AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8604 Autumn & Spring 2021. Solved Assignments code 8604 Research Methods in Education 2022. Allama iqbal open university old papers.
Course: Research Methods in Education (8604)
Level: B.Ed 1.5 Years
Semester: Autumn & Spring 2021
ASSIGNMENT No. 1
Q.1. Discuss scientific method as a tool of acquiring knowledge. Compare it with various step in the research process.
Answer: Scientific Method Definition Scientific Method Steps Making an Observation Asking a Question Next, one must ask a question based on their observations, such as: why/how is this thing occurring? Why/how does it happen this way? Sometimes this step is listed first in the scientific method, with making an observation (and researching the phenomena in question) listed as second. In reality, both making observations and asking questions tend
The scientific method is a series of processes that people can use to gather knowledge about the world around them, improve that knowledge, and, through gaining knowledge, attempt to explain why and/or how things occur. This method involves making observations, forming questions, making hypotheses, doing an experiment, analyzing the data, and forming a conclusion. Every scientific experiment performed is an example of the scientific method in action, but it is also used by non-scientists in everyday situations. The exact steps of the scientific method vary from source to source, but the general procedure is the same: acquiring knowledge through observation and testing. The first step of the scientific method is to make an observation about the world around you. Before hypotheses can be made or experiments can be done, one must first notice and think about some sort of phenomena occurring. The scientific method is used when one does not know why/how something is occurring and wants to uncover the answer, but before one can even question an occurrence, they must notice something puzzling in the first place. to happen around the same time, as one can see a confusing occurrence and immediately think, “why is it occurring?” When observations are being made and questions are being formed, it is important to do research to see if others have already answered the question, or uncovered information that may help you shape your question. For example, if you find an answer to why something is occurring, you may want to go a step further and figure out how it occurs. Forming a Hypothesis In epistemology, a common concern with respect to knowledge is what sources of information are capable of giving knowledge. The following are some of the major sources of knowledge: 1.Perception — that which can be perceived through the experiences of the senses.The view that experience is the primary source of knowledge is called empiricism. 2.Reason — Reason can be considered a source of knowledge, either by deducingtruths from existing knowledge, or by learning things a priori, discovering necessarytruths (such as mathematical truths) through pure reason. The view that reason is theprimary source of knowledge is called rationalism 3.Introspection — knowledge of one’s self that can be found through internal self-evalution. This is generally considered to be a sort of perception. (For example, Iknow I am hungry or tired.) 4.Memory — Memory is the storage of knowledge that was learned in the past —whether it be past events or current information.
A hypothesis is an educated guess to explain the phenomena occurring based on prior observations. It answers the question posed in the previous step. Hypotheses can be specific or more general depending on the question being asked, but all hypotheses must be testable
by gathering evidence that can be measured. If a hypothesis is not testable, then it is impossible to perform an experiment to determine whether the hypothesis is supported by evidence. 5.Testimony — Testimony relies on others to acquire knowledge and communicate itto us. Some deny that testimony can be a source of knowledge, and insist that beliefsgained through testimony must be verified in order to be knowledge.
Scientific method and its types: The method is a continuous process that begins with observations about the natural world. People are naturally inquisitive, so they often come up with questions about things they see or hear, and they often develop ideas or hypotheses about why things are the way they are. The best hypotheses lead to predictions that can be tested in various ways. The strongest tests of hypotheses come from carefully controlled experiments that gather empirical data. Depending on how well additional tests match the predictions, the original hypothesis may require refinement, alteration, expansion or even rejection. If a particular hypothesis becomes very well supported, a general theory may be developed. Although procedures vary from one field of inquiry to another, they are frequently the same from one to another. The process of the scientific method involves making conjectures (hypotheses), deriving predictions from them as logical consequences, and then carrying out experiments or empirical observations based on those predictions. A hypothesis is a conjecture, based on knowledge obtained while seeking answers to the question. The hypothesis might be very specific, or it might be broad. Scientists then test hypotheses by conducting experiments or studies. A scientific hypothesis must be falsifiable, implying that it is possible to identify a possible outcome of an experiment or observation that conflicts with predictions deduced from the hypothesis; otherwise, the hypothesis cannot be meaningfully tested.
AIOU Solved Assignment 1 & 2 Code 8604 Autumn & Spring 2021
Q.2. Compare and contrast types of research. Why and where we use these types (basic, applied and action) researchers to discuss the educational phenomena? Answer: Research can be classified in many different ways on the basis of the methodology of research, the knowledge it creates, the user group, the research problem it investigates etc. Basic research This research is conducted largely for the enhancement of knowledge, and is research which does not have immediate commercial potential. The research which is done for human welfare, animal welfare and plant kingdom welfare. It is called basic, pure, fundamental research. The main motivation here is to expand man’s knowledge, not to create or invent something. According to Travers, “Basic Research is designed to add to an organized body of scientific knowledge and does not necessarily produce results of immediate practical value.” Such a research is time and cost intensive. (Example: A experimental research that may not be or will be helpful in the human progress.) Applied Research The purpose of an experiment is to determine whether observations agree with or conflict with the predictions derived from a hypothesis. Experiments can take place anywhere from a college lab to CERN’s Large Hadron Collider. There are difficulties in a formulaic statement of method, however. Though the scientific method is often presented as a fixed sequence of steps, it represents rather a set of general principles. Not all steps take place in every scientific inquiry (nor to the same degree), and they are not always in the same order. Some philosophers and scientists have argued that there is no scientific method; they include physicist Lee Smolin and philosopher Paul Feyerabend (in his Against Method). Nola and Sankey] remark that “For some, the whole idea of a theory of scientific method is yester- year’s debate”. 5
Problem oriented research Research is done by industry apex body for sorting out problems faced by all the companies. Eg:- WTO does problem oriented research for developing countries, in India agriculture and processed food export development authority (APEDA) conduct regular research for the benefit of agri-industry.
•As the name indicates, Problem identifying researches are undertaken to know the exactnature of problem that is required to be solved.
•Here, one clarification is needed when we use the term ‘Problem’, it is not a problem intrue sense. It is usually a decision making dilemma or it is a need to tackle a particular business situation.
•It could be a difficulty or an opportunity. For e.g.:-Revenue of Mobile company has decreased by 25% in the last year. The cause of the problem can be any one of the following:
•Poor quality of the product. • Lack of continuous availability. • Not so effective advertisingcampaign. • High price. • Poor calibre / lack of motivation in sales people/marketing team. • Tough competition from imported brands. • Depressed economic conditions
•In the same case, suppose the prime cause of problem is poor advertising campaign & Applied research is designed to solve practical problems of the modern world, rather than to acquire knowledge for knowledge’s sake. The goal of applied research is to improve the human condition. It focuses on analysis and solving social and real life problems. This research is generally conducted on a large scale basis and is expensive. As such, it is often conducted with the support of some financing agency like the national government, public corporation, world bank, UNICEF, UGC, Etc. According to Hunt, “applied research is an investigation for ways of using scientific knowledge to solve practical problems” for example:- improve agriculture crop production, treat or cure a specific disease, improve the energy efficiency of homes, offices, how can communication among workers in large companies be improved secondary cause is higher pricing. • To tackle the problem of poor advertising, we have to answer questions like, what can be the new advertising campaign, who can be the brand ambassador, which media, which channel, at what time & during which programme advertisements will be broadcast. Problem solving Quantitative Research This research is based on numeric figures or numbers. Quantitative research aim to measure the quantity or amount and compares it with past records and tries to project for future period. In social sciences, “quantitative research refers to the systematic empirical investigation of quantitative properties and phenomena and their relationships”. The objective of quantitative research is to develop and employ mathematical models, theories or hypothesis pertaining to phenomena. The process of measurement is central to quantitative research because it provides fundamental connection between empirical observation and mathematical expression of quantitative relationships. Statistics is the most widely used branch of mathematics in quantitative research. Statistical methods are used extensively with in fields such as economics and commerce. In sum, the research using the normative approach conducts why may be called quantative research as the inferences from it are largely based on quantative data. Moreover, objectivity is the primary guard so that the research may be replicated by others, if necessary. Qualitative Research Qualitative research presents non-quantitative type of analysis. Qualitative research is collecting, analyzing and interpreting data by observing what people do and say. Qualitative research refers to the meanings, definitions, characteristics, symbols, metaphors, and This type of research is done by an individual company for the problem faced by it. Marketing research and market research are the applied research. For eg:- videocon international conducts research to study customer satisfaction level, it will be problem solving research. In short, the main aim of problem solving research is to discover some solution for some pressing practical problem.
description of things. Qualitative research is much more subjective and uses very different methods of collecting information,mainly individual, in-depth interviews and focus groups. The nature of this type of research is exploratory and open ended. Small number of people are interviewed in depth and or a relatively small number of focus groups are conducted. Qualitative research can be further classified in the following type. II.Ethnography:- this type of research focuses on describing the culture of a group ofpeople. A culture is the shared attributes, values, norms, practices, language, and material things of a group of people. Eg:-the researcher might decide to go and live with the tribal in Andaman island and study the culture and the educational practices. III.Case study:-is a form of qualitative research that is focused on providing a detailedaccount of one or more cases. Eg:-we may study a classroom that was given a new curriculum for technology use. IV.Grounded theory:- it is an inductive type of research,based or grounded in theobservations of data from which it was developed; it uses a variety of data sources, including quantitative data, review of records, interviews, observation and surveys V. Historical research:-it allows one to discuss past and present events in the context of the present condition, and allows one to reflect and provide possible answers to current issues and problems. Eg:-the lending pattern of business in the 19th century. In addition to the above, we also have the descriptive research. Fundamental research, of which this is based on establishing various theories
AIOU Solved Assignment 1 & 2 Code 8604 Autumn & Spring 2022
Q.3. Define the concepts of history and historical research. What is the importance of internal and external criticism in historical research? Also distinguish primary source of data from secondary source of data with examples. Answer: I. Phenomenology:-a form of research in which the researcher attempts to understand how one or more individuals experience a phenomenon. Eg:-we might interview 20 victims of bhopal tragedy. “Historical method refers to the use of primary historical data to answer a question. Because the nature of the data depends on the question being asked, data may include demographic records, such as birth and death certificates; newspapers articles; letters and diaries; government records; or even architectural drawings. The use of historical data poses several broad questions: 1.Are the data appropriate to the theoretical question being posed? 2.How were these data originally collected, or what meanings were embedded in them atthe time of collection? 3.How should these data be interpreted, or what meanings do these data hold now?” So, Stan decides that he wants to figure out why the Nazis acted the way they did. He wants to do historical research, which involves interpreting past events to predict future ones. In Stan’s case, he’s interested in examining the reasons behind the Holocaust to try to prevent it from happening again. Historical research design involves synthesizing data from many different sources. Stan could interview former Nazis or read diaries from Nazi soldiers to try to figure out what motivated them. He could look at public records and archives, examine Nazi propaganda, or look at testimony in the trials of Nazi officers. There are several steps that someone like Stan has to go through to do historical research: 1.Formulate an idea: This is the first step of any research, to find the idea and figure out theresearch question. For Stan, this came from his mother, but it could come from anywhere. Many researchers find that ideas and questions arise when they read other people’s research. 2.Formulate a plan: This step involves figuring out where to find sources and how toapproach them. Stan could make a list of all the places he could find information (libraries, court archives, private collections) and then figure out where to start. 3.Gather data: This is when Stan will actually go to the library or courthouse or prison toread or interview or otherwise gather data. In this step, he’s not making any decisions or
trying to answer his question directly; he’s just trying to get everything he can that relates to the question. 4.Analyze data: This step is when Stan goes through the data he just collected and tries 5.Analyze the sources of data: Another thing that Stan has to do when he is analyzing data Once Stan has gone through all of these steps, he should have a good view of what he wants to know about his question. If he doesn’t, then he goes back to step two (formulating a plan) and starts again. He will keep doing steps two through five until he finds something that he can use. Concept of criticism: Criticism is the practice of judging the merits and faults of something. ·The judger is called a critic. ·To engage in criticism is to criticise (in British English). ·One specific item of criticism is called a criticism or critique.
Criticism is an evaluative or corrective exercise that can occur in any area of human life. Criticism can therefore take many different forms (see below). How exactly people go about criticizing, can vary a great deal. In specific areas of human endeavour, the form of criticism can be highly specialized and technical; it often requires professional knowledge to more directly to answer his question. He’ll look for patterns in the data. Perhaps he reads in the diary of the daughter of a Nazi that her father didn’t believe in the Nazi party beliefs but was scared to stand up for his values. Then he hears the same thing from a Nazi soldier he interviews. A pattern is starting to emerge. is to also analyze the veracity of his data. The daughter’s diary is a secondary source, so it might not be as true as a primary source, like the diary of her father. Likewise, people have biases and motivations that might cloud their account of things; perhaps the Nazi soldier Stan interviews is up for parole, and he thinks that if he says he was scared and not a true Nazi believer, he might get out of jail. Understand the criticism. This article provides only general information about criticism. For subject-specific information, see the Varieties of criticism page. To criticize does not necessarily imply “to find fault”, but the word is often taken to mean the simple expression of an object against prejudice, no matter positive or negative. Often criticism involves active disagreement, but it may only mean “taking sides”. It could just be an exploration of the different sides of an issue. Fighting is not necessarily involved. Normally criticism involves a dialogue of some kind, direct or indirect, and in that sense criticism is an intrinsically social activity. Even if one is only criticizing a book or an idea in private, it is usually assumed there is someone who will be made aware of the criticism being expressed at some point, although who exactly will hear it, may also remain unknown. One is still engaging with the ideas of others, even if only indirectly. One can of course also keep a criticism to oneself, rather than express or communicate it, but in general the intention is, that someone else ought to be aware of it, however that may occur. Self-criticism, even if wholly private, still mentally takes the concerns of others into account. Distinguish primary source of data from secondary source of data: Definition of Primary Data Primary data is data originated for the first time by the researcher through direct efforts and experience, specifically for the purpose of addressing his research problem. Also known as the first hand or raw data. Primary data collection is quite expensive, as the research is conducted by the organisation or agency itself, which requires resources like investment and manpower. The data collection is under direct control and supervision of the investigator. Dear Students! For more AIOU Solved Assignments, Criticism is often presented as something unpleasant, but sometimes, that may not be the case. There are also friendly criticisms, amicably discussed, and some people find great pleasure in criticism (“keeping people sharp”, “providing the critical edge”). The Pulitzer Prize for Criticism has been presented since 1970 to a newspaper writer who has demonstrated ‘distinguished criticism’. The data can be collected through various methods like surveys, observations, physical testing, mailed questionnaires,questionnaire filled and sent by enumerators, personal interviews, telephonic interviews, focus groups, case studies, etc. Definition of Secondary Data Secondary data offer several advantages as it is easily available, saves time and cost of the researcher. But there are some disadvantages associated with this, as the data is gathered for the purposes other than the problem in mind, so the usefulness of the data may be limited in a number of ways like relevance and accuracy. Moreover, the objective and the method adopted for acquiring data may not be suitable to the current situation. Therefore, before using secondary data, these factors should be kept in mind. Key Differences between Primary and Secondary Data The fundamental differences between primary and secondary data are discussed in the following points: 1.The term primary data refers to the data originated by the researcher for the first time.Secondary data is the already existing data, collected by the investigator agencies andorganisations earlier.
2.Primary data is a real-time data whereas secondary data is one which relates to the past.
3.Primary data is collected for addressing the problem at hand while secondary data iscollected for purposes other than the problem at hand.
4.Primary data collection is a very involved process. On the other hand, secondary datacollection process is rapid and easy.
Secondary data implies second-hand information which is already collected and recorded by any person other than the user for a purpose, not relating to the current research problem. It is the readily available form of data collected from various sources like censuses, government publications, internal records of the organisation, reports, books, journal articles, websites and so on. 5.Primary data collection sources include surveys, observations, experiments,questionnaire, personal interview, etc. On the contrary, secondary data collectionsources are government publications, websites, books, journal articles, internal recordsetc.
6.Primary data collection requires a large amount of resources like time, cost andmanpower. Conversely, secondary data is relatively inexpensive and quickly available.
7. 8.Primary data is available in the raw form whereas secondary data is the refined form ofprimary data. It can also be said that secondary data is obtained when statisticalmethods are applied to the primary data.
9.Data collected through primary sources are more reliable and accurate as compared tothe secondary sources.
Conclusion As can be seen from the above discussion that primary data is an original and unique data, which is directly collected by the researcher from a source according to his requirements. As opposed to secondary data which is easily accessible but are not pure as they have undergone through many statistical treatments.
AIOU Solved Assignment 1 & 2 Autumn & Spring 2021 Code 8604
Q.4. Distinguish experimental research from non-experimental research studies. How an experimental research is conducted? And why we use experimental studies to address the social issues? Answer: How is a non-experimental design scientific? We will look at what it means to use experimental and non-experimental designs in the course of psychological research. We will also look at some classic examples of different types of research. Dear Students! For more AIOU Solved Assignments, Primary data is always specific to the researcher’s needs, and he controls the quality of research. In contrast, secondary data is neither specific to the researcher’s need, nor he has control over the data quality. Non-Experimental & Experimental Research Alright! It’s time to learn something using research by … performing a non-experimental study? Experimental research is when a researcher is able to manipulate the predictor variable and subjects to identify a cause-and-effect relationship. This typically requires the research to be conducted in a lab, with one group being placed in an experimental group, or the ones being manipulated, while the other is placed in a placebo group, or inert condition or non- manipulated group. A laboratory-based experiment gives a high level of control and reliability. Non-experimental research is the label given to a study when a researcher cannot control, manipulate or alter the predictor variable or subjects, but instead, relies on interpretation, observation or interactions to come to a conclusion. Typically, this means the non-experimental researcher must rely on correlations, surveys or case studies, and cannot demonstrate a true cause-and-effect relationship. Non-experimental research tends to have a high level of external validity, meaning it can be generalized to a larger population. Differences So, now that we have the basics of what they are, we can see some of the differences between them. Obviously, the first thing is the very basis of what they are looking at: their methodology. Experimental researchers are capable of performing experiments on people Wait, wait, wait! Is it possible to have a non-experimental study? Is that sort of like sugar free candy? Is it something that you’re supposed to have that is replaced by something that makes you scratch your head? Before we discuss research designs, though, you need a brief walkthrough of some of the terms I am going to throw at you. Dear Students! For more AIOU Solved Assignments, A predictor variable is the portion of the experiment that is being manipulated to see if it has an effect on the dependent variable. For example, do people eat more Gouda or cheddar cheese? The predictor variable in this is the type of cheese. Now, every time you eat cheese, you’ll think about predictor variables. When I say subjects, I just mean the people in the experiment or the people being studied and manipulating the predictor variables. Non-experimental researchers are forced to observe and interpret what they are looking at. Being able to manipulate and control something leads to the next big difference. Experimental research is conducted: The following list of steps explains the process of conducting experimental research in more detail. Researchers should follow these steps in order to ensure the integrity of the process. 1.Select a topic. This involves simply identifying an area of interest or general subject. 2.Identify the research problem. Given the topic or subject, the researcher must now identify specific problems or questions that relate to the subject. The researcher may be familiar with subject and may already know the problem they want to research. If the researcher is new to the topic, it may be helpful to examine literature and previous studies, as well as talk to other researchers. The problem selected should be important to the field and be of significance to others in the discipline. 3.Conduct a literature search. Once the research problem is identified, a literature search should be conducted before proceeding to design the experiment. It is helpful to know what studies have been performed, the designs, the instruments used, the procedures and the findings. This information will guide the researcher and helpthem create a project that extends or compliments existing research.
The ability to find a cause-and-effect relationship is kind of a big deal in the world of science! Being able to say Xcauses Y is something that has a lot of power. While non- experimental research can come close, non-experimental researchers cannot say with absolute certainty that X leads to Y. This is because there may be something it did not observe, and it must rely on less direct ways to measure. For example, let’s say we’re curious about how violent men and women are. We cannot have a true experimental study because our predictor variable for violence is gender. To have a true experimental study we would need to be able to manipulate the predictor variable. If we had a way to switch men into women and women into men, back and forth, so that we could see which gender is more violent, then we could run a true experimental study. But, we can’t do that. So, our little experiment becomes a non-experimental study because we cannot manipulate our predictor variable. 4.Construct a hypothesis. In this step, the researcher states the research question as ahypothesis. This provides the basis for all other decisions in the process andtherefore, it is a critical step. 5.Determine the design of the research. The researcher should review the hypothesisand verify that an experimental design is the appropriate research design needed toanswer the question. Additional information regarding different types ofexperimental research design will be covered in the next module. 6. 7.Conduct the research and test the hypothesis. The experimental procedures willbe carried out in this phase. 8.Analyze the data. Experimental research data lends itself to a variety of potentialstatistical analyses. The appropriate analysis is determined by the research questionand the type of data. 9.Formulate conclusions. Review the data and determine if it confirms or disprovesthe hypothesis.
This is a basic outline of the steps involved in conduction experimental. Additional modules in this series will address these steps in more detail.
AIOU Solved Assignment Autumn & Spring 2021 Code 8604
Q.5. Define descriptive research, what are its major forms? Strengthen your answer with the example of case studies, causal comparative and correlation studies. Answer: Descriptive research is used to describe characteristics of a population or phenomenon being studied. It does not answer questions about how/when/why the characteristics occurred. Rather it addresses the “what” question (what are the characteristics of Minnesota state population or situation being studied?) The characteristics used to describe the situation or population are usually some kind of categorical scheme also known as descriptive categories. For example, the periodic table categorizes the elements. Scientists use knowledge about the nature of electrons, protons and neutrons to devise this categorical scheme. We now take for granted the periodic table, yet it took descriptive research to devise it. Descriptive research generally precedes explanatory research. For
Determine the research methods. In this step, the researcher will identify and plan the details necessary to conduct the research. This includes identifying the test subjects, materials, data collection instruments and methods, and the procedures for the conducting the experiment.
example, over time the periodic table’s description of the elements allowed scientists to explain chemical reaction and make sound prediction when elements were combined. Hence, descriptive research cannot describe what caused a situation. Thus, descriptive research cannot be used as the basis of a causal relationship, where one variable affects another. In other words, descriptive research can be said to have a low requirement for internal validity. The description is used for frequencies, averages and other statistical calculations. Often the best approach, prior to writing descriptive research, is to conduct a survey investigation. Qualitative research often has the aim of description and researchers may follow-up with examinations of why the observations exist and what the implications of the findings are. Descriptive science is a category of science that involves descriptive research; that is, observing, recording, describing, and classifying phenomena. Descriptive research is sometimes contrasted with hypothesis-driven research, which is focused on testing a particular hypothesis by means of experimentation. David A. Grimaldi and Michael S. Engel suggest that descriptive science in biology is currently undervalued and misunderstood: “Descriptive” in science is a pejorative, almost always preceded by “merely,” and typically applied to the array of classical -ologies and -omies: anatomy, archaeology, astronomy, embryology, morphology, paleontology, taxonomy, botany, cartography, stratigraphy, and the various disciplines of zoology, to name a few. […] First, an organism, object, or substance is not described in a vacuum, but rather in comparison with other organisms, objects, and substances. […] Second, descriptive science is not necessarily low-tech science, and high tech is not necessarily better. […] Finally, a theory is only as good as what it explains and the evidence (i.e., descriptions) that supports it. A negative attitude by scientists toward descriptive science is not limited to biological disciplines: Lord Rutherford’s notorious quote, “All science is either physics or stamp collecting,” displays a clear negative attitude about descriptive science, and it is known that he was dismissive of astronomy, which at the beginning of the 20th century was still gathering largely descriptive data about stars, nebulae, and galaxies, and was only beginning to develop a satisfactory integration of these observations within the framework of physical law, a cornerstone of the philosophy of physics.
AIOU Solved Assignment 1 & 2 Autumn & Spring 2021 Code 8604