administered under the conditions prevailing at the time of administration of the test for standardization. A user of the test administers the test as per test direction. (5) Method of Administration: The scoring key is prepared previously. The user of the test has to apply the said scoring key. Such scoring does not require expert knowledge. (6) Method of Scoring: Scores can be compared to norm groups, Test manuals and other guides for interpretation and use. (7) Interpretation of Scores: Scores can be compared to norm groups, Test manuals and other guides for interpretation and use. (8) Norms: Standardised tests have norms meant for a population on which they have been standardised. The norms like T-score, Z-score, Percentile Scores, Mean, Men, and Mode, SD etc. help in valuing a raw score quickly and comparing the scores of two or more individuals, schools etc.
Aiou Solved Assignments 2 code 8624 Autumn & Spring 2023
Q.5 Discuss the initiative taken by the government of universitilazation of education. How to public and private sector contribute to achieve this targets.
Govt. taking initiatives to improve education standard ISLAMABAD, Nov 8 (APP): Government has taken many initiatives for the improvement and enhancement of education in the country but still there are 57 million illiterates in the country. “Literacy is an ability or skill that exposes an individual to new sources of information and knowledge, and empowers with the ability to express, communicate and participate in decision making processes”.Chairperson National Commission for Human Development (NCHD), Raina Alma Khan at the Senior Management Meeting on Wednesday said, girls education is imperative for better future of the country.
“Basic education is a fundamental human right in accordance with Article 26 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948), same envisaged in our constitution 25-A. This famous article speaks about the education of all individuals without applying any limitation of specific age group. All individuals including children, youth, and adults of both sexes are entitled to this fundamental right. This was observed by chairperson, said press
release. These illiterates’ compatriots are jeopardizing the social, economic and development process of the country, a national plan of action is required to address these illiterates, she viewed. NCHD is formulating a National Plan of Action (2018-2025) as tasked by Planning Commission, that will chalk out a realistic action plan with appropriate programme interventions and necessary resources for achieving 90% literacy rate in the country, she informed. She said, this plan is being drafted by National Training Institute of NCHD, which is the only national level institute on literacy and Non-formal Education compared to the 200 of formal education. This institution is built with the aim to address the issues of weak professional base of the practitioners in the field of literacy and NFE, due to which the past literacy programs faced a failure, she added.
Sharing the achievements of National Training Institute (NTI) she said, the experts had prepared manual on Functional Literacy, Multi-grade Teaching, Community Learning Centers –CLC, and reviewed manuals of School Health Program and Functional Literacy Material developed by Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA).The workshops have been organized by NTI for Professionals of Literacy and Universal Primary Education -UPE program, she observed. NTI organized National Consultative workshop and ICT forum on NFE in collaboration with UNESCO along with providing technical support to the provinces for preparation of their respective literacy plans, she maintained. Talking about the educational statistics she said that, low literacy rate is due to low primary education participation rate. Pakistan’s overall gross enrollment rate (GER) is 97% in 2017 against only 77% adjusted net enrolment rate (ANER) in 2015-16. Male GER is 105% against 83 ANER, she informed. Whereas, female GER is 90% against 71% ANER, both GER and ANER in urban areas are considerably higher than rural areas, she added. She briefed the participants about the working of NCHD programs including 5,949 feeder schools all over Pakistan, 6000 literacy centers being established in remote areas focusing specially for the women.
Talking about the initiates she said, 20 Non-formal schools established under JICA Project in Islamabad, 100 Madrasa school in seminaries of ICT, AJK, GB and FATA, Jail literacy centers, ICT forum on NFE, are functional. A transparent system of recording and reporting of these activities has been developed in the shape of Literacy Management and Information System, she further said. To access each learner of NCHD literacy program through this system is a compelling strength of this recording and reporting system, she expressed. Talking on the occasion she said, NCHD is implementing all these projects and programs in organized and harmonious way. All these programs are closely interlinked for a real change in the indigenous societies as we want to achieve 90% literacy rate and 100% enrollment by 2025 with the help of provincial governments, INGOs, NGOs and other stakeholders, she vowed.
THE ROLE OF THE PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTOR EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS: A RESPONSE TO SUNDAY STANDARD in response to the editorial comment in the Sunday Standard of September 6-12, 2015, headlined There is need to save UB against emerging bogus campuses, a correction of some factual misperceptions may be in order. UB will be in the best position to respond regarding whether or not they need protection from the Sunday Standard. The fact is that private sector education, in all its forms, has increased dramatically over the last two decades across the world, especially in the African continent. In Botswana, the private education sector is now an integral part of the higher education landscape enrolling 25,852 (42.6 percent) students compared to 34,758 (57,4 percent) in the public sector in 2014/2015 academic year. In his State of the Nation Address in 2005 President Festus Magee, announced that Government would sponsor students to local private institutions registered with the regulatory bodies. In May of 2007, the President invited the private education sector to help in Botswana’s
commitment to increase its gross enrollment ratio from 7% in 2003/4, among the age group of 18 to 24, to at least 17% by 2016. His goal was to position Botswana on par with other leading middle income countries around the world. The Government was looking for partners because the “…the public sector is no longer in a position to provide all the tertiary education opportunities that will be needed in the coming years.” The President emphasised that in education as elsewhere, that the Government was committed to the Public Private Partnership approach. The development of the local private tertiary education sector was viewed of great strategic importance for Botswana. A historical reflection may be useful in understanding the contribution of the private education sector to Botswana’s education trajectory. The rate of enrollment (percentage of 18-24 years olds enrolled in tertiary education) has steadily increased from 4.4 percent (1997/8), to 7.7 percent (2003/4) to 11.4 percent (2007/8). By 2009, the partnership with private tertiary education yielded its first tangible result. In real terms, in the two years from the first cohort of students enrolled in the private higher education institutions, there was a 75 percent increase in the gross ratio enrollment, from 31,129 (11,4 percent) in 2007/8 to 47,889 in 2008/9 (17 percent). This remarkable achievement was direct result of the bold step that Government took to partner with the private sector. While the enrollment share, between public and private providers, has been fluctuating there is a healthy competition between the sectors that are together providing educational opportunities to 60,583 students in 2014/15 academic year.
The total of 11,095 outbound students, who were sponsored by the Government to study in tertiary institutions outside the country in the period 2003/4–2007/8, has been considerably reduced in 2015. This achievement, while absorbing the large numbers of students seeking higher education, also reduced the huge financial burden of Government in sponsoring students to study off shore as well as providing choices for students as to where and what they wished to study, which was not available locally pre-2007. In the period 2009/10 to 2014/15, a savings of P253m was recorded by the Department of Tertiary Education Funding (DTEF) by sending fewer students to study outside of the country.
The acknowledgement that tertiary education institutions are considered to be key institutions for the production of high-level skills and knowledge of relevance, by both private and public sector providers, is based on the traditional core business of higher education institutions to produce and disseminate knowledge for the benefit of society. The volumes of literature, on the relationship between higher education and economic development, have grown considerably over the past couple of decades. While there will always be debates, amongst academics, researchers and policy makers on the precise role of this relationship, no country can ignore the role of education as the catalyst for future growth and prosperity. As such higher education has become one of the central areas of many governments’ knowledge policies including that of Botswana. This means that more policy/political actors than the Ministry of Education, as well as socio-economic stakeholders (private sector, unions, funders and research institutions), have become interested in higher education and are direct participants in higher education provision. The question then is whether there is a common understanding by all, including the fourth estate, to appreciate the role of the private education providers and the unprecedented transformation that has taken place over the last two decades in aligning and steering the educational system towards achieving the goals articulated in various policy documents. In examining the need for a common understanding, perhaps the first question, relates to whether or not the public sector by itself could meet the educational needs in an environment in which Botswana needs to shift from a resource to a knowledge based economy. In 2005, in the paper titled Education Policy for Botswana, it was noted that the public tertiary education institutions have been slow to respond to changes in the labour market; have been poor in terms of establishing linkages with the market and have not responded sufficiently in terms of curricula adaptation and quality to improve the employability of their graduates. When certain types of skills were needed in the economy, the public sector institutions were not able to quickly come up with programmes to meet these demands. The expectation that the well-endowed public
sector institutions, with world class infrastructure and support from the state, will play a leading role in delivering the type of education that is required to meet human resources needs of the country in the 23st century, both at academic and technical and vocational levels, has not been realized. It is in this vacuum that the private sector providers were invited to respond to the excess demand for tertiary education and the need for a diversity of skills.
The student numbers in the private institutions was also boosted by the Ministry of Education and Skills Development invitation to enroll OVCs (Orphans and Vulnerable Children) and RADP (Remote Area Development Programme) students, traditionally the preserve of the public sector institutions. The sector took on the responsibility in providing access to those who come from the most disadvantaged and underserved communities at huge added costs in terms of support services. More recently, the private sector has been invited to actively participate in Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) Programmes. The “phenomenal growth” of the sector raised a number of concerns and misperceptions, from the media and some in Government that continues to plague the private providers in 2015. Primarily the incorrect perception is centered on “the myth about costs” that were seen as disproportionately expensive; the more serious concern regarding the lack of appreciation of the quality standards and the relevance of the programmes offered. In a paper presented to Ministry of Education and Skills Development (MOESD) in 2010, Botswana Association of Private Tertiary Education Providers (BAPTEP) provided information that clearly demonstrated the lack of understanding of the “real cost” of tertiary education which is almost half of what students incur to be educated at a public institution. The real cost at public institutions must take into account subvention funds for grants, salaries, infrastructure and other support provided by the Government. A big portion of the private institution income is directly channeled into infrastructure, salaries and all other related costs in support of teaching and learning. The continued scrutiny and focus on the quality of education provided by the private tertiary education is expected. The sectors confidence rests on the role and responsibility of Botswana Qualifications Authority (BQA) and the Human Resources Development Council (HRDC), two legal instruments promulgated by Parliament (Bills passed in 2013) to ensure quality adherence and relevance of programmes offered. If there are any “bogus” private providers then surely the mechanisms are there to close these institutions. The confidence of the sector is linked to the understanding of the importance of quality tertiary education as a pre-requisite for the country’s ability to successfully compete in today’s increasingly knowledge-based global economy. Perhaps more important, quality in the private sector, is driven by market forces and continues to improve. Ironically, while the government’s BQA regulatory mandate requires all tertiary institutions, both public and private to adhere to its quality principles, the primary focus of the quality assurer appears to target private providers. The fact that the private providers are expected to strictly adhere to the world-class standards set by BQA, in their developmental stages (registration of most institutions took place in 2006), is most welcome. These standards require the sector to employ qualified staff; provide adequate and conducive infrastructure for libraries and computer laboratories and provide other facilities for teaching and learning. While not all the private sector institutions may meet the full set of criteria expected, the developmental approach adopted by BQA allows for the sector to continuously work towards meeting the requirements. The built environment developments, now estimated to cost billions of pula’s, are achievements that are visible even to those who are passing by some of the institutions. These developments, in a period of less than a decade, are remarkable. The sector is now employing doctoral level personnel to teach and provide leadership as Deans and Heads of Departments. It is a BQA requirement that all lecturers teaching degree programmes must have a master’s qualification. A challenge experienced is the need for qualified candidates and the difficulties in recruiting from outside the country because of work and resident permits. It is encouraging that at the last Business Botswana Education Sector Forum meeting, the Minister of Education and Skills Development, proposed a high level meeting with the Ministry of Labour and Home Affairs to discuss and determine a way forward.
Aiou Solved Assignments 2 Autumn & Spring 2023 code 8624