AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8604 Autumn & Spring 2023

Aiou Solved Assignments code 8604 Autumn & Spring 2023 assignments 1 and 2   Research Methods in Education (8604) spring 2023. aiou past papers.

Course: Research Methods in Education (8604)
Level: B.Ed 1.5 Years
Semester: Autumn & Spring 2023

AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8604 Autumn & Spring 2023

Q.1. Discuss the different methods used as a tool of acquiring knowledge. Compare 

the various steps in the scientific method with steps in research process. 


Take a minute to ponder some of what you know and how you acquired that knowledge. 

Perhaps you know that you should make your bed in the morning because your mother or 

father told you this is what you should do, perhaps you know that swans are white because 

all of the swans you have seen are white, or perhaps you know that your friend is lying to 

you because she is acting strange and won’t look you in the eye. But should we trust 

knowledge from these sources? The methods of acquiring knowledge can be broken down 

into five categories each with its own strengths and weaknesses. 


The first method of knowing is intuition. When we use our intuition, we are relying on our 

guts, our emotions, and/or our instincts to guide us. Rather than examining facts or using 

rational thought, intuition involves believing what feels true. The problem with relying on 

intuition is that our intuitions can be wrong because they are driven by cognitive and 

motivational biases rather than logical reasoning or scientific evidence. While the strange 

behavior of your friend may lead you to think s/he is lying to you it may just be that s/he is 

holding in a bit of gas or is preoccupied with some other issue that is irrelevant to you. 

However, weighing alternatives and thinking of all the different possibilities can be 

paralyzing for some people and sometimes decisions based on intuition are actually 

superior to those based on analysis (people interested in this idea should read Malcolm 

Gladwell’s book Blink)[1


Perhaps one of the most common methods of acquiring knowledge is through authority. 

This method involves accepting new ideas because some authority figure states that they 

are true. These authorities include parents, the media, doctors, Priests and other religious 

authorities, the government, and professors. While in an ideal world we should be able to 

trust authority figures, history has taught us otherwise and many instances of atrocities 

against humanity are a consequence of people unquestioningly following authority (e.g., 

Salem Witch Trials, Nazi War Crimes). On a more benign level, while your parents may have 

told you that you should make your bed in the morning, making your bed provides the 

warm damp environment in which mites thrive. Keeping the sheets open provides a less 

hospitable environment for mites. These examples illustrate that the problem with using 

authority to obtain knowledge is that they may be wrong, they may just be using their 

intuition to arrive at their conclusions, and they may have their own reasons to mislead you. 

Nevertheless, much of the information we acquire is through authority because we don’t 

have time to question and independently research every piece of knowledge we learn 

through authority. But we can learn to evaluate the credentials of authority figures, to 

evaluate the methods they used to arrive at their conclusions, and evaluate whether they 

have any reasons to mislead us. 


Rationalism involves using logic and reasoning to acquire new knowledge. Using this 

method premises are stated and logical rules are followed to arrive at sound conclusions. 

For instance, if I am given the premise that all swans are white and the premise that this is a 

swan then I can come to the rational conclusion that this swan is white without actually 

seeing the swan. The problem with this method is that if the premises are wrong or there is 

an error in logic then the conclusion will not be valid. For instance, the premise that all 

swans are white is incorrect; there are black swans in Australia. Also, unless formally trained 

in the rules of logic it is easy to make an error. Nevertheless, if the premises are correct and 

logical rules are followed appropriately then this is sound means of acquiring knowledge. 


Empiricism involves acquiring knowledge through observation and experience. Once again 

many of you may have believed that all swans are white because you have only ever 

seen white swans. For centuries people believed the world is flat because it appears to be 

flat. These examples and the many visual illusions that trick our senses illustrate the 

problems with relying on empiricism alone to derive knowledge. We are limited in what we 

can experience and observe and our senses can deceive us. Moreover, our prior experiences 

can alter the way we perceive events. Nevertheless, empiricism is at the heart of the 

scientific method. Science relies on observations. But not just any observations, science 

relies on structured observations which is known as systematic empiricism. 


The scientific method is a process of systematically collecting and evaluating evidence to 

test ideas and answer questions. While scientists may use intuition, authority, rationalism, 

and empiricism to generate new ideas they don’t stop there. Scientists go a step further by 

using systematic empiricism to make careful observations under various controlled 

conditions in order to test their ideas and they use rationalism to arrive at valid conclusions. 

While the scientific method is the most likely of all of the methods to produce valid 

knowledge, like all methods of acquiring knowledge it also has its drawbacks. One major 

problem is that it is not always feasible to use the scientific method; this method can require 

considerable time and resources. Another problem with the scientific method is that it 

cannot be used to answer all questions. As described in the following section, the scientific 

method can only be used to address empirical questions. This book and your research 

methods course are designed to provide you with an in-depth examination of how 

psychologists use the scientific method to advance our understanding of human behavior 

and the mind. 

Scientific Method Steps 

The exact steps of the scientific method vary from source to source, but the general 

procedure is the same: acquiring knowledge through observation and testing. 

Making an Observation 

The first step of the scientific method is to make an observation about the world around 

you. Before hypotheses can be made or experiments can be done, one must first notice and 

think about some sort of phenomena occurring. The scientific method is used when one 

does not know why/how something is occurring and wants to uncover the answer, but 

before one can even question an occurrence, they must notice something puzzling in the 

first place. 

Asking a Question 

Next, one must ask a question based on their observations, such as: why/how is this thing 

occurring? Why/how does it happen this way? Sometimes this step is listed first in the 

scientific method, with making an observation (and researching the phenomena in 

question) listed as second. In reality, both making observations and asking questions tend 

to happen around the same time, as one can see a confusing occurrence and immediately 

think, “why is it occurring?” When observations are being made and questions are being 

formed, it is important to do research to see if others have already answered the question, or 

uncovered information that may help you shape your question. For example, if you find an answer 

to why something is occurring, you may want to go a step further and figure out how it occurs. 

Forming a Hypothesis 

A hypothesis is an educated guess to explain the phenomena occurring based on prior 

observations. It answers the question posed in the previous step. Hypotheses can be 

specific or more general depending on the question being asked, but all hypotheses must 

be testable by gathering evidence that can be measured. If a hypothesis is not testable, then 

it is impossible to perform an experiment to determine whether the hypothesis is supported 

by evidence. 

In epistemology, a common concern with respect to knowledge is what sources of 

information are capable of giving knowledge. 


AIOU Solved Assignments 1 Code 8604 Autumn & Spring 2023

aiou solved assignments code 8604 Autumn & Spring 2023

Q.2. Describe different types of research categorized on the basis of method used 

and the purpose of research? 


Research can be classified in many different ways on the basis of the methodology of 

research, the knowledge it creates, the user group, the research problem it investigates etc. 

Basic research 

This research is conducted largely for the enhancement of knowledge, and is research which 

does not have immediate commercial potential. The research which is done for human 

welfare, animal welfare and plant kingdom welfare. It is called basic, pure, fundamental 

research. The main motivation here is to expand man’s knowledge, not to create or invent 

something. According to Travers, “Basic Research is designed to add to an organized body 

of scientific knowledge and does not necessarily produce results of immediate practical 

value.” Such a research is time and cost intensive. (Example: A experimental research that 

may not be or will be helpful in the human progress.) 

Applied Research 

Applied research is designed to solve practical problems of the modern world, rather than 

to acquire knowledge for knowledge’s sake. The goal of applied research is to improve the 

human condition. It focuses on analysis and solving social and real life problems. This 

research is generally conducted on a large scale basis and is expensive. As such, it is often 

conducted with the support of some financing agency like the national government, public 

corporation, world bank, UNICEF, UGC, Etc. According to Hunt, “applied research is an 

investigation for ways of using scientific knowledge to solve practical problems” for 

example:- improve agriculture crop production, treat or cure a specific disease, improve the 

energy efficiency of homes, offices, how can communication among workers in large 

companies be improved.. 

Problem oriented research 

Research is done by industry apex body for sorting out problems faced by all the 

companies. Eg:- WTO does problem oriented research for developing countries, in India 

agriculture and processed food export development authority (APEDA) conduct regular 

research for the benefit of agri-industry. 

• As the name indicates, Problem identifying researches are undertaken to know the exact 

nature of problem that is required to be solved. 

• Here, one clarification is needed when we use the term ‘Problem’, it is not a problem in 

true sense. It is usually a decision making dilemma or it is a need to tackle a particular 

business situation. 

• It could be a difficulty or an opportunity. 

For e.g.:-Revenue of Mobile company has decreased by 25% in the last year. The cause of 

the problem can be any one of the following: 

• Poor quality of the product. • Lack of continuous availability. • Not so effective advertising 

campaign. • High price. • Poor calibre / lack of motivation in sales people/marketing team. • 

Tough competition from imported brands. • Depressed economic conditions 

• In the same case, suppose the prime cause of problem is poor advertising campaign & 

secondary cause is higher pricing. • To tackle the problem of poor advertising, we have to 

answer questions like, what can be the new advertising campaign, who can be the brand 

ambassador, which media, which channel, at what time & during which programme 

advertisements will be broadcast. 

Problem solving 

This type of research is done by an individual company for the problem faced by it. 

Marketing research and market research are the applied research. For eg:- videocon 

international conducts research to study customer satisfaction level, it will be problem 

solving research. In short, the main aim of problem solving research is to discover some 

solution for some pressing practical problem. 

Quantitative Research 

This research is based on numeric figures or numbers. Quantitative research aim to measure 

the quantity or amount and compares it with past records and tries to project for future 

period. In social sciences, “quantitative research refers to the systematic empirical 

investigation of quantitative properties and phenomena and their relationships”. The 

objective of quantitative research is to develop and employ mathematical models, theories 

or hypothesis pertaining to phenomena. The process of measurement is central to 

quantitative research because it provides fundamental connection between empirical 

observation and mathematical expression of quantitative relationships. Statistics is the most 

widely used branch of mathematics in quantitative research. Statistical methods are used 

extensively with in fields such as economics and commerce. In sum, the research using the 

normative approach conducts why may be called quantative research as the inferences from 

it are largely based on quantative data. Moreover, objectivity is the primary guard so that 

the research may be replicated by others, if necessary. 

Qualitative Research 

Qualitative research presents non-quantitative type of analysis. Qualitative research is 

collecting, analyzing and interpreting data by observing what people do and say. Qualitative 

research refers to the meanings, definitions, characteristics, symbols, metaphors, and 

description of things. Qualitative research is much more subjective and uses very different 

methods of collecting information,mainly individual, in-depth interviews and focus groups. 

The nature of this type of research is exploratory and open ended. Small number of people 

are interviewed in depth and or a relatively small number of focus groups are conducted. 

Qualitative research can be further classified in the following type. 

I. Phenomenology:-a form of research in which the researcher attempts to understand how 

one or more individuals experience a phenomenon. Eg:-we might interview 20 victims of 

bhopal tragedy. 

II. Ethnography:- this type of research focuses on describing the culture of a group of 

people. A culture is the shared attributes, values, norms, practices, language, and material 

things of a group of people. Eg:-the researcher might decide to go and live with the tribal in 

Andaman island and study the culture and the educational practices. 

III. Case study:-is a form of qualitative research that is focused on providing a detailed 

account of one or more cases. Eg:-we may study a classroom that was given a new 

curriculum for technology use. 

IV. Grounded theory:- it is an inductive type of research,based or grounded in the 

observations of data from which it was developed; it uses a variety of data sources, 

including quantitative data, review of records, interviews, observation and surveys 

V. Historical research:-it allows one to discuss past and present events in the context of the 

present condition, and allows one to reflect and provide possible answers to current issues 

and problems. Eg:-the lending pattern of business in the 19th century. 

In addition to the above, we also have the descriptive research. Fundamental research, of 

which this is based on establishing various theories 

Purpose of research: 

The purpose of research can be a complicated issue and varies across different scientific 

fields and disciplines. At the most basic level, science can be split, loosely, into two types, 

‘pure research’ and ‘applied research’. 

Both of these types follow the same structures and protocols for propagating and testing 

hypotheses and predictions, but vary slightly in their ultimate purpose. 

An excellent example for illustrating the difference is by using pure and applied 

mathematics. Pure maths is concerned with understanding underlying abstract principles 

and describing them with elegant theories. Applied maths, by contrast, uses these equations 

to explain real life phenomena, such as mechanics, ecology and gravity. 


AIOU Solved Assignments 2 Code 8604 Autumn & Spring 2023

aiou solved assignments code 8604 Autumn & Spring 2023

Q.3. Discuss the concept of educational research. Also examine the need and 

importance of research in education. 


Educational research refers to the systematic collection and analysis of data related to the 

field of education. Research may involve a variety of methods. Research may involve various 

aspects of education including student learning, teaching methods, teacher training, and 

classroom dynamics. 

Educational researchers generally agree that research should be rigorous and systematic. 

However, there is less agreement about specific standards, criteria and research procedures. 

Educational researchers may draw upon a variety of disciplines. These disciplines include 

psychology, sociology, anthropology, and philosophy. Methods may be drawn from a range 

of disciplines. Conclusions drawn from an individual research study may be limited by the 

characteristics of the participants who were studied and the conditions under which the 

study was conducted. 

Educational research refers to a variety of methods,in which individuals evaluate different 

aspects of education including: “student learning, teaching methods, teacher training, and 

classroom dynamics”. 

Educational researchers have come to the consensus that, educational research must be 

conducted in a rigorous and systematic way, although what this implies is often debated. 

There are a variety of disciplines which are each present to some degree in educational 

research. These include psychology, sociology, anthropology, and philosophy. The overlap 

in disciplines creates a broad range from which methodology can be drawn. The findings of 

educational research also need to be interpreted within the context in which they were 

discovered as they may not be applicable in every time or place. 

Need and importance of research in education: 

Research has both a cultural and an instrumental role to play in informing education practice 

While research in almost all fields aim to approach “truth,” there is no single cookbook 

approach that can guarantee this outcome. Broadly, research is a process of testing our 

ideas. Education research is a form of social science research that aims to test ideas about 

education policy and practice. Social science research is characterised much the same as 

research in the pure sciences. 

Research in all fields is based upon the same principles: the search for universalism (general 

principles); organisation (to conceptualise related ideas); scepticism (questioning 

assumptions and looking for alternative explanations); and communalism (a community that 

shares norms and principles for doing research; Merton, 1973). 

However, social science research, and education research specifically, is different to science 

research in its context and scope. By the nature of the contexts that social scientists 

investigate, the questions that they pose, the methodologies that are use to collect 

evidence, and the forms of evidence that are collected, the evidence must be analysed and 

interpreted differently to that in the physical or natural sciences. 

Like research in the physical sciences, education researchers pose significant questions that 

can be investigated empirically, link research with relevant theory, and use methods that 

permit direct investigation of the questions. 

Like other social sciences, education research plays both an instrumental role in the 

generation of strategies, techniques, practices, and other means for achieving ends, and 

a cultural role in the provision of different frameworks for understanding and imagining 

social realities. Such frameworks can help teachers to develop different understandings of 

their practice, and to see and imagine their practice differently. The examination of practice 

through different lenses allows us to understand problems in new ways, or to see new 

problems we hadn’t anticipated (Biesta suggests feminist theory as an example of how 

cultural research can unveil problems not previously recognised, and help us toward 

resolution). These two roles, the cultural and the technical or instrumental, are 

distinguishable, but not easily separable, as they mutually inform and reinforce each other. 

If there is too much of either, education research risks losing relevance. 

Education research is also different to other forms of social science research such as 

psychology research. Education researchers pose questions about education policy and 

practice. They inquire about policy and practice at all levels of the education systems we 

operate, from the individual student and teachers, to classrooms and schools and school 

systems. They make predictions about what the impacts of policies and practices are or 

might be and why, what teachers are teaching and how what the outcomes of various 

practices might be in particular contexts and for particular students. Education researchers 

build on earlier work, challenging, re-examining, and extending ideas about what education 

is and can do, which and how educational strategies and activities “work.” 

Research from many other fields informs (and may be informed by) the results of education 

research: for example, psychology, particularly the fields of developmental, cognitive, and 

behavioural psychology. 

Education research methods suit the purposes of education research. Some education 

research aims to test an explanatory hypothesis; some studies be exploratory, identifying 

ideas for further examination; some may examine a particular case, place, event, interaction, 

system, policy, learner, teacher, practice, or technology. Education research with these aims 

may collect evidence, and the form and amount of evidence collected varies with the 

purpose and question of the research. This is the case in other fields of research, too. This 

instrumental research is balanced by cultural research that questions normative 

assumptions about education, constructs new frameworks, integrates ideas into new 

theories, and critically considers the normative roles, functions, practices, contexts and 

values of education. Just as education, and education practices, cannot be value-free, nor 

can evidence and research, in education or in any other field. Such an assumption is 



AIOU Solved Assignments Code 8604 Autumn & Spring 2023

aiou solved assignments code 8604

Q.4. What is an experiment and how you will conduct and an experimental research? What will be the threats to internal and external validity and how you will minimize these threats? 


An experiment is a procedure carried out to support, refute, or validate a hypothesis. 

Experiments provide insight into cause-and-effect by demonstrating what outcome occurs 

when a particular factor is manipulated. Experiments vary greatly in goal and scale, but 

always rely on repeatable procedure and logical analysis of the results. There also exists 

natural experimental studies. 

A child may carry out basic experiments to understand gravity, while teams of scientists may 

take years of systematic investigation to advance their understanding of a phenomenon. 

Experiments and other types of hands-on activities are very important to student learning in 

the science classroom. Experiments can raise test scores and help a student become more 

engaged and interested in the material they are learning, especially when used over time.[1] 

Experiments can vary from personal and informal natural comparisons (e.g. tasting a range 

of chocolates to find a favorite), to highly controlled (e.g. tests requiring complex apparatus 

overseen by many scientists that hope to discover information about subatomic particles). 

Uses of experiments vary considerably between the natural and human sciences.. 

Experimental research is conducted: 

The following list of steps explains the process of conducting experimental research in more 

detail. Researchers should follow these steps in order to ensure the integrity of the process. 

1. Select a topic. This involves simply identifying an area of interest or general subject. 

2. Identify the research problem. Given the topic or subject, the researcher must 

now identify specific problems or questions that relate to the subject. The researcher 

may be familiar with subject and may already know the problem they want to 

research. If the researcher is new to the topic, it may be helpful to examine literature 

and previous studies, as well as talk to other researchers. The problem selected 

should be important to the field and be of significance to others in the discipline. 

3. Conduct a literature search. Once the research problem is identified, a literature 

search should be conducted before proceeding to design the experiment. It is helpful 

to know what studies have been performed, the designs, the instruments used, the 

procedures and the findings. This information will guide the researcher and help 

them create a project that extends or compliments existing research. 

4. Construct a hypothesis. In this step, the researcher states the research question as a 

hypothesis. This provides the basis for all other decisions in the process and 

therefore, it is a critical step. 

5. Determine the design of the research. The researcher should review the hypothesis 

and verify that an experimental design is the appropriate research design needed to 

answer the question. Additional information regarding different types of 

experimental research design will be covered in the next module. 

6. Determine the research methods. In this step, the researcher will identify and plan 

the details necessary to conduct the research. This includes identifying the test 

subjects, materials, data collection instruments and methods, and the procedures for 

the conducting the experiment. 

7. Conduct the research and test the hypothesis. The experimental procedures will 

be carried out in this phase. 

8. Analyze the data. Experimental research data lends itself to a variety of potential 

statistical analyses. The appropriate analysis is determined by the research question 

and the type of data. 

9. Formulate conclusions. Review the data and determine if it confirms or disproves 

the hypothesis. 

This is a basic outline of the steps involved in conduction experimental. Additional modules 

in this series will address these steps in more detail. 

Threats to internal and external validity: 

Threats to internal validity 

1. Timeline: Time is of paramount importance in a research. The opinions of 

respondents depend on the recall time to gather opinions. 

For example, if the researcher ask the respondents about satisfaction with products at 

a coffee store and where they will consume it. Then the validity of their answers will 

increase. However, in case the research is conducted after a long duration then the 

opinions can be biased and misleading. 

2. Testing: Instances where the respondents are asked questions which is questionable 

for their performance. 

For example, if the employees are asked to rate satisfaction level of their customers 

on different service quality parameters. They might be concerned about the findings of 

the research which can put them in a disadvantageous position in the organisation. 

3. Instrumentation: Effective changes in instrumentation or in the criteria of recording 

behavior can be cause threats to validity. 

For example, the change in cutoff points for a TOEFL exam can impact the application 

process. Similarly, change in standard levels in medical laboratory tests can impact the 

overall efficacy of the results. 

4. Maturation: It is the changes that impact the subsequent analysis. 

For example, performance of 2nd graders starts decreasing after 1 hour due to 

variable factors, like fatigue, stress, tiredness etc. Thus, it is difficult to calculate the 

overall performance average without bias

5. Mortality: Most of the studies undertaken follow ethical considerations where the 

respondents participate voluntarily. However, some respondents may drop out. This 

will change the defined sample size. Especially studies which have long timelines face 

this threat to their validity. 

For example, a researcher conducting a study to determine the efficacy of protein diet 

for a duration of 6 months might face problem when the test subjects drop out of the 

program mid-way

6. Statistical regression: This threat to validity could be when sample is selected to 

study extreme behaviour in respondents. 

For example if a researcher needs to study consumption of mangoes. Then the threat 

to validity would be when the collection of data is in a peak consumption season. 

External threats to validity 

1. Impact of pre-testing: Most often researchers conduct pre-tests or pilot tests to 

determine efficacy of the measuring instrument. However, pre-tests might impact the 

sensitivity and responsiveness to the experimental variable. 

For example, researcher conduct a pre-test on a sample of 25 respondents. However 

nearly 70% of responses changes when actually conducting the study ,reflecting the 

impact of pre-test. 

2. Effect of inclusion and exclusion criteria: Effect of selecting a sample based on 

specific selection criteria. This can impact the outcomes of study which would not 

have been the case, if there was random sampling. 

3. Multiple experiment interference: This happens in case of test subjects who have 

been exposed to same experiment multiple times. In such cases the effect of 

previous findings have an impact on overall results. 

4. Reactions to experimental arrangement: This is an effect of experiment because 

the respondents are aware about the experiment. This is also known as Hawthorne 



AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Autumn & Spring 2023 Code 8604

aiou solved assignments code 8604 Autumn & Spring 2023

Q.5. Define descriptive research, what are its major forms? Strengthen your answer 

with the example of case studies, causal comparative and correlation studies. 


Descriptive research is used to describe characteristics of a population or phenomenon 

being studied. It does not answer questions about how/when/why the characteristics 

occurred. Rather it addresses the “what” question (what are the characteristics of Minnesota 

state population or situation being studied?) The characteristics used to describe the 

situation or population are usually some kind of categorical scheme also known as 

descriptive categories. For example, the periodic table categorizes the elements. Scientists 

use knowledge about the nature of electrons, protons and neutrons to devise this 

categorical scheme. We now take for granted the periodic table, yet it took descriptive 

research to devise it. Descriptive research generally precedes explanatory research. For 

example, over time the periodic table’s description of the elements allowed scientists to 

explain chemical reaction and make sound prediction when elements were combined. 

Hence, descriptive research cannot describe what caused a situation. Thus, descriptive 

research cannot be used as the basis of a causal relationship, where one variable affects 

another. In other words, descriptive research can be said to have a low requirement for 

internal validity. 

The description is used for frequencies, averages and other statistical calculations. Often the 

best approach, prior to writing descriptive research, is to conduct a survey investigation. 

Qualitative research often has the aim of description and researchers may follow-up with 

examinations of why the observations exist and what the implications of the findings are. 

Descriptive science is a category of science that involves descriptive research; that is, 

observing, recording, describing, and classifying phenomena. Descriptive research is 

sometimes contrasted with hypothesis-driven research, which is focused on testing a 

particular hypothesis by means of experimentation. 

David A. Grimaldi and Michael S. Engel suggest that descriptive science in biology is 

currently undervalued and misunderstood: 

“Descriptive” in science is a pejorative, almost always preceded by “merely,” and typically 

applied to the array of classical -ologies and -omies: anatomy, archaeology, astronomy, 

embryology, morphology, paleontology, taxonomy, botany, cartography, stratigraphy, and 

the various disciplines of zoology, to name a few. […] First, an organism, object, or substance 

is not described in a vacuum, but rather in comparison with other organisms, objects, and 

substances. […] Second, descriptive science is not necessarily low-tech science, and high 

tech is not necessarily better. […] Finally, a theory is only as good as what it explains and the 

evidence (i.e., descriptions) that supports it. 

A negative attitude by scientists toward descriptive science is not limited to biological 

disciplines: Lord Rutherford’s notorious quote, “All science is either physics or stamp 

collecting,” displays a clear negative attitude about descriptive science, and it is known that 

he was dismissive of astronomy, which at the beginning of the 20th century was still 

gathering largely descriptive data about stars, nebulae, and galaxies, and was only 

beginning to develop a satisfactory integration of these observations within the framework 

of physical law, a cornerstone of the philosophy of physics. 

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