Free AIOU Solved Assignment Code 965 Spring 2021

Free AIOU Solved Assignment Code 965 Spring 2021

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Title Name Development Support Communication (965)
University AIOU
Service Type Solved Assignment (Soft copy/PDF)
Course Msc
Language ENGLISH
Semester 2021-2021
Assignment Code 965/2020-2021
Product Assignment of MA 2021-2022 (AIOU)

Course: Development Support Communication (965)
Semester: Spring, 2021
ASSIGNMENT No. 1

Q.1   Describe the term development. Elaborate the relationship between development and communication in the context of Development support Communication (DSC).                     

The practice of Development Support Communication, DSC, is a multi-sectoral process of information sharing about development agendas and planned actions. It links planners, beneficiaries and implementers of development action, including the donor community. It obligates planners and implementers to provide clear, explicit and intelligible data and information about their goals and roles in development, and explicitly provides opportunities for beneficiaries to participate in shaping development outcomes. It ensures that the donor community is kept constantly aware of the achievements and constraints of development efforts in the field.

Development Support Communication makes use of all available structures and means of information sharing. Therefore it is not limited to mass media alone. It also uses both formal group and non-formal channels of communication, such as women’s and youth associations, as well as places where people gather…. markets, churches, festivals, and meetings. But its contribution is in using these in a systemic, continuous, co-ordinated and planned manner, to perform linkage and enabling functions. It requires analysis of the communication environment, of the available and needed communication competencies and resources (hardware, software, financial and human), and clearly indicates expected results from specific resource inputs, so as to maintain accountability.

In short, DSC is a legitimate function of development planning and implementation. DSC therefore needs to be examined as a valuable «technology» for using the social communication process to foster and strengthen sustainable development at local and national levels. It should be taken more seriously in programs of social change, and should be reflected explicitly in development policy and strategy. One way of doing so is through the enunciation of a national information and communication policy, which can be explicitly integrated into national development thinking and practice.

SOME ISSUES REQUIRING POLICY ACTION

  • Media development: regulation and deregulation
  • Enhancing communication professions and institutions
  • Cultural development and social integration
  • Human resources development and training
  • Communications technologies: old, new and emerging
  • Development Support Communication
  • Regional and international cooperation
  • Commercialisation and Privatisation
  • Resource Mobilisation and Allocation.

Because of the multi-sectoral and comprehensive nature of national development needs and objectives, a national strategy on information and communication for sustainable development must be seen also as a multi-sectoral, multi-dimensional issue, around which different development stakeholders can find a rallying point, and to which they can make invaluable constructive contributions. Previous attempts in some countries to deal with information and communication policy issues, because they lacked an over-arching development-oriented framework and justification, have tended to be ad hoc, and overly politicized.

By focusing almost exclusively and without much negotiating margins, on particular sectoral interests or thematic considerations (e.g. commercialization, privatization, public service, monopoly, freedom of expression, minority rights, etc.), they tended to exacerbate areas of tension and disagreement, instead of promoting opportunities for constructive dialogue. The development and management of a national information and communication policy can be seen as a mechanism for ensuring widespread public education and informed public participation in decision-making on the future directions of development in African society.

CONSTRAINTS

The process of developing and implementing a national policy on any issue probably goes through several steps, among them:

  1. Development

Is Africa developing? Is your country developing? Whether your answer is: «yes», «no» or «maybe», how can information and communication enhance development in your country? Specifically, how can a policy approach to information and communication enhance development in your country?

In that connection, what are the goals of development in your country? Are you concerned about economic growth? Are you concerned about reducing the level of poverty? Are you concerned about the quality of life of your people? Are you concerned about the people’s right and freedom to speak out? How can a policy approach to information and communication enhance development in your country?

  1. Politics

Policies are about politics.

Politics is about power; power to choose, power to decide. Who has the power to decide in Africa today?

The challenge is political will. Where lies the political will in Africa?

Governments are obviously important; but civil society and the individual citizen are becoming important as well.

How can the process of designing and implementing national communication policies affect the «balance of power» in African countries?

  1. Democracy

African governments and citizens are expressing a commitment to democracy, even though it is often not clear if democracy means more than holding periodic elections. Remember what the late Claude Ake said: «In much of Africa, people are voting without choosing».

Whatever it means, democracy must include the notion of participation by the majority in discussing issues of national importance. How can the design and implementation of a national information and communication policy enhance democracy?

  1. Culture

Culture is about adjustment to the physical and metaphysical environment.

Culture is about identity, about defining who we are, what our values are, how we see ourselves, how we want others to see us.

How can a national information and communication policy contribute to cultural development? In the 21st century can we still speak about national cultures in Africa? Are we not becoming part of a global society? Who defines how that global society should communicate, and about what? What is the contribution of Africans to a global cultural environment? How can this be articulated in national communication policies?

Culture is also about institutions, such as religion. What provisions need to be made in a national information and communication policies with reference to religion?

In much of Africa, culture is about diversity; because many African nations are multi-ethnic, with several cultural backgrounds. How can a national information and communication policy make provisions for cultural diversity as well as the national cultural uniformation, which is much desired?

  1. Language

Communication is centred on language; and the language of communication can either exclude or include individuals and groups. The language policy of a national communication policy is an important aspect of its acceptability and impact.

  1. Freedoms

The right to communicate, to speak and to be spoken to has become a universal right. A national communication policy should recognize the right to communicate and ensure that it is respected legally and practically.

  1. Access

There is a wide gap between individual and among groups in their ability to access the media or other channels of public communication. A national communication policy seeks to enhance access and reduce factors that inhibit access.

  1. Technology

As the 1972 UNESCO report states: «The rapid development of communication technology makes it especially important for potential users to keep up to date». What was technically or economically untenable yesterday may be possible today and quite attractive tomorrow. “A national communication policy will seek to balance the needs of the day after tomorrow with the realities of today”.

  1. Economics

Should information and communication policies deal only with what is affordable? Should the nation’s resources alone guide what is examined and proposed in the policy?

  1. The institutional framework

Who should be responsible for initiating and managing a policy on information and communication?

In some countries, the initiative has come from the government department charged with public information or telecommunications. A re-baptised Ministry of Communications has led the management of a communication policy often. Earlier international discussions suggested a National Communication Council as an independent entity, responsible to Parliament or some non-partisan framework. What actually happens in any given country will be a matter for negotiation among the competing interests and social forces in the development context.

However, the existence of strategic communication actions in support of programs or projects in development sectors may also influence the choices made in the directions that a national communication for development policy takes. For example, many countries have a communication support system or project in agriculture, involving agricultural extension and agricultural information, combining interpersonal and mass media communication strategies. Many countries have also developed health promotion and health education programs or projects. In yet other countries, population communication is often based on a sectoral strategy for promoting reproductive health, or adolescent behaviour change. Similarly, the communication activities in support of HIV/AIDS prevention in many countries are based around multi-media, multi-sectoral strategies. All of these actions on the ground are building blocks for the implementation of a national communication for development policy. Civil society, including the legal profession, journalists, advertising and marketing groups, women’s societies, human rights activists and NGOs have been actively involved in pushing one or more areas of communication policy to suit their particular political or economic agenda. These also can contribute perspectives and actions in dealing with the basic challenge, which is: To develop or to not develop, how can information and communication play a role?

  1. Policy Design and Implementation

Preliminary considerations in the design of a policy

Some preliminary considerations in the design of a policy involve questions such as: Who needs it? The need for a communication policy is often felt at the level of public or private institutions or of civil society. Whatever the source of concern, information/communication policy provisions will impact on various groups or individuals. Therefore, the design and formulation of the policy should be seen as a «public good», of potential interest to a wide spectrum in society. The process should therefore be transparent, and should seek to be inclusive of diverse interests. While information and communication technicians and professionals should be involved, other groups should also be represented, so as to make the ownership of the process and the product truly «national».

Another question concerns the challenge and vision, in other words: Why is it needed? Experience has shown that the increasing global influence of information and communication technologies and organisations is felt at various levels in Africa. Similarly, changes in the political arena, with democratisation and more involvement in governance by civil society create tensions, which require changes in the management of public goods and services, including those related to communication. Therefore such issues as the control and ownership of telecommunications and media organs, as well as freedom of expression, and access to media by political parties during elections have become prominent in the national discourse of many countries. In addition, the need for individuals and communities to participate in development activities makes communication for building trust and consensus on the development agenda an important goal of governments and society at large. The emergence of new technologies, including computers, the Internet and related adaptations, is creating situations, which require concerted action within national and regional space. These are some of the reasons which usually make a policy necessary; to deal in a clear and public manner with technical and cultural issues.

But solving today’s problems is not the only goal of policy. A good policy should be able to provide signposts for the next decade or so. It is true that the communication sector is changing rapidly worldwide, so the policy environment may be more dynamic, even in the short term. For this reason, it is important that policies be forward-looking, and that they meet the future expectations of the people who will implement them and be influenced by them. One concrete way of ensuring this is through visioning; that is getting the collective ideas of a cross-section of society about the kind of future environment in which they would like to live, and to see what role information and communication would play in those future scenarios. This would then be part of the environment to which a communication policy should respond. Joint visioning is a tool for social management, which should be incorporated in the process of designing the policy[6].

Yet another question: What are the Development Challenges on the ground? What do we know? What do we need to know?

A situation analysis is the first step in the policy design process. It attempts to «scan» the policy environment. It should help to define the need for a policy by identifying the development problems that a policy on information and communication can help to solve. In this connection, relevant questions include: What is the current situation of the communication system, looking at various components and sub-sectors? What are its strengths and weaknesses? The situation analysis should evaluate the potential of the system for change in the short to medium term, considering the opportunities and constraints, which may confront the system.

AIOU Solved Assignment Code 965 Spring 2021

Q.2   How Development Communication (DC) is different from Development Support communication (DSC)? Explain with examples.

Development Communication has been alternatively defined as a type of marketing and public opinion research that is used specifically to develop effective communication or as the use of communication to promote social development. Defined as the former, it often includes computerized linguistics analysis of verbatim responses to qualitative survey interviews and may, at times also involved consumer psychological “right brain” (emotional) research techniques. Defined at the latter, it refers to the practice of systematically applying the processes, strategies, and principles of communication to bring about positive social change. As most providers of “communication development” research use proprietary approaches that cannot be elaborated upon without revealing proprietary trade secrets, the remainder of this article describes the latter definition. “the art and science of human communication linked to a society’s planned transformation from a state of poverty to one of dynamic socio-economic growth that makes for greater equity and the larger unfolding of individual potential.”

The theory and practice of development communication continues to evolve today, with different approaches and perspectives unique to the varied development contexts the field has grown in.

Development communication is characterized by conceptual flexibility and diversity of communication techniques used to address the problem. Some approaches in the “tool kit” of the field include: information dissemination and education, behavior change, social marketing, social mobilization, media advocacy, communication for social change, and participatory development communication

Development Communication is recognizing the power of communication as a catalyst for social development. It is also the utilization of existent communication tools and applicable theories for result-driven strategies for the advancement of society.

Development Communication can also be defined as purposive communication intended for a specific target audience that allows for the translation of information into action resulting in a higher quality of life. Development communication is the process of eliciting positive change (social, political, economic, moral, environmental, etc) through an effective exchange of pertinent information in order to induce people to action.

Development Support Communication

The term can be described as development planning and implementation in which adequate action is taken of human behavioral factors in the design of development project and their objectivities. It addresses development planning and the plan of operation for implementation. It (DSC) stands for linking all agencies involved in the planned development works such as political executives, political planners, development administrators, subject specialists, field workers, opinion leaders, media representatives, researchers and the beneficiaries who continue the final delivery points and the consumers of the information. The route of communication envisaged is not only vertical as flowing from upper level to bottom or bottom.

The practice of Development Support Communication, DSC, is a multi-sectoral process of information sharing about development agendas and planned actions. It links planners, beneficiaries and implementers of development action, including the donor community. It obligates planners and implementers to provide clear, explicit and intelligible data and information about their goals and roles in development, and explicitly provides opportunities for beneficiaries to participate in shaping development outcomes. It ensures that the donor community is kept constantly aware of the achievements and constraints of development efforts in the field.

In short, DSC is a legitimate function of development planning and implementation. DSC therefore needs to be examined as a valuable «technology» for using the social communication process to foster and strengthen sustainable development at local and national levels. It should be taken more seriously in programs of social change, and should be reflected explicitly in development policy and strategy. One way of doing so is through the enunciation of a national information and communication policy, which can be explicitly integrated into national development thinking and practice.

Development Journalism

The term “development journalism” is used to refer to two different types of journalism. The first is a new school of journalism which began to appear in the 1960s. The idea behind this type of development journalism is similar to investigative reporting, but it focuses on conditions in developing nations and ways to improve them. The other type of development journalism involves heavy influence from the government of the nation involved. While this type of development journalism can be a powerful tool for local education and empowerment, it can also be a means of suppressing information and restricting journalists.

The first type of development journalism attempts to document the conditions within a country so that the larger world can understand them. Journalists are encouraged to travel to remote areas, interact with the citizens of the country, and report back. This type of development journalism also looks at proposed government projects to improve conditions in the country, and analyzes whether or not they will be effective. Ultimately, the journalist may come up with proposed solutions and actions in the piece, suggesting ways in which they might be implemented. Often, this type of development journalism encourages a cooperative effort between citizens of the nation and the outside world.

The second type of development journalism can walk a thin line. On the one hand, government participation in mass media can help get important information spread throughout the nation. Governments can help to educate their citizens and enlist cooperation on major development projects. However, a government can also use the idea of “development” to restrict freedom of speech for journalists. Journalists are told not to report on certain issues because it will impact the “development” of the nation in question, and therefore citizens are not actually being given access to the whole picture.

AIOU Solved Assignment 1 Code 965 Spring 2021

Q.3   Explain different sources of change in the context of DSC.

In short, DSC is a legitimate function of development planning and implementation. DSC therefore needs to be examined as a valuable «technology» for using the social communication process to foster and strengthen sustainable development at local and national levels. It should be taken more seriously in programs of social change, and should be reflected explicitly in development policy and strategy. One way of doing so is through the enunciation of a national information and communication policy, which can be explicitly integrated into national development thinking and practice.

SOME ISSUES REQUIRING POLICY ACTION

  • Media development: regulation and deregulation
  • Enhancing communication professions and institutions
  • Cultural development and social integration
  • Human resources development and training
  • Communications technologies: old, new and emerging
  • Development Support Communication
  • Regional and international cooperation
  • Commercialisation and Privatisation
  • Resource Mobilisation and Allocation.

Because of the multi-sectoral and comprehensive nature of national development needs and objectives, a national strategy on information and communication for sustainable development must be seen also as a multi-sectoral, multi-dimensional issue, around which different development stakeholders can find a rallying point, and to which they can make invaluable constructive contributions. Previous attempts in some countries to deal with information and communication policy issues, because they lacked an over-arching development-oriented framework and justification, have tended to be ad hoc, and overly politicized.

By focusing almost exclusively and without much negotiating margins, on particular sectoral interests or thematic considerations (e.g. commercialization, privatization, public service, monopoly, freedom of expression, minority rights, etc.), they tended to exacerbate areas of tension and disagreement, instead of promoting opportunities for constructive dialogue. The development and management of a national information and communication policy can be seen as a mechanism for ensuring widespread public education and informed public participation in decision-making on the future directions of development in African society.

In some countries, the initiative has come from the government department charged with public information or telecommunications. A re-baptised Ministry of Communications has led the management of a communication policy often. Earlier international discussions suggested a National Communication Council as an independent entity, responsible to Parliament or some non-partisan framework. What actually happens in any given country will be a matter for negotiation among the competing interests and social forces in the development context.

However, the existence of strategic communication actions in support of programs or projects in development sectors may also influence the choices made in the directions that a national communication for development policy takes. For example, many countries have a communication support system or project in agriculture, involving agricultural extension and agricultural information, combining interpersonal and mass media communication strategies. Many countries have also developed health promotion and health education programs or projects. In yet other countries, population communication is often based on a sectoral strategy for promoting reproductive health, or adolescent behaviour change. Similarly, the communication activities in support of HIV/AIDS prevention in many countries are based around multi-media, multi-sectoral strategies. All of these actions on the ground are building blocks for the implementation of a national communication for development policy. Civil society, including the legal profession, journalists, advertising and marketing groups, women’s societies, human rights activists and NGOs have been actively involved in pushing one or more areas of communication policy to suit their particular political or economic agenda.

Some preliminary considerations in the design of a policy involve questions such as: Who needs it? The need for a communication policy is often felt at the level of public or private institutions or of civil society. Whatever the source of concern, information/communication policy provisions will impact on various groups or individuals. Therefore, the design and formulation of the policy should be seen as a «public good», of potential interest to a wide spectrum in society. The process should therefore be transparent, and should seek to be inclusive of diverse interests. While information and communication technicians and professionals should be involved, other groups should also be represented, so as to make the ownership of the process and the product truly «national».

Another question concerns the challenge and vision, in other words: Why is it needed? Experience has shown that the increasing global influence of information and communication technologies and organisations is felt at various levels in Africa. Similarly, changes in the political arena, with democratisation and more involvement in governance by civil society create tensions, which require changes in the management of public goods and services, including those related to communication. Therefore such issues as the control and ownership of telecommunications and media organs, as well as freedom of expression, and access to media by political parties during elections have become prominent in the national discourse of many countries. In addition, the need for individuals and communities to participate in development activities makes communication for building trust and consensus on the development agenda an important goal of governments and society at large. The emergence of new technologies, including computers, the Internet and related adaptations, is creating situations, which require concerted action within national and regional space. These are some of the reasons which usually make a policy necessary; to deal in a clear and public manner with technical and cultural issues.

But solving today’s problems is not the only goal of policy. A good policy should be able to provide signposts for the next decade or so. It is true that the communication sector is changing rapidly worldwide, so the policy environment may be more dynamic, even in the short term. For this reason, it is important that policies be forward-looking, and that they meet the future expectations of the people who will implement them and be influenced by them. One concrete way of ensuring this is through visioning; that is getting the collective ideas of a cross-section of society about the kind of future environment in which they would like to live, and to see what role information and communication would play in those future scenarios. This would then be part of the environment to which a communication policy should respond. Joint visioning is a tool for social management, which should be incorporated in the process of designing the policy[6].

Yet another question: What are the Development Challenges on the ground? What do we know? What do we need to know?

A situation analysis is the first step in the policy design process. It attempts to «scan» the policy environment. It should help to define the need for a policy by identifying the development problems that a policy on information and communication can help to solve. In this connection, relevant questions include: What is the current situation of the communication system, looking at various components and sub-sectors? What are its strengths and weaknesses? The situation analysis should evaluate the potential of the system for change in the short to medium term, considering the opportunities and constraints, which may confront the system.

Among the preliminary concerns are objectives, goals and principles. A policy should have goals and objectives. These represent answers to the long term and medium term development needs that the policy should address. A policy should also be based on certain norms or principles, which will guide its orientation and content. These are usually derived from national development goals or constitutional provisions, which may in turn have been derived from internationally agreed ideas. A sample of underlying principles includes:

  • Democratisation
  • Popular participation
  • Equity/Access to information and communication
  • Freedom of expression and reception
  • Social integration
  • Cultural promotion and preservation
  • Responsibility in public communication
  • Communication rights
  • Coherence with other social/sectoral policies.

AIOU Solved Assignment 2 Code 965 Spring 2021

Q.4   What are different obstacles to change? How we can reduce the resistance to change?  

Managing change has always been difficult and will always be fraught with danger because it is so easy to introduce change the wrong way. So the logical question to ask is if there is a perfect way to introduce and manage change. The answer is no. There is no universal solution which applies to all change programmes.

Organisations are different, the reasons for change are different, timescales and budgets are different.

Each change programme will have to be implemented on its own merits. But there are things we can do to reduce the level of resistance. Ways to reduce resistance to change:

#1 – Be timely

Announce an impending change as quickly as possible – rumors start very quickly. Delivering bad news is one of the biggest challenges managers face.

#2 – The need for change

Find lots of ways to demonstrate why the change is necessary. Change management require a compelling change story – communicating it to employees and following it up with ongoing communications and involvement.

#3 – The past

You should make statements that honor the work and contributions of those who brought such success to the organization in the past, because on a very human but seldom articulated level, your audience will feel asked to betray their former mentors – whether those people remain in the organization or not. A little good diplomacy at the outset can stave off a lot of resistance.

#4 – Watch for staff reaction

Look for signals that something is not going well with the new change. Rather than trying to force a change, find out what staff doesn’t like about it. Work with their concerns or even rethink the proposed change. Change means a new way of doing things and most people are fearful of the unfamiliar. Provide assurances that there will be support and time to become familiar with the new change. It takes a while for people to adjust.

#5 – Change management should be like a dolphin, not a whale

One of the biggest roadblocks to a successful implementation of change in a business is getting the people “in the trenches” to not only understand what is coming but also to agree with what’s happening. When applied to organizational change, the “whales vs. dolphins” concept involves dividing change into a series of short steps or phases – similar to how dolphins breathe.

#6 – Involvement

Involve interested parties in the planning of change by asking them for suggestions and incorporating their ideas. If people are involved in change and understand the reasons for it they become supportive of the whole idea and the change process.

If people are given the opportunity to take responsibility and accountability for certain parts of a change programme their sense of ownership will make them even stronger advocates.

#7 – Increase engagement by asking questions

Have you ever been “talked at” instead of had someone “talk with”? It doesn’t feel good to have someone talk at you. It leaves you feeling like you might as well not have been there at all. It is much more powerful asking questions. Increase engagement by asking questions when leading change.

#8 – Communication

Lots of it. Change is unsettling because it brings with it an element of uncertainty. And it is the uncertainty which is a major cause of resistance  to change. People can relate to facts – good or bad – but uncertainty and contradicting messages breed unease and resistance.

Therefore, it is important to communicate with everybody about everything in relation to the upcoming changes in order to reduce the uncertainty. Use any communication channels available and remember that it is impossible to over-communicate  change.

#9 – Use social media

Social media platforms are ideal mechanisms to facilitate change because much of change management boils down to ongoing conversations and dialogue in a company.

Business leaders should start asking how can social media platforms help achieve business objectives beyond marketing: shaping company culture, strengthening change management initiatives, improving execution of corporate strategy, facilitating corporate communication, and increasing employee engagement.

#10 – Storytelling

Storytelling can be a powerful tool when you want to drive organizational change. Good leaders tell stories that “cast” them and their organizations as agents of change, rather than defenders of the status quo.

As a leader, you cannot eliminate fear, abolish uncertainty or avoid the prospect of change for your company. But you can leverage these emotional navigational stakes to your greatest advantage by telling a purposeful story.

#11 – Training programs

Deliver training programs that develop skills that is needed to support “the new way”.

#12 – Create small wins

Large change management problems are best broken down into smaller ones with concrete achievable goals. Otherwise it can be so overwhelming that solutions seem unattainable – therefore, people often avoid tackling them or come up with single, grand programs that fail. Don’t forget to pour champagne on it.

#13 – Don’t change for the sake of change

Continual change leads to resistance. Making a change for the purpose of shaking things up makes it more difficult to get acceptance of necessary changes. Save your energy for more important changes.

#14 – Don’t be afraid to change your mind

Some changes don’t turn out as well as others. Why not say “forget it”. Nothing is gained by forcing staff to accept a change they know isn’t necessary.

AIOU Solved Assignment Code 965 Autumn 2021

Q.5   Explain salient features of alternative paradigm of development.             

The western model for development predominated in 1950s and 1960s.  The modernization paradigm arose soon after World War II, in 1949. It envisioned development as a challenge to bring the “underdeveloped countries” out of their conditions of poverty by mod­ernizing them and by  by free-market approaches.

The origin, principles, and applications of this paradigm should be considered within the historical context of the postwar years, also known as the Cold War period. On that tine when world influence was polarized by two superpowers: the United States and the Soviet Union. Their influence reached every sphere of the international sce­nario, including development.  In this context, the modernization paradigm pro­moted by political scientists and scholars of Western countries became so strong and so pervasive in every dimension of social life that it became also known as the “dominant paradigm.”

Rogers (1960) called this the “dominant paradigm” of development as it exercised a dominant influence in the field of development. The emphasis of this model was that development could be achieved by increased productivity, economic growth and industrialization, through heavy industries, capital intensive technologies, urbanization, centralized planning. Development was measured by gross national product (GNP), total or per capita income. There was a shift from a static, agricultural, primitive and rigid society to a dynamic, industrialized, urbanized and socially mobile nation.

Daniel Lerner and Wilbur Schramm (1964) supported the dominant paradigm and

advocated automation and technology for development and change.  They made significant contributions in identifying the role of communication for technological development.  The development community argued that the case of underdevelopment in the developing countries was not due to external causes but due to internal causes present within the nation and the individual as well as within the social structure.

Lerner and Schramm stressed that the individual was to be blamed to the extent that he was resistant to change and modernization, whereas Rogers, Bordenave and Beltran (1976) argued that the social structural constraints like government bureaucracy, top-heavy land tenure system, caste, exploitative linkages, etc. were to be blamed.

Lerner pointed that since the individual was identified as the cause of

underdevelopment, he was also the starting point to bring about social change. The

modernization of the individual‟s traditional values became the priority task. Rogers pointed that no effort was made to change the social structure though it had been identified as of the causes of underdevelopment.

Lerner identified four indices of development: industrialization, literacy, media exposure and political participation. People have to be mobile, empathetic,and participatory for development. Lerner (1958) suggested that media exposure, political participation and developing psychic empathy are necessary for development.   Modern society is a participant society and it works by consensus.

Lerner‟s Communication Model for Development Thus, in the dominant paradigm the communication flow was one way which was top- down vertical communication from the authorities to the people, the mass media channels were  used to mobilize the people for development and the audience was assigned a passive role for acceptance of social change.

At the cultural level, modernization advocated for a change in the mindset of individuals in poor countries who had to abandon traditional beliefs, considered an impediment toward modernization, and embrace attitudes and behaviors favorable to innovation and modernity (Lerner 1958).

At the technocratic level, moderniza­tion required people with inquisitive minds who were guided by faith in the scien­tific method and rooted in the principles of enlightenment.

At the political level, it required staunch advocates of the doctrine of liberalism based on political freedom and the adoption of democratic systems.

Finally, at the economic level, it required blind faith in the virtues and power of the free market, with no or minimal govern­ment intervention.

Inter dependent Model of Development: Rogers, and many other

In the 1970s, this approach was being critically reviewed. Several viewpoints were forwarded to show why development did not work. One such approach is the “Interdependent Model”. The development philosophy of this approach is the same as that of the dominant paradigm to the extent that the emphasis is on economic growth for development. The supporters of this approach start with the assumption that development and underdevelopment are the two facets of the same process. One cannot understand the nature and essentiality of one in isolation from the other.

The development philosophy of the dependency model is that foreign penetration,technology and information have created underdevelopment rather than being a force for development. The economic and cultural dependency on developed countries shapes the  social and economic structures of many developing countries. Within this paradigm, the conception of development is a linear one based on trust in science, reason, technology, and the free market. The main role of commu­nication was to persuade people to embrace the core values and practices of mod­ernization.

Disadvantage of Dominant Approach

Critics of this paradigm attacked its economic focus. In this approach over emphasized the power of individual countries and ignored the elements such as colonization, past exploitation of resources and globalization.

The Media communication & Modernization theory 

It is argued that the diffusion of the life-style of the developed country through mass media aggravates social inequality, because the communication and diffusion of the modernized life-style is only among the rural and urban elites. But the consumerism created by the mass media frustrates the poor as it does not fit in with their economic and social reality. The communication strategies suggested are: to educate the people about the vicious nature and the stifling dependency relationships, to mobilize national and regional support communication channels. They argue that mass media system in these countries is caught in the dependency relationships and at times actively supports them. Therefore, communication strategies should serve the educational and  mobilizing functions.   Mass media could be employed purposefully once structural transformation of society takes place

In the communication field, modernization theory led to the first systematic and rigorous attempts to research communication applications in the development context. A few scholars started to devote increasing attention to communication processes and effects, among them Lasswell (1948), Katz and Lazarfeld (1955), and Klapper (1960), while others, such as Lerner (1958), Rogers (1962), and Schramm (1964), became particularly interested in studying how communication could be used to foster national development, which at that time was conceived predomi­nantly in economic terms.

Communication in the dominant paradigm is basically associated with the linear, mass media model aimed at transmitting information and messages from one point to another or many others, usually in a vertical or top-down fashion. This idea was rooted in the strong belief in the persuasive power of media, especially until the 1970s. Development communication was associated with the use of media to per­suade people to achieve, maintain, and strengthen development goals, and media’s role was paramount. UNESCO, for example, considered media to be a crucial means for promoting change,’ and in the 1960s.

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