AIOU Solved Assignments 2 Code 8605 Autumn & Spring 2023
AIOU Solved Assignments Code 8605 Autumn & Spring 2023
AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8605 Autumn & Spring 2023. Solved Assignments code 8605 Educational Leadership and Management 2023. Allama iqbal open university old papers.
Course: Educational Leadership and Management (8605)
Level: B.Ed (1 1/2 & 2 1/2 Years)
Semester: Autumn & Spring 2023
ASSIGNMENT No. 2
Q.1 Explain the principles of classroom management.
The first principle is that effective classroom management must be planned especially in terms
of transitions and potential disruptions. Consider the following suggestions:
Names are power in the classroom. Address students by name. Access a seating chart ahead
of time or prepare seating charts ahead of time; create name tents for each student to grab on
their way into class and take to their desks or have students to create their own name tents on
a piece of paper.Identify the common times for student disruptions and behaviors, usually at
the start of the lesson or class period, when topics are changed, or at the wrap-up and
conclusion of a lesson or class period.Be ready for the behaviors outside of the classroom that
are brought into the classroom, especially at the secondary level when classes change.
Consider the following suggestions:
Develop a routine with students at the start of class and at the end of class so that students
know what to expect.Be effective when giving instructions by keeping them short, clear, and
concise. Do not repeat directions over and over, but provide directions-written and or visual-
for students to reference. Provide an opportunity for students to acknowledge understanding
of the instruction given. Asking for students to hold a thumbs up or thumbs down (close to the
body) can be a quick assessment before moving on. Designate areas in the classroom
for student access so that they know where to grab a slip of paper or a book; where they
should leave papers.
Circulate in the classroom when students are engaged in completing activities or working in
groups. Groups of desks together allow teachers to move quickly and engage all students.
Circulating allows teachers the chance to gauge time needed, and answer individual questions
students might have.
Conference regularly. Time spent speaking individually with a student reaps exponentially high
rewards in managing the class. Set aside 3-5 minutes a day to speak to a student about a
specific assignment or to ask “how’s it going” with a paper or book.
Finally, teachers who are effective classroom managers continuously observe and
documenttheir learning, reflect and then act on noticeable patterns and behaviors in a timely manner. Consider the following suggestions:
Use positive rewards (log books, student contracts, tickets, etc) that allow you to record
student behaviors; look for systems that provide opportunities for students to chart their own
behaviors as well.
Include parents and guardians in classroom management. There are a number of opt-in
programs (Kiku Text, Send Hub, Class Pager, and Remind 101) that can be used to keep
parents updated on classroom activities. E-mails provide direct documented communication.
Take note of general patterns by noting how students behave during the assigned period of
When students are most active (after lunch? first 10 minutes of class?)
When to introduce new material (which day of week? what minute of the class?)
Time the transitions so you can plan accordingly (time for entry or exit slip? time to settle into
Notice and record combinations of students (who works well together? separately?)
Timeliness is critical in classroom management. Dealing with minor problems as soon as they
surface can head off major situations or stop problems before they esca late.
AIOU Solved Assignments 2 Code 8605 Autumn & Spring 2023
Q.2 How can instructional material be managed?
Administrative leadership carries the responsibility obtaining ‘and allocating instructional
materials necessary to promote educational programme and development and student
learning. So the use of instructional materials implies that learners are studying at one remote
from the author who by preparing the learning materials, is showing the fact that learners can
pursue their studies in their own way, in their own time and in place of their choosing is
probably the biggest single advantages of and motive for proving the instructional material.
1. Objectives of Instruction
Course objectives may be varied, either for liberal reasons or in order to adopt courses to the
different aptitudes of individuals or the different needs of the organization (the product view of
education). (Romiszowski, 1989, pp 7, 8).
Therefore self-instructional teaching materials play a ‘front line’ role in the learning process, as
shown in figure:
The materials, which are used in individualized learning, may be considered under the three
broad headings: textual materials, audiovisual materials and computer based materials
(Ellington 1993 p. 91) It has been already sealed that distance-teaching system ‘is called
individualized. Most of the distance learning systems throughout the world, in both Western
and Eastern countries system usually, are print-based and likely to remain so. All successful
distance-learning systems are built on well-designed, learner centered, self-instructional ‘print,
materials. (Hodgson, 1993, p.14). Now the question arises what actually are the printed and
These materials comprise of all textual and oilier materials that can be run off in large numbers
on a duplicator or printing machine to he used by pupils, student or trainees.” Facilities for the
production of such materials are now available in practically every formal and non-formal
institution, and they have become one of the most basic and widely used of all educational
tools (Ellington, 1987. P, 17).
So from all teaching/learning systems point of view, print is the intellectually superior medium-
than television, by comparison, encourages learner’ to be passive, mindless and ‘unimaginative
(Greenfield, 1984). Certainly, a great deal of education is concerned with factual learning, the
understanding of generalized or abstract principles, and with logical argument, and print is very
strong medium for developing and acquiring these skills (Bates 1995 p.1 18). Some of the
more important types of printed materials are listed below;
(ii) Types of Instruction Materials
o Books, Pamphlets. etc. -already published, or specially written.
o Specially written ‘warp around’ study guide to already published material.
o Specially written self-teaching text, i.e. ‘tutorials-in-print”.
o Workbooks for use along with audiotape or videotape, CDT (computer based teaching),
practical work, etc.
o Self-texts, project guide, notes on accreditation requirements, bibliographies, etc.
o Maps, charts, photographs, posters, etc.
o Materials from newspapers, journals and periodicals.
o Hand written materials passing between learners and tutors (Rowntree 1994, p.66).
(b) Audio-Visual Aids
An outstanding development in modem education is the increased use of supplementary
devices by which the teacher through the use of more than on sensory channel helps to clarify,
establish and correlate accuracy, concepts, interpretations and appreciation; increases
knowledge; rouses, interest and even evokes worthy emotions and enriches the imagination of
children.Learning takes place at three levels-direct experiencing, vicarious experiencing and
symbolic experiencing. Thus, audio-visual materials are quite helpful in instruction. They supply
a concrete basis for conceptual thinking; they give rise to meaningful concepts to words
enriched by meaningful associations. Researchers have also recommended that in education
we should appeal to the mind chiefly through the visual and auditory sense organs, since it is
possible that 85 % of our learning be absorbed through these,
i) The Value of Audio-Visual Aids to Learning
Audio-visual aids, are potent starters and motivators: When the child finds learning made easy,
interesting and joyful with the help of sensory as, he feels motivated. He ‘cannot but attend to
an interesting procedure going on before him. Direct, concrete, contrived, dramatized
experiences add zest, interest and vitality to any training situation. As a result, they enable
students to learn faster, remember longer, gain more accurate information and receive and
understand delicate concepts and meanings. Thus, learning becomes meaningful, enjoyable
ii) Audio-visual aids give variety to classroom techniques: They generally represent a rest from
the traditional ‘activities of the school. While using’ them, the child feels experiencing
something different. Variety is always attractive to the child as well as to the adult. Audio-visual
aids provide a change in the atmosphere of the classroom. They allow some freedom from the
formal instruction of the traditional type. While using sensory aids, the pupils may move about,
talk, laugh, question, and comment upon, and in other ways act in a natural manner as they
use to do outside the classroom. The attitude of the teacher should also be very friendly and
co-operative. In this way, schoolwork is motivated when; pupils work because they want to do it
and not because the teacher wants them to do.
iii) Many of these aids provide the child with opportunities to handle and manipulate: An
opportunity to touch, feel, handle or operate a model, specimen, picture, map; press a button
or turn a crank gives an added appeal because it satisfies, temporarily at least, the natural
desire for mastery and ownership.
iv) Audio-visual aids supply the context for sound and skilful generalizing: Books lack the
specificity, the warmth, indeed some of the unutterable poignancy of concrete experiences.
Through direct, purposeful, first-hand experiences and semi concrete audio visual experiences,
we can supply the context for sound and skilful generalizing.
v) Audio-visual aids educate children for life in this modern complex world: There was a time
when life was very simple-children learnt through direct experiences the rudiments of
knowledge. But ours is a complex world. We live in a pushbutton age when comfort has a
terrific appeal, but there is no easy road to learning. There is no magic osmosis; effective
learning is still the old fashioned formula of nine-tenth perspiration and one-tenth inspiration.
Naturally, therefore, more must be done to determine how teaching is accomplished easily and
speedily. More is the need today than before.
vi) Audio-visual aids can play a major role in promoting international understanding: These aids
can bring about mutual understanding and appreciation of cultural values and ways of living
among the different nations of the world. Enlightened and sympathetic attitudes can be
developed among the school children through this media. Films and radio programme can be
exchanged among the different countries. Coloured slides on works of an of different countries
lead to mutual appreciation of eastern and western cultural values.
To conclude in the words of Mckow and Roberts, “Audio-visual aids, wisely selected and
intelligently used, amuse and develop intense and beneficial interest and so motivate to the
pupil’ learning. This properly motivated learning means improved attitudes, permanency of
impressions, and rich experience and ultimately more wholesome living”
Audio-visual aids are not the panacea for all instructional ills: Films, recordings, television etc.,
are all very good to improve teaching. But teachers and books cannot be replaced by these
aids. Reading, writing and speaking will continue to be considered fundamental end points of
Audio-visual aids are not aids to teaching: Audio-visual aids are aids to children rather than to
teachers-aids to learning-aids to learning, rather than to teaching. They do not make teaching
easier; they do not lighten the work of teachers. Their use requires a considerable addition to
the time spent in planning and preparing lessons.
Audio-visual aids are not the ends but means: Audio-visual aids are means to an end-end is
good learning on the part of the pupils.
Audio-visual aids are not designed to amuse the pupil rather: They are to increase his interest
in, and his comprehension of the topics being studied by presenting several slants on it,
especially through his two most used senses-sights and hearing.
AIOU Solved Assignments Code 8605 Autumn & Spring 2023
Q.3 What consideration should be made while keeping school records?
Need for School Records
Every institution that is permanently organized should maintain their certain records from which
its origin, its growth and development, its condition and circumstances at various periods, its
aims, its aspirations and achievements, its efficiency and usefulness can be clearly known and
estimated. This is also true for a school which is a permanent public institution. This school is
answerable to several bodies for its effective functioning. To the parents in the first place, it is
responsible for the proper training and instructions of their children. They pay fee, and for some
of them it is considerable sacrifice; and even in cases where education is free; they pay for
their children’s education indirectly through rates, cusses and general taxation. At any rate,
they are deprived of their children’s services at home or of their assistance in earning a
livelihood. To society, of which the school is an organized agency, it has to render an account
as to the manner in which it discharges its trust of preparing its need for school future
The central or local government, which maintains the school or shares the costs of its
maintenance, as whatever the case may he, has to be satisfied that the maintenance costs
incurred or the grants paid out of public funds have been applied to appropriate purposes and
that efficient conditions of work are provided in the school. Lastly, the management and staff
owe it to the pupils to know them, individually, to watch their progress in studies carefully and
systematically, ascertain and appraise their general attainments and capacities and properly to
condition their conduct and general behaviour. The observation and study of the pupils from
day to day and from year to year is an id in the school’s endeavor to help forward in the desired
direction of their individual and collective development.
In order that the school may collect and furnish adequate information to all the parties
concerned or interested in its proper functioning and may make the best use of the information
thus collected for the furtherance of its own aims and purposes, it is necessary that complete
and systematic records should be maintained. In the light of these records, pupil’s careers are
directed and a better adjustment is brought about between them and their work, and thereby
the true ends of democratic education are served. It is with the help of these records that
reports to parents regarding the progress, merits, and shortcomings of their children are sent,
and the parents’ co-operation in the school’s endeavor is enlisted. Further, these records are
necessary for furnishing to the State or local educational authorities facts and figures, called
“returns,” from which the present condition of the school is known, and from which also the
educational progress and needs for particular localities, and even of the state as a whole, are
judged, and on the basis of which lines of future development and expansion are determined.
Essential Requirements of School Records
These records, if they are to be of real value, should be full and complete in detail. At the same
time, they should be maintained in such a way that the minimum of clerical work is involved. At
any rate, they should not take so much of the headmaster’s time as it will hamper him to
discharge his other duties relating to class teaching and the organization and supervision of
school activities. Another essential requirement for the school records are for the test of the
honesty of those who have to maintain them. Accuracy is ensured to a great extent by
promptness of entries in the records are important documents-in fact, they are the most
valuable part of school equipment-they should always be available in the school premises and
kept in a safe place under lock and key. They should not on any account be removed from the
school. In view of the failure to observe this rule in practice, some educational authorities have
thought necessary to issue instruction that not only teacher follow but even inspecting officers
should not remove records from the school premises for the purpose of security, and not even
the Visitor’s hook.
From an analysis of the records maintained in representative high schools in the different parts
of the country, it was found that they were designed to serve five purposes. These are: (1) To
assist in guidance, including classification and placement of pupils. (2) To improve class-room
teaching methods by giving the teacher information regarding the individual differences of
pupils. (3) To assist, in educational research. (4) To meet requirements of, and provide basis
for, reports 19 state and local authorities. (5) To motivate pupils’ work. Of these, records
serving the first two purposes are considered to be primary importance as concerned with the
work carried on in the school.
Kinds of Records to be Maintained
Administratively, the records which has be maintained in secondary schools are broadly under
the following heads; General, Financial, Educational and those relating to equipment. The list
of records to be maintained in a secondary school as given below, may appear formidable;
and, indeed, in many schools all these records may not be necessary. The criterion for
adoption of any record is whether serves any useful purpose in making the management of the
school more effective. A characteristic weakness of school administration is the recording of
data that is without any purpose by making a fetish of maintaining through and exhaustive
records covering every from school activity without realizing that they do not merit the time and
labour e pended on them. A careful discrimination between hat is really incessant and S% hat
h really dispensable should be made, if the school office is lot to become a store-house of
information of little value in either making the school work effective or helping educational
authorities in the planning of educational reform and development. Approval of the inspecting
officers is, however, necessary as to the selection of the records to be maintained in school.
2. Log Book
3. Visitor’s Book
4. Service Registers
5. Register of Loans of Buildings
6. Order and Circulars of the Educational Authority
7. Staff Leave Register
8. Memo Book
9. “From” and “to” Registers
10. Local Delivery Book
1. Acquaintance Roll
2. Contingent Order Book
3. Contingency Register
4. Register of Fee Collections
5. Abstract Register of Fees
6. Register of Receipt & Expenditure (Games)
7. Register of Receipts and Expenditure (Union)
8. Bill Register
9. Register of Donations (for private schools only)
10. Register of Scholarships
11. Practical Arts Section Bill Book
12. Practical Arts Section Order Book
1. Pupils’ Attendance Register
2. Teachers’ Attendance Book
3. Class Time-Tables
4. Teachers’ Time-Tables
5. General Time-Tables
6. Teacher’s Monthly Programme of Work
7. Pupils’ Progress Record
8. School Tests Records
9. Headmaster’s Supervision Register
10. Admission Register
11. Transfer Certificate Book
12. Public Examination Records
1. Stock Book of Furniture and School Appliances
2. Library Catalogue
3. Accession Register
4. Library Issue Book
5. Stationary Issue Book
6. Stock and Issue of Games Materials
7. Register of Newspapers and Magazines Received
8. Register of Supply Slates and Books, etc., Received and Distributed
9. Register of Articles Manufactured in the Practical Arts Section
10. Register of Stock of Raw materials for the Practical Arts Section
1. From and “To” Registers
2. Peon Book
3. Manual Book
4. File of Departmental orders and Circulars
5. Public Examination File
6. Register of Causal Leave Granted
In addition to those mention under the heading “Financial” the following for records have been
found helpful in maintaining school accounts:
1. Cash Book for entering daily receipts and payments
2. General Ledger or Classified Abstract of the monthly totals
3. Remittance Book for the purpose of making Remittance to the Treasury or bank.
4. Register of Pay Bills
The following few points concerning the proper mode of keeping school records might usefully
be born in mind by fresh and inexperienced head-teachers; Mode of Keeping Records
1. In every institution it stock list of registers maintained should he prepared.
2. On the outer cover of each register the following particulars should be distinctly written:
a) The name of the school.
b) The serial number of register.
c) The name of the register.
d) Number of the volume.
e) The number of the pages in the volume and dates on which the volume was opened and
3. When a register is opened the pages should be numbered consecutively, either in red ink or
with numbering machine, and no leaf must he inserted in to, or detached from any register. If a
page is disfigured by faulty entries or otherwise, the entries should be secured off with the
4. Registers should be kept tidy. Writing and figuring should be such as will give a neat
appearance to the entries. Figures must not be joined. Noughts in money columns should be
avoided, as they are liable to lead to confusion in totaling and admit of alteration. Registers
should not he folded or the pages crumpled.
5. If it is necessary to correct any, entry, the incorrect one should not he scratched out, but a
line should be lightly drawn through it in red ink so that the original entry and the alternation
made may both be clear on the face of the record.
6. The head of the office should authenticate each correction of interpolation made, by setting
his dated initials against each such correction or interpolation.
7. All entries must be in ink. But in entering balance or totals it desirable to check their
correctness before noting them in ink.
8. All horizontal lines should be thinly ruled in red ink. One line above every total and two lines
underneath every final total should be drawn. The money denomination, namely “Rs.” should
be indicated by the side of each total, thus: Rs. 195-10-4.
9. The totals of both sides of an account should always be noted in a line with each other, even
though there may not be the same number of items on both sides.
10. When standardized printed registers are not available, a stiff bound notebook should be
used of a size uniform with the majority of the other registers.
11. A new volume of a register should not be opened every year when the previous volume
contains a large number of blank pages. Whenever a fresh hook is put in to use, a remark on
the fly sheet of the book that the previous volumes has been fully used and lodged in the
record should be recorded with, and the date from which the new register is used and the
number of pages it contains should be noted.
12. Every column provided in a prescribed register should be filled up. No blank space should
be left between entries; and subsequent insertions should be avoided.
A few of the important school records, relating mainly to the educational side of School
administration, are described below:
1. School Calendar
The school calendar is drawn up at the beginning of each school year. The school year, should
be noted that it is different from the financial year and the calendar year. While the financial
year begins on first July and the calendar year on January lst, the school year commences on
the date of reopening of a school after the long vacation. The school year is therefore the year
arranged for teaching purposes and is not identical with either the financial or the calendar
year. It is generally advisable that all schools in the same provinces or, at any rate, in the same
local area, should have a uniform school year. So that children who unavoidably have to
migrate from one school to another at any time of the year may not he handicapped by an
appreciable difference in the progress made in the courses of studies in the several schools.
According to the general educational requirements the headmaster of every school should
prepare a calendar by the end of June each year, and submit one copy to the inspecting officer
in-charge of the school and have another posted up in his office room.
The calendar should contain the following items of information and such others as concern the
work of the institution:
1. General, partial, and local holidays.
2. Dates for the submission of monthly, quarterly, half-yearly, and annual reports and returns.
3. Dates of public and school examinations.
4. Dates for sending up applications for public examination term certificates, etc.
5. Lessons to be done on each partial holiday, so that no subject shall suffer through continual
loss of periods of works.
6. Dates of meeting of school committees, Teachers’ Associations. Debating and other
societies, local excursions, school tournaments, etc.
7. In Schools where the system of periodical class test is in vogue, the dates on which such
tests will be conducted, and the subjects in which they will be held.
The school calendar ensures regular and timely submission of periodical Returns and reports
and conduces to the better and systematic organization of school activities.
2. Log Book
Educational rules require also the maintenance of a log book also. The logbook is a record of
events, and as such it furnishes material for a history of the school. It should contain mention of
special events, the introduction of new text-books, apparatus, or courses of instruction, and
plan of lessons approved by the inspectors, the visits of the Inspecting Officers and other
distinguished persons interested in education, closure or changes in the working hours of
school on account (if epidemic diseases, and any oilier deviations from the ordinary routine of
the school. or any special circumstances effecting the school, that may deserve to be recorded
for future reference or for any other reason. The logbook is a school diary. It should contain
only statement of facts and no expressions of opinion on the work or conduct of teachers, or
remarks as to the efficiency of the school. The entries in the logbook should he made by the
head master, as occasion may require. It is a permanent record for future reference.
3. Admission Register
The Admission Register is one of the most important school records, and the head master is
personally responsible for therein. Alter satisfying himself that, the information furnished by the
parents in the application for admission to the school is correct, the head master should state
at the bottom of the form whether the pupil was admitted or rejected. All application forms
received should be serially numbered and filed separately for reference. In the case of pupil
seeking admission after a course of private study a careful investigation concerning the pupil’s
previous educational career, as declared by the parent or guardian, should invariably he made
before making admission. The headmaster should resist the pressure or importunities of
parents’ tor admission of children by evasion of the rule. Admission of pupils migrating from
outside the jurisdiction of the local educational authority should not be made, even though the
candidates may be eligible according to their transfer certificates, until the certificates have
been countersign by the educational officer who should be having administrative control over
the school issuing the certificates, and until the equivalence of standards has been determined.
No such pupil should he admitted to a class higher than the first-year class when two or more
classes constitute one unit from the point of view of the course of instruction.
1. Bauer, T. 2011. Die Kultur der Ambiguität: Eine andere Geschichte des Islam. -Berlin:
Verlag der Weltreligionen/Insel.
2. Bell, M. 2014. “Liberal Attitudes and Middle East Realities.” Transatlantic Academy
Paper Series, June.
AIOU Solved Assignments 2 Autumn & Spring 2023 Code 8605
Q.4 Write a short note on:
i. Boards of intermediate and secondary Education.
Boards of Intermediate and Secondary Education (IIISEs) and universities are the examining
bodies. Following certificates/diplomas/degrees are awarded after the completion of certain
level of education: Secondary School Certificate (after 10 years waling); Higher Secondary
School Certificate (after 12 years schooling); Bachelor’s degree (alter 14 years schooling); and
Master’s degree (after 16 years schooling). Universities confer M.Phil, d Ph.D. degrees on the
candidates who complete certain requirements of the concerned level of studies.
These certificates/degrees are awarded after completion of general stream.
There is a public examination system in the country. Some boards and universities are
following the conventional system of awarding certificates and degrees on the basis of: Third
division (33-44%); second division (45-59%); and First division % and above).
Some boards and universities have introduced grades as: A (70% and above); B (60 -69%); C
(50-59%); D (40-49%); E (33% to 39%); and F (Fail-Below 33 %). At the same time there are
institutions in private sector preparing the students for ‘O’ level and level examinations of
British Education System.
Accreditation of higher education is determined by the University Grants Commission, Ministry
of Education; Higher Education Commission (Accreditation and equivalence of school
education (secondary and higher secondary level) is determined by Inter Board Committee of
Chairmen (IBCC), an autonomous organization in the Ministry Education.
At present there, are eight Boards of Intermediate and Secondary Education at Rawalpindi,
Sargodha, Gujranwala, Lahore, Multan, Faisalabad, Dera Ghazi Khan and Bahawalpur. The
exclusive function of the Baard of Intermediate and Secondary Education is to hold Secondary
School Certificate and Intermediate Examination and award certificates. They also hold
examinations from Adeeb, Aalim and Faazil certificates in Urdu, Persian and Arabic languages.
Following are functions of the Boards of Education and other autonomous bodies as reflected
in the responsibilities of heads of these organizations.
ii. National Bureau of Curriculum and Textbooks.
The first formal exercise in curriculum development was undertaken as a result of the Report of
the Commission on National Education 1959. The Commission analyzed the situation
pertaining to curriculum development and reforms and made useful commendations. Pursuant
to the recommendations of the Commission the Ministry appointed two Curriculum Committees
for Primary and Secondary Education in 1960.
In the mid sixties the new concept of integrated and modernized science courses was
introduced. This effort was initially confined to science education but was later carried on into
other subject areas also. It was a significant contribution made by a group scientists and
curriculum specialists that they had succeeded in preparing the people mentally for change.
Curriculum development was never visualized as a distinct and specialized function. The entire
curriculum activity was done through committees which were created for a specific purpose at
a specific time and were dissolved as soon as the task was over. No permanent committee
network was set up to advise and evaluate the curriculum development and implementation. It
is in this context, that need to create the National Bureau of Curriculum and Textbooks (NBCT)
at Federal level was felt for coordinating the activities of various committees and centre. Similar
organizations at provincial level were also established. The existing Curriculum Wing of the
Ministry of Education is, in fact, a developed form of the National Bureau of Curriculum and
After the promulgation of 1973 Constitution the Curriculum, Syllabi, Planning Policy, Centres,
of Excellence, Standards of Education and Islamic Education were placed on the Concurrent
Legislative List of the Federal Government. This was a significant departure from the previous
position when the education was an entirely provincial subject.
Whenever it is intended to frame or revise a curriculum, the Curriculum Wing of the Ministry of
Education sends the proposals to the provincial curriculum bureau/centres. These
bureau/centres develop or revise the curriculum in the light of frame-work provided by the
Curriculum Wing of the Ministry of Education. In the provincial centres, the revision or framing
of curriculum is done by the committees. These committees comprise subject specialists and
persons equipped with pedagogical skills. The draft curriculum is sent to the Curriculum Wing
for their consideration and approval. In the Curriculum Wing the draft curriculum on each
subject received from provincial bureau/centres is put up to the concerned National Review
Committee. This committee is usually constituted for each subject and comprises the nominees
of the provincial governments and subject specialists considered suitable for the purpose. The
curriculum finalized by the National Review Committee is then put up to the Federal Education
Secretary for approval. The approved curriculum is sent to the Provincial Textbook Boards for
production of textbooks.
The Curriculum Wing works in close collaboration with the provincial curriculum
bureau/centres, the education departments, the Textbook Boards, the Boards of Intermediate
and Secondary Education and other research organizations such as Institutes of Education
and Research in the provinces. In fact the Curriculum Centres in the provinces are associated
centres of the Curriculum Wing of the Federal Ministry of Education. Curriculum Wing also
works in close collaboration with other international agencies. This wing is also an associated
centre of the UNESCO’s Asian Programme of Educational Innovation for Development
(APEID), Bangkok. This facilitates the flow of information not only between these two agencies
but also with other foreign agencies through UNESCO. This wing participates in curriculum
development activities of other countries tinder various bilateral educational and cultural
Autumn & Spring 2023 AIOU Solved Assignments 2 Code 8605
Q.5 How evaluation improve management? Discuss in detail.
Evaluation is often overlooked in the day-to-day affairs of the school system. In reality, the
ongoing evaluation of programmes, personnel and activities may be one of the more important
aspects of the quality of effort being extended by the organization,
Programmes are mandated by a variety of mechanisms: by state law, by state board of
education rules, by local policy, by graduation requirements, by federal law, and by the need of
the students. As programmes are developed for a particular clientele, they must be delivered to
that clientele and then evaluated to see if they (the programmes) accomplished what the
planners intended. All too often, educators initiate a programme an it’s left to divine judgment
to determine its, effectiveness.
In this day of account ability, of wise use of scarce resources, and of increasing competition for
the local and state tax dollar, it is important that evaluation efforts should be initiated and
maintained in order to justify programmes and budgets. Especially as one considered the
implications of site-based management (SBM) and all that it entails, the need for a well-ground
evaluation process is essential.
Programmes are planned, the evaluation process should begin. The following questions should
be examined as a result of the evaluation process:
1. Is the target population being served?
2. Is the programme producing the desired results?
3. Is the programme cost-effective?
4. Is the programme compatible with other programmes?
5. Does the programme support the mission of the school?
The integrity and viability of the planning process is dependent on the capacity of the
evaluation design and process to stand alone as an independent function of the organization.
Ideally, evaluation, while closely aligned and supportive of planning mechanism, is
independent of any other function of the school system. This independence not only allows
greater objectivity of process, but it also guarantees that the evaluation of any programme or
activity will be accomplished on its own merits and based on its own performance.
The evaluation function is best performed when it is located under the superintendent and not
involved in any other function of the school organization.
Ideally, the evaluation process gathers data and presents it in such a way that the decision
maker (principal, director, superintendent, board etc.) can interpret the data and decide the
subsequent actions required of him/her.
Evaluation is a process of delineating, obtaining and providing useful information for judging
decision alternatives (Stufflebeam et A. 197 l, xxv). In other words evaluation is a mechanism
for generating data on which decisions can be made. If performed at its most objective level,
alternative situations and data can be examined, and the most appealing and productive
decision is possible for the person charged with the decision.
System of Evaluation (CIPP)
Dr. Daniel Stufflebeam of Ohio State University developed CIPP, an acronym for context, input,
process and product types of programme evaluations, during the late 1960s and early 1970s.
The CIPP model’s relationship to decision making continues to a variety of educational settings
throughout the country. According to Stufflebeam’s theory, the four evaluation types serve
general decision-making categories, as shown hi Figure
a) Context Evaluation
Although four types of programme evaluation are significant in the management of information
related to educational programmes and services, an understanding of context evaluation is
most important to a practicing school administrator. In general, its importance focuses on three
factors, which oftentimes affect the success, or failure of decisions related to school
programmes. First, context evaluation serves short and long-range planning decisions.
Planning in many school districts become an academic exercise of exchanging ideas between
colleagues, which leads towards re-enforcement like the key decision maker’s position of any
one of many issues. For reasons time, lack of know-how (possibly too many staff
theoreticians), and commitment (key decision makers threatened), accommodation of the
planning process may he brushed aside as an administrative frill, taking organizational energy
away from the operational practice of a school district. Secondly, context evaluation is ongoing
or continues throughout the life of an educational programme or service. Educational
programme are dynamic in nature and therefore vulnerable to change even after extensive
systematic planning. If educational programmes were planned, developed and administered in
a vacuum void of people, possibly the importance of the ongoing nature of context evaluation
would be minimized. Thirdly, context evaluation continues to provide a reference point or
baseline of information designed to examine to initial programme goals and objectives. It
allows for a close relationship between decisions based on planned goals and objectives and
final programme outcome. School administrators have the flexibility to examine initial
programme goals and objectives at anytime throughout a programme’s life overlay them on
what is presently happening in the programmes and make a decision to continue, stop or
redirect the programme and its resources. The result is avoidance or minimizing “after-the-fact”
or “post mortem” evaluations of educational programmes services following their completion.
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