AIOU Solved Assignments 2 Code 8609 Autumn & Spring 2023


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AIOU Solved Assignments Code 8609 Autumn & Spring 2023

AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8609 Autumn & Spring 2023. Solved Assignments code 8609 Philosophy of Education 2023. Allama iqbal open university old papers.

Assignment No. 2


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Autumn & Spring 2023

Philosophy of Education (8609)


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Q.1Criticallyanalyzethefollowingmethods:

i-TheSocraticMethod

THESOCRATICMETHOD

Socratesrecognizedtheunscientificnatureofthemethodsofthesophists,hisown methodwasessentiallysystematicandfoundedongeneralprinciples.

AccordingtoAristotle,”TherearetwothingswhichwemayfairlyattributetoSocrates, hisinductivediscoursesandhisuniversaldefinitions.Inductivereasoningwashis methodofarrivingatadefinition.Theresultattainedbyhismethodcouldnotbe regardedassatisfyingtherequirementsofscientificexactness,butthisdidnotdisturb Socrates,forhehimselfcontinuallyandemphaticallydisclaimedthepossessionofany knowledge,exceptperhapstheknowledgeofhisownlimitations.”Theintoxicated AlcibiadessaysofhimintheSymposium,’Heknowsnothing’andisignorantofall things—suchistheappearancewhichheputson.’Althoughnotpossessingknowledge himself,Socratesclaimedtohavethegiftofdiscerningitspresenceinothers,andof havingthepowertoassistthemtobringittolight.

ThefirsttaskofSocrateswastoarousemenfromthatfalseself-satisfactionwhich wasbyhimbelievedtobethecauseoftheirmisery,andtoleadthemtoself- examinationandself-criticism.Hesays”Hereinistheevilofignorance,thathewhois neithergoodnorwiseisneverthelesssatisfiedwithhimself:hehasnodesireforthatof whichhefeelsnowant.”SocraticMissionwastomakemenfeelthiswant,toteach otherswhattheutteranceoftheDelphicoraclehadtaughthim—hisownignorance;to imbuethemwithadivinediscontent;tomakethemfeel,asAlcibiadesputsitthe serpent’ssting’,’thepangofphilosophy’.Inhisdefence,Socratesneitherdisownedhis missionnorhismethod.’Iamthatgadfly’,hetoldhisjudges,’whichGodhasattachedto

thestate,andalldaylongandinallplacesamalwaysfasteninguponyou,arousingand persuadingandreproachingyou.”

ii-TheDialecticalMethod

THEDIALECTICALMETHOD

AboutthewordsofSocrates,Platosaid,”Youwillfindhiswordsfirstfullofsense,asno othersare;next,mostdivineandcontainingthefinestimagesofvirtue,andreaching farthest,infactreachingtoeverythingwhichitprofitsamantostudywhoistobecome nobleandgood.”

Unlikemostphilosophers,Socratesdidnotwishtoinfluenceothersbyhisviews;hedid notwishtoconvincethemaboutthevalidityandcorrectnessofhisviews.Ratherhe wantedthateverybodyshouldbehisownphilosopher;shouldbecriticalandthinkfor himself.Hewasconvincedthateverypersonhadinhimthegermforrationalthought andtheaimofphilosophywastobringrationalthoughttofullblossomineveryone.The tendencyamongphilosopherstopersuadeotherstobelievethattheirviewsaremore validgivesrisetoschoolsandcontroversiesinphilosophy.Socrates,onthecontrary, didnotwishtoconvertotherstohisviewsnordidhewishtopropagateasetof philosophicalviews.Heonlywantedtodrawattentionofotherstothecrucial significanceofphilosophyforthelifeandinculcateinthemaloveforphilosophy,thatis, loveofwisdom.TheapproachofSocratesisknownasmimeticapproachthatis intellectualmidwifery.Asamidwifedeliversachildofpregnantwoman,Socrates wantedtobringtosurfacethegermofrationalthoughtandcriticalinquiry.Thewhole approachofSocratesissummedupintwowords—DialecticalMethod.

SALIENTFEATURESOFDIALECTICALMETHOD

Followingarethesalientfeaturesofthismethod:

1.MethodologicalDoubt.Socratesusedtobeginhisconversationbypretending ignoranceabouttherealmeaningofaconceptandwantedotherstoenlightenhimon thesubject.ThispretenceofignoranceisknownasSocraticIronyinasmuchas Socratesexposedotherstobeignorantandhimselfwiseinspiteofhisearlier declarationtothecontrary.SomescholarshavecriticizedSocratesforconcealingthe truththatheknewtheanswer.Thiscouldonlymeanthathewishedtohumiliatehis opponent.Butsuchcriticismismistaken.Thenegativisticapproachtotheproblem adoptedbySocrateswasreallymeanttolethisinterlocutorstoexercisetheirminds anddevelopinterestintheinquiry.Hadhegivenapositiveanswertobeginwith,others mayhavethusbeendefeated.Ashispurposewastoencourageinotherstothink

independently,hefounditausefulproceduretofeigninitialignoranceandletothers presenttheirviewsandnotbecarriedawaybytheSocraticauthority.Thedialectical methodisessentiallybasedonmethodologicaldoubt,thatis,acriticalexaminationof theproblemconcerned.Thecriticalexaminationanddoubtaboutthevalidityofcurrent beliefsisnotscepticismforthesakeofscepticism,but,onthecontrary,itisameans andmethodtoreachthetruthandasafeguardagainstbeingdupedeasily.Amanwho questionsandhasanenquiringmindcanalonebeaphilosopher,becausepeople mostlyhaveastrongwilltobelieveandareverygullible.Onlybyconstantlycritical attitudecanthisnaturaltendencybecountered.

2.Conversational.AnotherfeatureofthemethodwhichSocratesusedistheuseof dialogueorconversationforthedevelopmentofideas.Adialogueorconversation allowsexchangeofideas;anditisonlybycertaintensionandconflictofideasthatthe thoughtisrefinedanddeveloped.Alectureoranessayisquitesuitableforpassingon scientificinformation.Butphilosophyissomethingotherinformation.Therefore,forthe unfoldmentanddevelopmentofphilosophicalideas,itisessentialthatthereshouldbe ameetingofmindsandexchangeofideas.Thisispossibleonlyinphilosophical conversation.ThatiswhyPlato,adiscipleofSocrates,followsthedramaticformto develophisideas.Thisallowsforexpressionofvariousaspectsofaproblem.

3.ThisfeatureofSocraticMethodisalsoreferredtoasintellectualmidwifery.The stimulationandincentiveprovidedbyanengagedconversationusuallyhelpstobringto surfacethelatentideasinthemindsofmen.Therefore,asamidwifedeliversachild fromthewombofthemother,intellectualconversedeliversthelatentideasfromthe fourwallsoftheunconsciousmind.

4.ConceptualandSemanticSocratesusedtostresstheneedforcorrectandpreciseof definitionsoftheconcepts.Likemodernlogicalpositivistsandlinguists,Socrates realisedtheparamountneedforgivingpreciseconnotationandmeaningtothe conceptsusedinphilosophy.Inordertodeterminethemeaningofaconceptwehave toabstractthegeneralanduniversalfeaturesofthingsfromtheirparticularand individualaspects.Socratestriedtofindprecisemeaningoftheconceptslike”justice”, “courage”,”companion”,”knowledge”,”virtue”,”friendship”,”love”,etc.Asthemain emphasisofSocratesinphilosophyisuponthecorrectandpreciseuseoftheconcepts, hedidnotdowhatmodernsemanticstriestodotoday.

5.EmpiricalorInductive.ThesubjectmatterofphilosophicconversationofSocrates wasprovidedbyday-to-dayaffairs.Thisenquirywasalwaysconnectedwithsome specificandconcreteproblem.Forexample,Socrateswouldurgeotherstodefinewhat isthemeaningoffriendshipandbyexaminingvariousformsoffriendshiptryto

discoversomethingcommontoallofthem.Therefore,theenquiryofSocrateswasboth empiricalandinductive.

6.Deductive.Lastly,theenquiryofSocrateshasthefeatureofbeingdeductive.Though Socratesusedtobeginhisenquirywithcommonplacedefinitionandexamineallthe popularideas,hisaimwastheattainmentofobjectiveanduniversaltruths.Therefore, hewasnotsatisfiedtillhewasabletoestablishdeductivelycertaintruths.

7.Tosumup,thedialecticalmethodasemployedbySocratesclearlydisplaysthe characteristicsof

1.Methodologicaldoubt;

2.Intellectualdialogue;

3.Semanticprecision,and

4.Deductiveandinductivedeterminationoftruth

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Q.2DiscusseducationalimplicationsofJhonDewey’sphilosophy.

JOHNDEWEY

JohnDewey,greatestofthepragmatistsandgenerallyrecognizedasthemostoutstanding philosopherhiscountryhasyetproduced,madesignificantcontributionstovirtuallyeveryfield ofphilosophyaswellastosuchotherareasofinquiryaseducationandpsychology.Activefor 70yearsasascholar,hewasaprolificwriterpublishingapproximatelyfiftybooksandmore thaneighthundredarticles.Manyofthesehavebeentranslatedintovariousforeignlanguages. NewvolumesarestillcomingoutwithmoreDeweymaterial,mainlycorrespondence,andbooks andarticlesonhimareappearingatarapidlyincreasingrate.

PhilosophyofEducation

1.Analysisofreflectiveinquiry.PerhapsthemostimportantsingleemphasisofJohnDeweyis hisinsistenceuponapplyingreflectiveorcriticalinquirytoproblemsorindeterminatesituations. Whatisinvolvedinproblemsolvingorthinkingthroughaproblem?Whatiscriticalinquiry?How doesoneapplyintelligencetohumanaffairs?Dewey’sanswertothesequestionsissetforthin itssimplesttermsinHowWeThink,andamoresophisticatedversionisgiveninLogic;The TheoryofInquiry.Inasensethephasesorstepsinacompleteactofreflectivethinkingafford

anoutlineforeachofhismajorworks,andhehadalifelongconcernwithwhatisinvolvedin reflectivethinking.

2.Viewofexperience.ExperienceisoneofthecentralconceptsinDewey’sthought,occurring andrecurringthroughouthiswriting.Thoughhefinallyconcludedthathemighthavedone bettertouseanotherterm,manyofhismostimportantworksareconcernedwithclarifying it—forexample,hisCasusLectures:ExperienceandNatureorhisArtasExperienceor ExperienceandEducation.Forhimexperienceconstitutestheentirerangeofmen’srelationsto, ortransactionswiththeuniverse.Weexperiencenatureandthingsinteractingincertainways madeupofexperience.

3.ViewofKnowledge.Deweyrejectsthetraditionalepistemologywhichsetsupaknower outsidetheworldandthenasksaboutthepossibility,extentandvalidityofknowledgein general.Helaughinglysuggeststhatwemightequallywellhaveaproblemofdigestionin general—itspossibility,extent,andgenuineness—byassumingthatthestomachandthefood- materialswereinhabitantsofdifferentworlds.Thesignificantproblemisnothowsucha knowerissomehowtomirrortheantecedentlyrealbutratheronehowonesetofexperienced eventsistobeusedassignsofwhatweshallexperienceunderanothersetofconditions.The importantdistinction,moreover,isnotbetweentheknowerassubjectandtheworldknownas object.Insteaditisbetweendifferentwaysofbeinginthemovementofthings,betweenan unreflectivephysicalwayandapurposive,intelligentone.

OnDewey’sviewknowledgeneedstobeplacedinthecontextoftheproblematicor indeterminatesituationandreflectiveinquiry.Knowledgeismorethanimmediateawarenessor thepresenceofasetofsensedata.Havingqualitiesbeforeusdoesnotconstituteknowing. Knowledgeisalwaysinferential,andtheproblemishowtheprocessesofinferencearetobe guidedtotrustworthyorwarrantedconclusions.Itinvolvesoperationsofcontrolledobservation, testing,andexperimentation.Itisaproductofinquiry—thestepsinacompleteactofreflective thinking.DeweylikedBacon’sideathatknowledgeispoweranditmaybetestedbythe promotionofsocialprogress.

4.Conceptionofphilosophy.In”TheNeedforaRecoveryofPhilosophy”Deweydeclaresthat philosophymustceasetobe”adevicefordealingwiththeproblemsofphilosophy”andbecome “amethod,cultivatedbyphilosophersfordealingwiththeproblemsofmen”.Buttheproblems ofmanasheseesthemcoverarangebroadenoughtoincludeinonewayoranothermostof thetraditionalproblemsaswellasmanyothers.Themethodinvolvestreatingphilosophyas vision,imaginationandreflection;andthoughtheclarifyingprocessmayshowthatcertain epistemologicalproblemsarepseudo-problems,thefactthattheyareraisedmaypointto genuineculturalcrises.Ifactionatalllevelsneedstobeinformedwithvision,imaginationand reflectiontobringclearlytomindfuturepossibilitieswithreferencetoattainingthebetterand avertingtheworse,thereismorethanenoughforphilosophytodo.

5.Biologism.WhatissometimesreferredtoasDewey’sbiologismreflects:

 (a)Hisemphasisonthegeneticpointofview,and

(b)Hisconvictionthatinquiryhasabiologicalmatrix.

Hewasinterestedinhowideasoriginateandbecomemorecomplex,intheparallelsbetween humanresponsesandlowerlevels,andinthecontinuityofdifferentspeciesoforganiclifefrom thelowestformstoman.Tounderstandthepresentsituation,heheld,weinquireintoits specificconditionsaswellintoitsprobableconsequences.

6.Experimentalism.Dewey’sexperimentalismrelatestohisanalysisofreflectiveinquiryfor whichhypotheses,predictionandexperimentationarecentral.Anexperimentisaprogramme ofactiontodetermineconsequences.Itisawayofintroducingintelligenceintoasituation.Itis anintelligentlyguidedprocedurefordiscoveringwhatadjustmentsanorganismmustmaketo itsenvironmenttowardoffillorsecuregoods.ExperimentationforDeweyisrelevantnot merelyontheindividualbiologicallevel,butwhereverplannedreconstructionofasituationmay helpeffectdesiredtransformation,forexample,insocialplanningorineducation.Themore importanttheissueatstake,themoreclearlyisexperimentationseentobepreferabletosuch alternativesasauthoritarianism,simpleguessworkormerelywaitingforeventstoruntheir course.

7.Instrumentalism.Dewey’sinstrumentalismalsostemsfromhisanalysisofreflectiveinquiry. Ideasarenotcopies,imagesorvisionsofexternalobjectsbutrathertoolsorinstrumentsto facilitateanorganism’sbehaviour.Theyareinstrumentsforoperatingonthingsoronstimuli. Thingsorobjectsarewhatwecandowiththem,andwecandistinguishamongthembythe behaviourreactionstheymakepossible.Truth,accordingly,isadverbial.Itisawayideaswork outinpractice.Itisamatterofwhetherhypothesesleadtopredictedconsequences,anaffairof verifiedpredictionsofwarrantedassertions.Dewey’sinstrumentalismencouragesanew respectforinstrumentsormeans.Themorewevalueendsorgoals,onhisview,thegreateris ourattentiontothemeanswhichmaybringthemabout.Theseparationofgoodsintonatural andmoralorintoinstrumentalandintrinsicmayhavetheharmfulconsequenceofmaking moralandintrinsicgoodsmoreremotefromdailylivingbesidesencouragingustothinkthatwe canhavetheintrinsicwithouthavingtoconcernourselveswiththeinstrumental.Viewingany goodasmerelyinstrumental,moreover,isfairlysurenottodoitjustice.

8.Relativism.Dewey’srelativismistobeopposedtoabsolutismandisawayofstressingthe importanceofcontext,situation,relationships.Totakethingsoutofrelationsistodeprivethem ofvalueandmeaning.Absolutesareruledoutonhisview,andunqualifiedgeneralisationsare likelytobemisleading.Aneconomicpolicyoraplanofactionisagoodrelativetoaspecific situationwhichmakesitdesirable.Aknifemaybegoodforsharpeningpencilandbadfor cuttingarope;buttospeakofitwithoutqualificationsasgoodorbadisquitemisleading.

9.Meliorism.Inethics,accordingtoDewey’saccountinReconstructioninPhilosophy,the emphasisshouldbeplacedonimprovingorbetteringourpresentsituationratherthanupon goodorbadinsomeabsolutesense.Thegood,ifoneistospeakofthegoodratherthanthe

better,iswhatwillenableustosolvetheproblemordifficulty.Thuswhatisusuallyreferredto asamoralendorstandardbecomesonthisviewahypothesisastohowtoovercomeamoral problem.Sinceeveryproblematicsituationisunique,valuesarealsounique;butifoneis tospecifyanend,thengrowth,education,orproblemsolvingwouldbethatend.Insteadof treatingacquisitionofskillandattainmentofcultureasends,weshouldseethemasmarksof growthandmeanstoitscontinuingdifficultiesorfurtheringgrowth.

10.Humanism.Dewey’shumanismstemsfromhisacceptanceoftheBaconianviewthat knowledgeistestedbypromotionofhumanintelligencebasedingoodpartontheexperience ofmodernscienceforthesakeofbetteringthehumansituationSupernaturalismandtheusual dogmasofrevealedreligionhavenoplaceinDewey’sview.AshetellsusinACommonFaith, thethingsofgreatestvalueincivilizationexistbythegraceofthecontinuoushuman communityinwhichwearealinkandwehavetheresponsibilityofconserving,transmitting, rectifyingandexpandingourheritageofvaluesinorderthatthosewhocomeafterusmayshare itmoregenerouslyandmoresecurely.Ourcommonfaithdrawsitsmainstandfromour attempttocarryoutthisresponsibility.

11.Educationandexperience.MostofthemajorthesesinDewey’sgeneralphilosophyfind expressioninhisphilosophyofeducation.Reflectiveinquiryisascentralforeducation,onhis view,asforanyotherphaseoflifeorexperience.Indeed,forhimeducationisaproblemsolving process,andwelearnbydoing,byhavinganopportunitytoreactinreallifesituation.In educationnotindoctrination,butinquiryisfocal.Notsimplyamassingfactsbutlearningto applyintelligencetoproblemsolvinghastoppriority.Educationmustbeexperimentalwithout beingsimplyimprovisation.

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Q.3DescribeIbneKhaldun’viewsaboutcurriculumandteachingmethods.

IBNE-KHALDUN(1332-1406AD)

IbneKhaldunwasaphilosopherofhistoryandthefirstsocialscientist.IbneKhaldunhasmade threemostsignificantcontributionstosocialsciences.Heobtainedhisbasiceducationfromhis fatherwhowasarenownedscholar.Hewaskeenlyinterestedintradition,grammer,poetry, languageandlaw.HealsostudiedPhilosophy,theology,logic,andotherIslamicsubjects.He learntQuranbyheart.IbneKhaldunwasanexpertinfiqh,nahu,hadith,rhetoric,poetryand philosophy.

IbneKhaldunhaddescribedtheeducationalprocessintheperspectiveofthedevelopmentof society.HeillustratedhistheoryofeducationintheframeworkofIslamicsocietyandfocused hisattentionontheeducationfromareligiousandethicalpointofviewbutatthesametimehe alsohighlightedthesociologicalpointofview.TheMuqaddimacontainsasystematictreatment ofphilosophyofhistory.Besidesthisitcontainshisviewsontheaspectsofstate,societyand education.

AccordingtoIbneKhuldun,thinkingabilityishumanbeings’specialgiftofGod.Thefacultyof reflectivethinkingisthesourceofknowledge.Itdistinguishesmanfromanimals.Itisofthree types:

i.Discerningintelligence:itenablesmantounderstandtheorderofthings

ii.Experimentalintelligence:itenablesmantobereceptivetoopinionsandteacheshimrulesof conduct

iii.Speculativeintelligence:itgivesinsightaboutthegeneralideaofthingsexistingaccordingto species,classesandtheirprimaryandsecondarycauses.

IbneKhaldunstresseduponUlumNaqliyyai-eTheQuran,interpretationsofQuran,tradition, jurisprudenceandspeculativetheologywhicharewantedperse.IbneKhaldunalsoemphasized onUlumAqliyyai-ephilosophyandphysicalsciences.IbneKhaldunwarnsthescholarthatthey shouldstudythesciencesthatarewantedperseingreaterdetail.

IbneKhaldunbelievedthattheattainmentofknowledgewasthenaturalurgeofhumanbeings becausetheypossessthepowerofreasoningandthinking.Hebelievedthatrealityshouldbe knownbyrevelationinsteadofintellectualeffortasbelievedbyphilosophers.Thereforefor MuslimsthefirstconditionforknowingtherealityistheQuranandtheprophetMuhammad (P.B.U.H).TheaimofeducationforIbneKhalunistomakeMuslimsfirmbelieversinGod throughthestudyofQuranandreligioussciences.KnowledgeofGodandfaithinIslamiclaws willmakeMuslimsknowtherealitywhichinturnwillleadtogoodactionandpossessionof goodcharacter.

IbneKhaldunhaddescribedthatchildrenshouldnotbetaughtdifficultmatters.IbneKhaldun hademphasizedthatchildrendrillmethodandteachingaidsmustbeusedtomakechildren learn.Moreover,conceptsmustbetaughtfromtheeasiesttothemostdifficultinstages. Moreoverchildrenmustnotburdenwiththingsbeyondtheircapability.IbneKhaldunhad discussedtheconceptsofmotivation,learningwillingnessandreinforcement.

ForIbneKhaldun,educationisasocialenterpriseandincludesupbringingstrategiesaccording tofirmlaws.IbneKhaldunintegratedtheeducationalprogramswiththebehaviouralones.Ibne Khaldunadvisedthatchildrenshouldfirstbetaughtcalculation.AccordingtoIbneKhaldun instructionmustbestartedwithcalculation,becauseitisconcernedwithsimpleknowledgeand systematicproofsanditproducesanenlightenedintellect.Moreover,calculationhasasound basisandrequiresself-discipline,soundnessandself-discipline.

IbneKhaldundividingsciencesintotwocategories:

i.Primarysciences:thatmanrealizedbyinstinct

ii.Secondarysciences:acquiredthrougheducation

a.Mentalsciences:Thesearealsocalledsciencesofphilosophyandwisdom.

Theseconsistedoffourdifferentsciencesorintellectualsciences:

1.Logic:Itprotectsthemindfromerror,asitattemptstoknowfromtheavailableknownfacts.

2.Physics:Itisthestudyoftheelementalsubstancesperceivablebythesenses.

3.Metaphysics:Itisthestudyofspiritualandmetaphysicalmatters.

4.Measurement:Itcomprisesfourdifferentsciences:

a.Mathematicalsciences

b.Geometry

c.Arithmetic

d.Musicandastronomy.

IbneKhaldunhadexplainedeachkindofsciencesalongwithitssubjectsandaims.Ibne Khaldunclassifiededucationandchildren’supbringingintothreedifferenttypes.

i.Psychologicalinformation:itprovidesbasesforeducationandlearningtheoriesii.Historical information:itexplainsthemeansofeducationandbringingupchildrenindifferentcountries

iii.Practicalinstructions:Theseidentifiedrulesthatparentsandteachersshouldfollow.

IbneKhaldunpresentedtheoryof“specializationandperfectioninlearning”.Itprovidedbases forIbneKhaldun’sopiniononeducationandrearing.

IbneKhaldundidnotlimithisrealisticobservationstoindividualsonly,buthestudiedthe psychologicaleffectofgroupsandsocieties.IbneKhaldunusedtheword“firstandsecond education”inhisbook.Hereferredthefirststageoflearningastheperiodbeforeadolescence andsecondstagetowhatislearnedlateron.

IbneKhaldunhadpresentedseveralprinciplesofeducation.Someofthesearesummarizedas follows:

a.Educationshouldbetakengraduallyinordertobeuseful.

b.Differentsciencesmustbetaughtatdifferenttimes.

c.Astudent,whospecializesinaspecificscienceefficiently,willbereadytolearnanother easily

d.Theprocessofeducationshouldbedonepermanentlyandwithinfixedperiodssothat childrenwouldnotforgetwhattheyhadlearned.

e.Beinghardwithstudentswouldleadtonegativeresultssuchasweakeningthestudents’ enthusiasmandleadingtolaziness,encouraginglyingandteachingdishonestyandwickedness.

f.Travellinginordertoseekknowledge,educationandtomeetwithscholarswouldincrease people’slearningbecauseeachonewouldaddtohis/herownmeansofresearchand investigation.

g.BasicsciencessuchasShari’a,Tafsir,Hadith,Fiqh,PhysicsandTheologyshouldbestudied moreandinvestigated.Ontheotherhand,thesecondarysciencessuchasLogic,Arabic,and Mathematicsshouldbestudiedascomplementarycourses

AccordingtoIbneKhaldun,thebesteducationistheinteractionofminds,betweenpeopleof differentprofessions,differentreligions,differentcivilizations,anddifferentsocialsectors.Ibne Khaldunemphasizedthattheaimofeducationwasnottohavespecialistsinlimitedornarrow subjects,butwasmainlythedesiretoprovidestudentswithsciencesthatwouldhelpthemto liveagoodlife.

IbneKhaldunhaspresentedphilosophyforearlychildhoodeducation.Heemphasizedtheneed forpractice,observationandindividualdifferences.AccordingtoIbneKhaldunsmallchildren mustbetaughtQuran.Heforbadeteachersfromteachingtafsir,regulationsandothersexcept recitinguntilthechildrenarematuredenough.

IbneKhaldunalsopresentedwaystoteachchildren.Hehasforbiddenteachersorparentsfrom teachingchildrenwithcrueltybecauseitcouldmakechildrenlazy,liars,andpretentiousinorder tohidethetruth.Suchattitudecouldbecomeahabitandchildrenwouldlosesenseofhumanity.

IbneKhaldundescribedthatlearningtimeshouldnotbetoolongbecauseitwouldmake childrenforget.Teachingwithinashorttimeusingtherightmethodcouldgeneratebetter learning.Intermsoflanguage,hestatedthatlanguageisthefoundationofallknowledge. Languageteachingstartedfromwritingandreading,andthenwordsarerelatedtomeanings

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Q.4ExplaincharacteristicsofEssentialCurriculum.

ESSENTIALISM

Essentialismisakindofneoperennialismwithrootsinbothidealismandrealism.Essentialism maintainsthatthepurposeofschoolsisbothtopreservetheknowledgeandvaluesofthepast andtoprovidechildrenwiththeskillsessentialtolivesuccessfulandmeaningfullivesin presentsociety.Aneducationaltheorythatfocusesonanessentialsetoflearningprepares individualsforlifebyconcentratingonthecultureandtraditionsofthepast.Essentialism,which inthepost-WorldWarerahascometoreplaceperennialismasthedominanteducational philosophyinAmericanpublicschools,holdsthatthepurposeoftheschoolsistoprepare studentsfortheirrolesinsocietythroughacurriculumfocusedonbasicskillsandtraditional

academiccontent,taughtbyteacherswhoexpectrespectforauthorityanddiscipline.WilliamC. Bagley(1874–1946)wasthefounderofexistentialism.TheproponentsofEssentialismare: JamesD.Koerner(1959),H.G.Rickover(1959),PaulCopperman(1978),andTheodoreSizer (1985).

EssentialistCurriculum

Thecoreofthecurriculumisessentialknowledgeandskillsandacademicrigor.Althoughthis educationalphilosophyissimilarinsomewaystoPerennialism,Essentialistsaccepttheidea thatthiscorecurriculummaychange.Essentialskills(ThreeRs)andessentialsubjects(English, arithmetic,science,historyandforeignlanguage)arepartofessentialist’scurriculum. Schoolingshouldbepractical,preparingstudentstobecomevaluablemembersofsociety.It shouldfocusonfacts-theobjectiverealityoutthere–and”thebasics,”trainingstudentstoread, write,speak,andcomputeclearlyandlogically.Schoolsshouldnottrytosetorinfluence policies.Studentsshouldbetaughthardwork,respectforauthority,anddiscipline.

Essentialismasaneducationphilosophyseekstoinstillessentialtopicsandcharactertraits thatmakestudentsproductivemembersofsociety.Essentialismstressestheimportanceof thecoretopicssuchasmathematics,reading,foreignlanguages,science,andhistorywhilealso advocatingrespectforauthority,discipline,anddutyasdesirablecharactertraits.Essentialism isprimarilyteachercentered;teachersimparttraditionalknowledgetostudentsbecausethey havemasteryofthesubject,andtheyarealsoexamplestostudentsthroughtheirexemplary character.Essentialismoftenadvocatestheuseofsummativeassessmentandstandardized teststodeterminestudents’masteryoftopicsandtogaugetheirabilitylevels;studentswho havenotmasteredthetopicsofonegrademustrepeatthissubjectbeforetheycanprogressto thenextbecausetheyhavenotgainedinformationthatisessentialtotheircontinuedlearning. Whileessentialismhasexistedforsometime,itgainedthespecificnameandidentityas oppositiontotheprogressivismmovement.Similartoperennialism,essentialismstressesthe “essential”knowledgeandskillsthatproductivecitizensshouldhave,ratherthanasetof externaltruths.WilliamBagleybecamefamousasoneofthefirstessentialistsbecausehewas the“founderoftheEssentialisticEducationSocietyandauthorofEducationandEmergent Man,”ajournalthatdefendedtheessentialistpracticeanddiscussedhowprogressivismwas harmfultoeducationandthecountry.

Essentialistbelievethatwemustknowtheessentialsoflife;survival,howtobeproductive,and howtoliveaspropercivilians.Aswegetolderthereshouldbemoreadvancedsubjectsaddedto thecurriculumbeingtaught.Itisalsothoughtthatonlythebasicsubjectsneedtobetaught. Thereshouldnotbeimpracticalsubjectsaddedtothecurriculum.Moralsandcharactershould beanimportantfactortothecurriculumaswell

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Q.5DescribeFridrichFroebelviewregardingearlychildhoodeducation.

FRIEDRICHFROEBEL(1852-1982)THEBIRTHOFKINDERGARTEN

FriedrichFroebelwasaGermaneducationalist,wholaidthefoundationsformoderneducation systemsbasedontherecognitionthatchildrenhaveuniqueneedsandcapabilities.Between 1808and1810heattendedthetraininginstituterunbyJohnPestalozzi,acceptingthebasic principlesofPestalozzi’stheoryincludingpermissiveschoolatmospheresastheideal environmentforlearning,emphasisonnatureandtheobjectlesson.However,Frobelwasa strongidealistwhoseviewofeducationwascloselylinkedtoreligion.HefeltthatPestalozzi’s theorylackedthespiritualmeansthat,accordingtoFrobelwasthefoundationofearlylearning.

Hisfamousbooksinclude“TheEducationofMan”,“PedagogiesofKindergarten”,“MotherPlays andNurserySongs”and“EducationbyDevelopment”.Thesebooksmainlydealwiththe educationofchildren,belowtheageofsevenyears.

Frobel’sPhilosophy

Froebel’sphilosophyisofabsoluteidealism.Hemainlypressedtwogreatthings,namely,his ‘ideaofunityindiversity’andhis‘theoryofdevelopment’.Withregardtotheformer,heviewed thiswholeuniverseasaunityfromGod-theAbsolute.Inhisbook,“TheEducationofMan”,he remarked,“Thewholeworld-theAll,theUniverse-isasinglegreatorganisminwhichaneternal uniformitymanifestsitself.Thisprincipleofuniformityexpressesitselfasmuchinexternal natureasinspirit.Lifeistheunionofthespiritualwiththematerial.Withoutmindofspirit, matterislifeless,itremainsformless,anditismerechaos.

Regardinghistheoryofdevelopment,hesaidthatthereisanabsolutegoaltowardswhichall thingsaregrowing.Thisabsolutegoalisrealizedthroughthepresentationofsymbols, representingthevariousaspectsoftheAbsolute.Thesesymbolsarecalled“gifts”whichwe shalldiscusslater.

Developmentcanbeproducedonlybytheexerciseoruseoffaculty;physical,mentalorspiritual. Ifmindistobedeveloped,itshouldbeexercisedandsoiswiththedevelopmentofthebody. Effectivedevelopmentispossibleonlyiftheexercisearisesfromthething’sownactivity.

“Eachindividualmustdevelopfromwithin,self-activeandfree,inaccordancewiththeeternal law,becausefulldevelopmentcomesonlybyspontaneousself-activity”.Froebeladvocates balancedandunifieddevelopmentofbody,mindandsoul.

Hisphilosophyofeducationwasbasedonfourmajorprinciples:freeselfexpression,creativity, socialparticipationandmotorexpression.Hebegantofocusontheneedsofchildrenjustprior toenteringschool.Froebelenvisionedaplacewhere4to6yearoldchildrenwouldbenurtured andprotectedfromoutsideinfluences.

Beforeimplementingtheseinthekindergarten,heoriginallydevisedtheseconceptsforthe childinthefamily.However,thesebecamelinkedwithademandfortheprovisionofcareand developmentofchildrenoutsideofthehome.

In1840Frobelcreatedthewordkindergarten(infantgarden)forthePlayandActivityInstitute hehadfoundedin1837withitsemphasisonplayaswellasfeaturinggames,songs,stories, andartsandcraftstostimulatethechild’simaginationanddevelopphysicalandmotorskills.

Heconsideredthepurposeofeducationtobetoencourageandguidemanasaconscious, thinkingandperceivingbeinginawaythatbecomesapureandperfectrepresentationofthe divineinnerlawthroughhisownpersonalchoice.Educationmustshowhimthemeaningsof attainingthatgoal.

Theemphasisoftheearlyyearssettingwasonpracticalworkandthedirectuseofmaterials. Throughexploringtheenvironment,thechild’sunderstandingoftheworldunfolds.Frobel believedintheimportanceofplayinachild’slearningasacreativeactivity.

ToFroebel,playprovidedthemeansforachild’sintellectual,social,emotionalandphysical development.Froebelbelievedthattheeducationofachildbeganatbirth,andthatparentsand teachersplayedacrucialroleinhelpingchildreninthisactivity.“Playisamirroroflife”,hewrote, leadingtoselfdisciplineandrespectforlawandorder.

Hedevelopedaseriesofmaterialsknownas‘gifts’andaseriesofrecommendedactivities ‘occupations’andmovementactivities.Giftswereobjectsthatwerefixedinformsuchas blocks.Thepurposewasthatinplayingwiththeobjectthechildwouldlearntheunderlying conceptrepresentedbytheobject.Occupationsallowedmorefreedomandconsistedofthings thatchildrencouldshapeandmanipulatesuchasclay,sand,beads,stringetc.Therewasan underlyingsymbolicmeaninginallthatwasdone.

Froebel’seducationalideasprovidedthemajordirectionofkindergartencurriculumduringthe lasthalfofthenineteenthcentury.Manyofhisideascanstillbeobservedinkindergartentoday includinglearningthroughplay,groupgames,andgoalorientatedactivities,andoutdoortime.

Froebelrespectedchildrenasindividualswithrightsandresponsibilitiesaccordingtotheirages andabilities,andhisphilosophyhasprofoundlyaffectededucationalpolicyandpracticearound theworld.Someoftheearlyeducationalpioneers,mostfamouslyMariaMontessori,were influencedbytheeducationalphilosophyofFrobel.

Educatorsofthefuturewillcontinuetolooktophilosophersofthepastforassistancein strivingtoattainthecommongoalofbeingjointlyresponsiblefornurturing,educating,and cultivatingeachchildtowardhisorhermaximumpotentialthroughtheeducationalprocess

AIOU Solved Assignments 2 Autumn & Spring 2023  Code 8609

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