Free AIOU Solved Assignment Code 8619 Spring 2021

Free AIOU Solved Assignment Code 8619 Spring 2021

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Course: Educational Technology (8619)
Semester: Spring, 2021
ASSIGNMENT No. 1

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Q.1 Why we need educaitonal technology in teaching learning process? Give your own reflection.

Educational Technology is concerned with the development, application, and evaluation of system, techniques, and aids to improve the process of human learning.It could be conceived as a science of techniques, methods and media by which educational goals could be realized. Generally the term “Technology” denotes the systematic application of the knowledge of science to practical tasks in industry. Hence, “Educational Technology” may be roughly defined as the systematic application of the knowledge of sciences to practical tasks in Education.It is not primarily concerned with the task of prescribing the goal although it does help in specifying the goals and translating them in behavioral terms.It is a communication process resulting from the adaptation of the scientific method to the behavioral science of teaching/learning. Educational Technology widely accepted as the application of a system approach in the systematic design of a learning system to bring about improvement in the teaching-learning evaluation process.

It is not an end in itself but a means to accomplish some educational and instructional objectives already determined and clearly defined. It tries  to make the whole teaching-learning process more and more meaningful for both the teachers and the learners.It modifies teacher’s method of teaching and learners behaviour for their own betterment and for the betterment of mankind. It is not the same thing as instruction or education or learning but an aggressive invention which includes in itself everything that helps in shaping personality.Earlier the Concept of Educational Technology was used as a synonym to audio-visual aids like pictures, charts, maps, and models meant for direct teaching-learning. With the advent of physical science and electronic revolution there came an era of hardware and software like projectors, tape-recorders, radio and T.V. etc.

Then came the age of mass media which led to massive communication revolution for instructional purposes with the advent of programmed instruction and programmed learning, a new dimension of educational technology came into existence it has individualized the process of education and introduced a system of self-learning in the form of self- instructional material and teaching machine.

The concept of programmed learning added another dimensions to the meaning of educational technology when some new devices and approaches such as Micro-teaching.In other words we can see one aspect of Educational Technology related to the use of specific techniques such as ‘educational television, radio, programmed learning and other audio-visual aids.In another aspect, Education Technology is seen as the application of scientific and other organized knowledge to the practical problems of education.In the particular context of the developing countries, the emphasis is on the application of techniques and knowledge with a view to mobilizing and optimizing the available human as well as technological resources.Educational technology is seen both as a means as well as service to effect and facilitate better and more productive learning systems. It may be defined as a separate field in the theory of education dealing with the development and application of the use of educational resources. Educational Technology should not be confused with teaching or instruction or education or learning or engineering but it should be taken as a sum total of all such aspects which go a long way in shaping the personality of the learner in a meaningful context. It is neither technology in education nor technology of education but both and all pervasive which pervades the whole teaching-learning process to

make it meaningful for the teacher who teaches and the learner who learns and modifies his behaviour for his own betterment and the betterment of mankind. Educational Technology is concerned with the development, application, and evaluation of system, techniques and aids to improve the process of human  learning. It could be conceived as a science of techniques, methods and media by which educational goals could be realised.Generally the term “Technology” denotes the systematic application of the knowledge of science to practical tasks in industry. Hence, “Educational

Technology” may be roughly defined as the systematic application of the knowledge of sciences to practical tasks in Education. It is not primarily concerned with the task of prescribing the goal although it does help in specifying the goals and translating them in behavioral terms.

It is a communication process resulting from the adaptation of the scientific method to the behavioral science of teaching/learning. Educational Technology widely accepted as the application of system approach in the systematic design of a learning system to bring about improvement in teaching-learning evaluation process. It is not an end in itself but a means to accomplish some educational and instructional objectives already determined and clearly defined. It tries  to make the whole teaching-learning process more and more meaningful for both the teachers and the learners. It modifies teacher’s method of teaching and learner’s behaviour for their own betterment and for the betterment of the mankind. It is not the same thing as instruction or education or learning but an aggressive invention which includes in itself everything that helps in shaping personality.Earlier the Concept of Educational Technology was used as a synonym to audio-visual aids like pictures, charts, maps, and models meant for direct teaching-learning. With the advent of physical science and electronic revolution there came an era of hardware and software like projectors, tape-recorders, radio and T.V. etc.

Then came the age of mass media which led to massive communication revolution for instructional purposes with the advent of programmed instruction and programmed learning, a new dimension of educational technology came into existence it has individualized the process of education and introduced a system of self-learning in the form of self- instructional material and teaching machine.

The concept of programmed learning added another dimensions to the meaning of educational technology when some new devices and approaches such as Micro-teaching.In other words we can see one aspect of Educational Technology related to the use of specific techniques such as ‘educational television, radio, programmed learning and other audio-visual aids.In another aspect, Education Technology is seen as the application of scientific and other organized knowledge to the practical problems of education. In the particular context of the developing countries, the emphasis is on the application of techniques and knowledge with a view to mobilizing and optimizing the available human as well as technological resources.Educational technology is seen both as a means as well as service to effect and facilitate better and more productive learning systems. It may be defined as a separate field in the theory of education dealing with the development and application of the use of educational resources.Educational Technology should not be confused with teaching or instruction or education or learning or engineering but it should be taken as a sum total of all such aspects which go a long way in shaping the personality of the learner in a meaningful context.

It is neither technology in education nor technology of education but both and all pervasive which pervades the whole teaching-learning process to make it meaningful for the teacher who teaches and the learner who learns and modifies his behavior for his own betterment and the betterment of mankind.

How educational technology will improve the teaching learning environment in Primary schools in Pakistan?

It is proven fact that learning among children is very fast with the help of visuals and audio.Activity based learning ,project based learning and observation based learning are more successful and technology make learning very simple and interesting.Through technology we can standardize the input quality and it will result the quality delivery , quality grasping and quality output.

Technology will improve the primary education in rural Pakistan through 24*7 availability of learning opportunities,quality content,activity based learning and making learning more interesting.In long run usage of technology will reduce the cost of learning so it will become affordable to the poor. Technology reduces the gap between urban and rural learning content and develops the connect. Studies suggest that rural people are more responsive to audio-visual content so technology has the power to make content audio-visual and it will increase the learning output.

Free AIOU Solved Assignment 1 Code 8619 Spring 2021

2 Critically examine the behavioristic learning theories.

Every teacher knows that they will usually have a student in class who is difficult to manage and work with. Their behavior is usually hard to control and it can be extra work to get them to pay attention and stop distracting others. If you’re studying to become a teacher, your courses will help you learn classroom management techniques that will prepare you for difficult students. Additionally, it’s extremely valuable to learn about learning theories and recognize that there are different methods and thoughts about how people learn.

Behaviorism or the behavioral learning theory is a popular concept that focuses on how students learn. Behaviorism focuses on the idea that all behaviors are learned through interaction with the environment. This learning theory states that behaviors are learned from the environment, and says that innate or inherited factors have very little influence on behavior.

A common example of behaviorism is positive reinforcement. A student gets a small treat if they get 100% on their spelling test. In the future, students work hard and study for their test in order to get the reward.

Behaviorism is key for educators because it impacts how students react and behave in the classroom, and suggests that teachers can directly influence how their students behave. It also helps teachers understand that a student’s home environment and lifestyle can be impacting their behavior, helping them see it objectively and work to assist with improvement.

Behaviorism started as a reaction against introspective psychology in the 19th century, which relied heavily on first-person accounts. J.B. Watson and B.F. Skinner rejected introspective methods as being subjective and unquantifiable. These psychologists wanted to focus on observable, quantifiable events and behaviors. They said that science should take into account only observable indicators. They helped bring psychology into higher relevance by showing that it could be accurately measured and understood, and it wasn’t just based off opinions.

Watson and Skinner believed that if they were given a group of infants, the way they were raised and the environment they put them in would be the ultimate determining factor for how they acted, not their parents or their genetics.

Pavlov’s Dogs is a popular behaviorism experiment. A group of dogs would hear a bell ring and then they would be given food. After enough time, when the bell would ring the dogs would salivate, expecting the food before they even saw it. This is exactly what behaviorism argues—that the things we experience and our environment are the drivers of how we act.

The stimulus-response sequence is a key element of understanding behaviorism. A stimulus is given, for example a bell rings, and the response is what happens next, a dog salivates or a pellet of food is given. Behavioral learning theory argues that even complex actions can be broken down into the stimulus-response.

In the classroom, the behavioral learning theory is key in understanding how to motivate and help students. Information is transferred from teachers to learners from a response to the right stimulus. Students are a passive participant in behavioral learning—teachers are giving them the information as an element of stimulus-response. Teachers use behaviorism to show students how they should react and respond to certain stimuli. This needs to be done in a repetitive way, to regularly remind students what behavior a teacher is looking for.

Positive reinforcement is key in the behavioral learning theory. Without positive reinforcement, students will quickly abandon their responses because they don’t appear to be working. For example, if students are supposed to get a sticker every time they get an A on a test, and then teachers stop giving that positive reinforcement, less students may get A’s on their tests, because the behavior isn’t connected to a reward for them.

Repetition and positive reinforcement go hand-in-hand with the behavioral learning theory. Teachers often work to strike the right balance of repeating the situation and having the positive reinforcement come to show students why they should continue that behavior.

Motivation plays an important role in behavioral learning. Positive and negative reinforcement can be motivators for students. For example, a student who receives praise for a good test score is much more likely to learn the answers effectively than a student who receives no praise for a good test score. The student who receives no praise is experiencing negative reinforcement—their brain tells them that though they got a good grade, it didn’t really matter, so the material of the test becomes unimportant to them. Conversely students who receive positive reinforcement see a direct correlation to continuing excellence, completely based on that response to a positive stimulus.

Free AIOU Solved Assignment 2 Code 8619 Spring 2021

3 Discuss significance of learning theories foor teachers. Also suggest ways through which a teacher can make his teaching more effective.

The  knowledge,  skills  and  behaviours  provided  for  an  individual  during  primary  school  years  both  shape  the  personality of the individual and form a general platform which directs the individuals future life (Gökçe, 2003). By giving  children  the  aims,  valves,  symbols  of  society,  primary  schools  enable  them  to  develop  a  general  value  system(Sönmez  1994).  In  this  context  education;  The  process  of  egg vaping  the  individual  with  behaviours  that  are  predetermined and desired by the society (Çilenti, 1995).   Education is also a problem solving process and starting from Primary school years individuals should be raised as  good  problem  solvers.  The  problem  solving  skill  is  the  most  defining  role during  an individual.

isation and during the process of coping with the environment. Problem solving can be defined as the behaviours of displaying cognitive processes where resources concerning in and out demands are evaluated in order to provide the individual a way so that one can turn situations into one’s favour and establish a balance between one’s interaction with  the  environment  (Aysan,  1988).  Problem  solving  has  the  same  meaning  as  coping  with  problems.  Problem  solving  is  a  complicated  process  concerning  cognitive,  audial,  and  behaviouristic  activities.  Problem  solving  can  only start when the individual understands that one has to react at some levels. In other words problem solving is the process  of  finding  solutions  for  difficulties  which  interfere  while  trying  to  reach  an  aim  (Heppner  and  Krauskopf,  1987).Wallece  (2003)  states  that  for  every  problem  an  aim,  data  and  processes  can  be  obtained.  Datas  are  facts,  words, concepts and processes which can be used to reach an aim. Processes are ways to manipulate datas in order to reach the aim. The aim is the solution of the problem. On the other hand, in real life personal problem solving is explained  as  directing  cognitive  and  emotional  processes,  which  are  known  as  behaviouristic  reactions,  to  an  aim  in  order  to  provide  harmony  to  our  desires  or  invitatioın.  According  to  Bonner&Rich(1988)  the  evolution  of  one’s own problem solving performance and the process of coping with problems as a cognitive variable.It has been identified  that  influential  problem  solvers  think  independently  and  creatively,possess  social  adequacy,  are  self-confident  and  tolerable  towards  vagueness  (Dow&Mayer,  2004).  It  has  been  determined  that  individuals  who  see  themselves  sufficient  in  problem  solving  are  more  initiative  in  relationships,have  a  more  positive  personality  perception and academically show more suitable working methods and situations (ùahin,ùahin and Heppner,1993).If it is thought that the problem solving skill is learned during childhood,then during school years these problem solving skills  should  be  improved  (Miller&  Nunn, 2003).In the context of education and learning.’’constructivism’’which was  developed  by  J.Piaget  and  J.Dewey,  points  out  that  information  is  established  by  the  learned  (Özden,  2005).  Constructivism  is  a  process  in  which  the  student  explains  and  interprets  new  information  with  the  guidance  of  a  teacher and relating to past learning (Shunk,1996; Deryakulu, 2000; Akar Yıldırım, 2004; Titiz, 2005;Yapıcı; 2005) Education  environments  where  constructivism  is  applied  have  to  be  arranged  so  that  individuals  can  gain  more  responsibility  and  can  be  more  effective  during  learning.Because  mental  constructs  about  items  that  have  to  be  learned,are  established  only  by  the  individual.In  this  sense  educational  environments  should  be  arranged  so  that  individuals can interact much more with their environment;therefore,they can have a richer learning life. Due to such pedagogical  environments  individuals  have  the  chance  to  test  the  correctness  of  the  information  they  had  preconstructed,   correct   their   mistakes   and   even   replace   their   existing   knowledge   with   new   information.


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The need for educational technology cannot be denied in the teaching learning process. Educational technology cannot be taken as a synonym to audio-visual aids, and technology in education emphasizes the concept of service, i.e. the use of different equipment, gadgets, and mass media. Educational technology must mean technology of education presenting itself as a system for bringing improvement in the total process of teaching-learning by carefully analyzing its problems and reorganizing all available resources in an economic way for obtaining the optimum results. Educational technology cannot be viewed in terms of its parts or processes. Instructional technology, teaching technology, behaviour technology, programmed learning, microteaching, system analysis, management of teaching-learning, teacher or pupil behavior, etc. are all its constituents and resources. Not a single one of these alone is enough to represent educational technology. All these branches, innovations, approaches, and strategies integrated as a whole according to the needs and requirements of the system represented by educational technology at a particular time in a given situation for accomplishing objectives. To better understand the need of educational technology, it is important to the general and specific objectives of educational technology. The objectives of Technology at macro level or broad level are to:  Identify educational needs of the community.  Determine the aims of education.  Develop a suitable curriculum.  Determine appropriate strategies.  Identify the resources-human and non-human.  Locate the major obstacles in the way of proper development of learners.  Suggest remedies to overcome the above traced out obstacles.  Manage the whole system of education (Kumar, 2017).

AIOU Solved Assignment Code 8619 Spring 2021

4 Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of lecture strategy.

Lecture

Lecture can be defined as strategy discourse on a subject. The word discourse signifies that one person talks and the others listen. It is one of the collective strategies of teaching and is used quite often especially at the college level of teaching. It is based on the assumption that the student is a passive learner. Lecture is a strategy of exposition, while telling is one of narration. This strategy is used because of the following objectives: i) To clarify: This strategy is a group strategy, and when a large number of pupils need clarification in moments of difficulty, this strategy collies handy. A few minutes of lecturing can remove their doubts. ii) To expand contents: In books many things remain unsaid. There is a world beyond textbooks, and pupils are interested to know about those things. Sometimes the discussion in a book about a topic is not sufficient. We call use lecture strategy as a supplement. iii) To review content: This is expansion of the supplement lecture strategy. It is also useful in recapitulatory work.

Pros of lecture as teaching method: 

  1. Lectures are a straightforward way to impart knowledge to students quickly. 2. Instructors also have greater control over what is being taught in the classroom because they are the sole source of information. Students who are auditory learners find that lectures appeal to their learning style. 3. Logistically, a lecture is often easier to create than other methods of instruction. 4. Lecture is a method familiar to most teachers because it was typically the way they were taught. 5. It is a most efficient strategy to present a large number of facts in a short period of time.

Cons of lecture as a teaching method: 

  1. Students strong in learning styles than other auditory learning will have a harder time being engaged by lectures.
  2. Students who are weak in note-taking skills will have difficulty.
  3. Students can find lectures causing them to lose interest.
  4. Students may not feel that they are able to ask questions as they arise during lectures.
  5. Teachers may not get a real feel for how much students are understanding because there is not that much opportunity for exchanges during lectures.
  6. It fails to develop laboratory skills.
  7. It fails to impart training in scientific attitude.
  8. It provides no scope for learning by doing.
  9. It makes no provision for individual differences.

The following points must be taken care of when lecturing in the class:

  • Lecture must be well organized and well prepared.
  • It should contain sufficient examples.
  • For every generalization, an example should he cited.
  • The lecture should proceed from simple to complex.
  • The main points must be clearly brought about.
  • If it is humorous and wily the audience will not be bored.
  • A lecture must have a question-answer session

After preparing the students, and announcing the aim of the lesson, the teacher should start his presentation. He should use a number of teaching devices like questioning, narration, explanation, audio-visual aids etc, to make various ideas clear to the pupils. Presentation of knowledge should not be a one-way traffic. The teacher is to carry the students with him. He should ensure that the subject matter is understood by the pupils without any difficulty. There should also be some activity. Teacher should try his best to develop and expose the subject matter with the active participation of the pupils. He should bear in mind the following principles for the presentation.

  1.                             The matter to be presented should be wisely selected according to the level of the pupils. It should be further divided into convenient sections.
  2.                           The teacher must make sure that the pupils follow what he teaches. He should take up the next section of the lesson only when the previous section is clear to the students.

iii.                        First finish one section of a lesson and then integrate it with what has gone before. In the end, all the parts of the lesson should be integrated to understand the lesson as a whole.

(a) Recitation Strategy

The teacher lectures, students listen and then they recite what they have heard. They quote things back again from memory. This is known as recitation. It is immaterial whether they understand things or not. But as long as materials can be reproduced, the basic requirement of recitation has been met. The concept of recitation has undergone a change. The old idea of lesson learning has been washed away. In present day teaching, the teacher should raise questions which

keep the students active because these involve:

  • interpretation,
  • criticism,
  • supplementing, or
  • application along the lines studied.

There is no set procedure for recitation. Every teacher will have his own procedure. We can only give some suggestions:

  1. Teacher should adopt a favourable attitude. A story can help to create interest and makes recitation easy.
  2. Recitation should be well planned. Movement from phase to phase should take place with precision and naturalness.
  • Before asking someone to recite, the teacher should discover his adequacy or preparation for the same.
  1. Recitation must come after discussion. All should participate in discussion. Students should be encouraged to contribute something. Teacher should not talk. Let the students talk.
  2. Students’ co-operation must be sought at every step

(c) The Discussion Strategy

Group discussion is now recognized as a basic strategy of education, both for regular students and for adults to a large extent. There are many reasons which supplement this, two of which are:

The method helps in “internalizing” and using the facts for our sake, which can be collected with the help of other strategies at our disposal.

Children and adults have a rich background of experience in oil which the educational process can draw. These experiences are more valid as a source of material for group learning than abstract textbooks.

It has been said: Discussion is the process whereby two or more people express, clarify and pool their knowledge, experiences, options, feelings. It is a co-operative process in which several minds work together on a basis of equality and mutual respect.

Tewksbury (2004) has highlighted that the primary benefit of discussion is that students are engaged in thinking and analyzing concepts. Students are engaged intellectually. This technique has several potential drawbacks:

  • The primary drawback is that the technique can consume more time than lecture method for a comparable amount of material to be delivered.
  • Some students tend to dominate discussions. Some students come poorly prepared, no matter what the incentive.
  • Students may ask irrelevant questions and discussion can go astray from the intended topic.
  • Assessing students’ learning associated with a discussion is potentially difficult.
  • The basic idea of discussion can be combined with other method to give different variations. Some of those forms or types are:
  • Symposium: In this type of discussion, three or more person presents their views on a several sided question or topic. Each takes a different aspect. It can be followed by questions and discussion. This method provides for greater freedom in audience participation. One precaution to be taken is that all the speakers should have equal ability.
  • Panel discussion: Here a few people with different background and experience discuss a thing while others listen. They are course free to get their doubts removed. It requires a skillful moderator to see that the members do not start arguing or making long speeches.
  • Informal group discussion: In this, the pupil is the leader of the discussion activity. Leadership qualities are developed by the method, in which students feel free and easy and their thinking ability is tested. However, the discussion requires careful handling.
  • Formalized group discussion: In this, there is a discussion lead and several resource members who represent special skills and specialized knowledge essential to the problem which the group is discussing. There is also a recorder. The leader keeps discussion on the track. At intervals, he summarizes it and clarifies the points that have been made. No confusion should prevail.

5)            Institutional forms of socialized procedure: It has become popular to cast the class into the many forms of social or administration organizations that exist in the community – a mock parliament and a simulated party convention. This way, one can get the feeling democratic limitations.

AIOU Solved Assignment Code 8619 Autumn 2021

5 While developing learner profile, which components you will follow?

A learner’s profile means what students are like as learners and what their learning atmosphere is like. Obviously, you know there is a lot of difference between learners of urban and rural areas. Urban learners normally have more facilities than the rural ones. They may have access to libraries, electricity and a higher level of schooling than the rural ones. As a writer of distance education courses one has to list the things that describe learners, such as basic data, styles, infrastructure and study habits. You must also consider the basic data of your target population such their sex, age group, rural and urban division, level of literacy, primary learning needs. Under their lifestyle one must know about housing conditions, nature work and working hours (if applicable), financial position, habit patterns, attitudes and aspirations and the extent of understanding of non-oral communication. Likewise, under infrastructure, the writer must be aware of die learners’ hot facilities (i.e. water, electricity, gas, drainage etc), local facilities and finally the facilities available at the regional and national level. The writer must also know about the study habits of his learners.

(a) Use of Learner Profile 

In formal systems of education most teachers are aware of flu learners’ abilities and study conditions. In distance education, it is necessary for a writer to know a lot more about the learners. He has to think about their age, their literacy level and knowledge of the subject be taught. Nothing can be assumed about the learners unless and until a clear picture of their study atmosphere is available. Learner’s profile can be used at two levels – policy level and design level. At the policy level you can ask yourself if the learners generally have access to telephone. If not then, of course, you will not use it as a means of tutor contact. Likewise, if the learners have access to television you can use it as a teaching medium. Such decisions need to be made in the beginning of a course design even in a distance education system. At the design level, you must have an idea whether the learners know something about the topic you want to teach. Having to teach. Having all information about the prospective student would certainly make the distance teaching approach more effective.

(b) How to Draw a Learner Profile?

As mentioned earlier, in drawing up a learner’s profile, the writer must have the information of his target population. Four major areas are needed to be considered: 1. Basic data – rural/urban division, sex, age group, employed or employed, their level of literacy and what basic knowledge the learners have. 2. Lifestyle – learner’s housing conditions, their working hours, financial position, mode of travel, their non-work activities, attitudes and aspirations and non-oral communication. 3. Infrastructure – electricity, water, gas, postal services, telephones, school buildings, number of classrooms, roads and availability of library. 4. Study habits. For drawing a good profile of a learner, all the above points need to be considered carefully.

(c) Relevance of Learner Profile Variables to Designing of Material

It is, indeed, very difficult to make a universally accepted standard of learners profile for the design of material. You have to generate as many details (or variables) as you can think and then select those which you think are relevant to your particular teaching situation. For your convenience some variables are highlighted along with their relevance specific to designing of distance education materials. We have divided such possible variables into three categories – study environment (direct and indirect relevance), study conditions (learner skills) and study conditions (psychological). Examples are given below in respect of the three categories. Example-I Suppose there is a variable of conveniences in a study environment where the learner has no electricity and tables. What will be the relevance of this variable to material designing? Relevance You have to propose study hours either in the afternoon or early morning. The homework can be completed by the learner by either putting the books on his knees or on the floor. Example-2 Say the learner is in a location where there is no study centre, and contact with other learners is also limited. Only the headmaster of a nearby school can be helpful. What will you recommend while designing your course? Relevance In this situation, there is need to develop the correspondence materials in highly illustrative way having a lot of explanation. In this situation some opportunity of discussion with a staff member o a nearby school as to what to put in the text will be useful. Example-3 Suppose the learner is immature and dependent not able to organize his study, what relevance maturity have in designing a material for distance education. Relevance In such a situation, the writer must give instruct on how to study. Example-4 Say the learner feels slightly inferior being unable to get employment on leaving school, how will you develop his confidence? Relevance Try to build confidence of the learner by prescribing very easy activities and give him a clear indication of what he has achieved. In this regard matching activities are quite useful being clear and comprehensible to the learner.

Anyhow, learners are highly dependent and normally work hard if properly instructed. They are unlikely to have any initiative. The correspondence materials must be completely self-contained as the learners have no access to libraries or other assistance. The material should be well structured with precise instruction what the learner has to do. The text should have self-assessment questions and bibliography. It should be written in easy and simple language.

 

 

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