Free AIOU Solved Assignment Code 8605 Spring 2021

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Free AIOU Solved Assignment Code 8605 Spring 2021

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Course: Educational Leadership and Management (8605)
Semester: Spring, 2021
ASSIGNMENT No. 1

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  1. 1 explain the scope of Islamic administration and discuss the dynamic of Islamic administration.

While the Qur’an and the Sunnah insist on use of ijtihad and achieving excellence, the secularized elite, unaware of this dynamic Islamic approach, often voice their unfounded fears about the Shari’ah and its implementation as introduction of centuries old law and fiqh.

The Qur’an and the Sunnah welcome differences of view, based on reason, logic and facts, in all areas of human life: ‘aqi- dah (conviction), ‘ibadat (devotions, worship), mu’amalat (transactions, dealings) and ‘uqubat (penalties and punishments). It, however, does not allow distortion and concealment of truth.

Intellectual honesty is one of the basic principles in Islamic scholarship. Tampering with truth is seriously condemned by Islam. Based on analysis one may venture to disagree with certain aspects of the given knowledge, even legal formulations; but to follow a Eurocentric worldview is to succumb to a neo-colonialist interpretation of culture and its values. It is taqlid (imitation) of another culture, primarily because it is dominant, and not because it has proved a greater blessing for humans. Islam holds such a mind-set as poor and morally dishonest — a reflection of a dogmatic or jahili approach. There is also an inherent contradiction in the modernist position: on the one hand, they claim that the Qur’an is divine; yet in the same breath, they suggest that several of its legislations like punishment for theft, defamation and adultery are outdated, even “barbaric.”

Those who like to see secular common law — a leftover of the British colonialism — think it provides better protection to the rights of the oppressed gender. For example:

Before this ordinance (i.e. Enforcement of Hudood 1979), the law applicable was the Pakistan Penal Code 1898. Under this law fornication was not a crime. That is, wilful sex between a man and a woman who were both single was not considered a criminal act and was not punishable.

Adultery was essentially an offense against the husband. Under the Penal Code, it was a criminal offense only when committed by a man without the connivance of the husband of the female involved. When the husband allowed another man to have sexual intercourse with his wife, and the wife was willing, adultery was not punishable.

Since the British, who introduced the Penal Code (I860), as opposed to the Qur’an and Sunnah, did not regard adultery (with the husband’s consent) an offense, the supporters of the Eurocentric view of law feel uncomfortable with the Shari’ah. This also makes them think that the Code given by the colonizer is “modern” while the Qur’anic approach is “primitive.”

The supporters of the colonial legal system use common law as the criterion for legitimacy of any law. While claiming a “dogmatic” belief in the Qur’an, if not in the Sunnah, they find it difficult to accept the Shari’ah injunctions as valid to modern times.

Insisting on the women’s right to commit adultery, as recognized in the Penal Code of 1898, they, without any hesitation, also accept the philosophy behind this legislation. Common law in this respect assumes that a legal wife is a property of her husband. If the legal husband gives consent to a person to use this property, it is not adultery. But if a wife “enjoys this human right” without her husband’s consent, she commits adultery! The “feminist” supporters of secular common law fail to see in such legislation the presence of outrageous male chauvinism, and also the assumption of woman being a chattel owned by man.

Since the Shari’ah is not gender based or a biased legal system, it regards this “authority” of a husband on his wife as “exploitation,” inhuman and immoral.

However, Shari’ah has no problem with the adaptation of a law in agreement with its own philosophy. Adaptations allow room for evolution in a legal system. Such adaptations never cause any problem to the ’aqidah of a Muslim, rather they strengthen one’s conviction in the universality of the Shari’ah.

That the Islamization of society and state is tantamount to the rise and return of “fundamentalism” is a proposition questioned seriously by world statesmen like Dr Mahathir Muhammad, when he candidly mentioned, that if fundamentalism means adherence to the fundamentals of Islam, then every Muslim is a fundamentalist. It is also being questioned by a new generation of Western students of Islam like John Esposito” and Charles Kennedy.

Methodologically, to equate different models of Islamization (like the Sudan, Pakistan, Iran, Malaysia, or Algeria) in a monolithic way is academically unfair. These models, while sharing common concerns, represent different approaches to Islamization, reflecting creative responses to different politico-social contexts. Deeper analysis reveals even differences in priorities and strategies for social change, acceptable within the matrix of Islam. However, most discussions on Islamic resurgence and Islamization hardly differentiate between these models.

This confusion is further confounded by misgivings about the concepts of Shari’ah and fiqh. While the Qur’an insists on its being comprehensive and universal, the Shari’ah is often understood and talked about, by its critics, as a local tradition and custom assigned a normative status. Consequently, they refer to a centuries old fiqh as a “threat” to religious tolerance and liberty. The issue has been addressed by the Qur’an and the Sunnah at two different levels.

Reflections

Free AIOU Solved Assignment 1 Code 8605 Spring 2021

`When there are three on a journey they should appoint one of them their commander1.’ This tradition of the Holy Prophet spotlights the importance that Islam attaches to organized activity in human life. A religion that induces administrative order in a group of three persons cannot fail to appreciate the need for regulating human behaviour on a wider scale. In fact, Islam is by nature administration-oriented, as is borne out by its rituals like daily congregational prayers and the annual pilgrimage to Mecca. All kinds of practices in Islam recieve their sanction from certain fundamental value-principles. Confining ourselves to administration, we can identify four such principles:

  1. Ideological Orientation.
  2. Primacy of Humanistic Ends.
  3. Moral Accountability.
  4. Supremacy of Law.

We shall take them up in that order. After we have examined their theoretics in this section, we shall be concerned in the next with their practical implications.

  1. Ideological Orientation

Leiserson and Marx have defined ideologies as `systems of social interpretation’ competing for men’s `attention as the most satisfactory method of explaining the facts of a complex world2.’ Islam is an ideology in this sense. It interprets the facts of the world with reference to its three cardinal beliefs: the Oneness of God, the (Final) Prophethood of Muhammad (pbuh), and the Hereafter. The essence of Islam is bearing obedience to the One God’s commandments as contained in the Holy Quran and illustrated by the Prophet’s life, with a view to upgrading the quality of life on the earthly planet and achieving salvation in the world to come. When this essence gets into the veins of people and they are motivated to mould their individual and collective lives in accordance with Islam, we have an ideology in dynamic operation.

An administration is part of the larger societal structure. Like its parent discipline, political science, public administration in Islam is based on the triad of convictions stated above. From them, therefore, it must take its spirit, sanction, and strength, and to them must its form, goals, and character conform. This is what Islam demands generally of administration. There are several specific demands of which only a few will be discussed in the next section.

  1. Primacy of Humanistic Ends

The triumph of mechanistic science in the West was celebrated with a death-bell for the human soul. Frederick Taylor complacently christened his theory “Scientific Management”. Since then public administration has changed greatly in outlook and method. The human relation school has left an indelible mark on it and today man is believed to be a distinct and important variable in any organizational set-up.

Islam has approached the human aspect of administration in its characteristic way. It regards man as a thinking and feeling entity, declares him to be the supreme creation and sets him the highest possible task, that of achieving moral perfection. This primacy of humanism, in the context of administration, rejects the exclusively materialistic value-scales and objectives of Western societies. Of its practical consequences we shall be talking in Section II. Suffice to say here that the Islamic concept of human relations has a clear adge over its Western counterpart for two main reasons. One, Islam addressed itself to the question long before the West ever did and supplied a solution whose practicability was proved beyond doubt. Two, Western human relationing may not be so human after all, for it is as much a grudging concession to the intractable human nature as a positive recognition of man’s greater intrinstic worth. That is why it has become in the West a saleable art or commodity and is being traded in on the same commercial principle of quid pro quo as any other. In Islam, on the contrary, it is not an opportunistic device for stepping up the profit margin but a necessary ingredient of the creed itself; it is an inviolable behavioural tenet, it is a moral imperative.

  1. Moral Accountability

Like other systems, Islam provides legal checks and social strictures in order to make administrative accountability possible. What makes it unique, however, is its emphasis on accountability in the Hereafter. This stress is ethical in nature and Islam inculcates the sense of responsibility in its adherents by equipping them with what Reinhold Neibuhr describes as `the passion of moral good will3′ and what Marshall Dimock calls `a sense of mission4′. With its techings it strengthens man from within so that he feels impelled—and not compelled—to do the right and proper thing.

The idea of moral accountability is rooted in the concept of the Hereafter. The omniscient and omnipotent God will, at an appointed time, cause the Day of Reckoning to come5 when He will justly reward men for their good and bad deeds and send them either to paradise or to Hell. None will be exempted from the questioning of that awful Day, not even the prophets6. Accountability is to be individual7, thoroughgoing8, and unshiftable9. Thus dereliction of duty is not only a crime in law, it is also a sin in religion. Anybody who is put in a position of trust will have a heavy job accounting for his doings. This is particularly true of rulers and administrators10.

  1. Supremacy of Law

Supremacy of law in Islam should not be mixed up with the English rule of Law. The latter is usually contrasted with the French Droit Administratif (Administrative Law), but in one sense these two are alike. That is, although Rule of Law and Administrative Law stand for two different kinds of legal spirit, yet neither of them points up the presence of any definite body of law. But the Islamic doctrine, besides upholding the cause of law, also implies the existence of a definite and identifiable corpus juris—the Shariah. Hence supremacy of law is perhaps better called supremacy of the law.

The Shariah being something recognizable and its supremacy having been conceded, it brings, on being applied, its own tinge to administrative situations. A test example is the relationship that Islam establishes between politics and administration. In the Quran we find three guiding principles, those of the delegated authority of man11, permission of dissent12, and settlement of dispute according to the dictates of Allah and His Prophets13. All three follow logically from the idea of Allah’s sovereignty14. How they work out in administrative practice will be seen in the following section.

II

We shall now consider the practical implications of the fundamental value-principles.

  1. Ideological Orientation
  2. Commitment. An ideological state or administration can be run only by ideologically committed persons. The Quran clearly lays down that only Muslim rulers are to be obeyed1 and that non-Muslims are are not to be entrusted with positions of authority2 and confidence3. This means that the ideological consideration is extremely important in matters of appointment and that mere technical knowledge or administrative skill would not qualify just any man for just any position4.
  3. Generalism. Chester I. Barnard says somewhere: `The higher the position in the line of authority, the more general the abilities required.’ In a restricted sense Islam prefers generalists to specialists, particularly at the higher, policy-making levels of the administrative hierarchy. Generalism in Islam, however, does not imply distrust of expert knowledge or professional skill. The term makes due allowance for specialist technical know-how and signifies an awareness of the superior national and ideological objectives and a capacity to translate that consciousness into administrative practice.
  4. Position of Non-Muslims. The non-Muslim citizens of an Islamic state will enjoy the same civil rights as Muslims but not the same political rights. They shall not, therefore, be appointed to posts carrying political power or considerable decision-making authority. They can, however, get high-grade posts of experts or professional provided their role is more or less advisory5. To all non-key positions they shall have an equal right and may compete with Muslims for them.
  5. Primacy of Humanistic Ends
  6. In case there is a real conflict between organizational and humanistic objectives, the former will have to be sacrificed for the sake of the latter.
  7. The terms and conditions of administrators and employees must be such as to provide them with means and opportunities of decent living. This includes reasonable wages and salaries, proper working atmosphere, and literally everything which contributes to the welfare of the members of an organization7.
  8. All those practices which tend to detract from man’s humanity and which injure his dignity and honour will have to be cut out.
  9. The legislature of the country will have the right to make, for one or more organizations, laws and regulations guaranteeing the satisfaction of the basic needs of all the members of an organization. This practice will be informally reinforced by the idea of `ihsan’ or `fadhl8′ which exhorts entrepreneurs and administrators to do `the extra bit’ for the workers or employees.
  10. Organizations will be expected to create conditions under which the members can grow individually and become better human beings. This will imply developing in them, through lecture, literature, and actual example, traits like self-esteem, dutifulness, probity, and cooperativeness.
  11. Moral Accountability

Legal accountability in an Islamic state is ensured through administrative measures, social accountability through popular opinion and pressure, and moral accountability through a fortified conscience.

Administrative integrity is the product largely of early influences, especially those of home and school, of proper training before administrative jobs are taken up, and, to repeat Dimock’s phrase, of a `a sense of mission’. It is necessary, therefore, to impart the teachings of Islam to the young people at educational institutions and to fix in the minds of prospective administrators the importance of observing the Islamic injunctions. Training programmes at administrative colleges and academies should lay pronounced stress on a purposeful study of the Islamic religion, culture, and history, the idea throughout being to understand the dynamics and calls of the Islamic ideology as applied to administrative phenomena. It is only when they are convinced of the profound significance of the ethico-ideological considerations that the administrators will rise above themselves and serve their country devotedly and conscientiously.

  1. Supremacy of Law
  2. Compliance. Persons in authority must be obeyed9, irrespective of whether one likes them10 and their orders11 or not. Wilful defiance of superiors is irresponsible and irreligious behaviour.
  3. Discretion. But since accountability is individual and untransferable, every person must exercise discretion before he answers the helm. Compliance may, rather must, be refused when the orders are morally unjustifiable, evidently wrong, and involve disobedience to God12. There is a famous tradition: `The most excellent jihad is when one speaks a true word in the presence of a tyrannical ruler.’13
  4. Courts and Tribunals. Permission of dissent necessitates the existence of an institution with powers of arbitration or adjudication between the political and administrative authorities. Ordinary courts can serve the purpose here, but, if necessary, special administrative tribunals can also be established. Such tribunals must, in the interest of justice and fair play, be completely free from any kind of executive pressure.

Free AIOU Solved Assignment 2 Code 8605 Spring 2021

2 discuss the broad sense of school management. And give suggestions for improving our school management system.

Management has been described as a social process involving responsibility for economical and effective planning & regulation of operation of an enterprise in the fulfillment of given purposes. It is a dynamic process consisting of various elements and activities. These activities are different from operative functions like marketing, finance, purchase etc. Rather these activities are common to each and every manger irrespective of his level or status.

Different experts have classified functions of management. According to George & Jerry, “There are four fundamental functions of management i.e. planning, organizing, actuating and controlling”.

According to Henry Fayol, “To manage is to forecast and plan, to organize, to command, & to control”. Whereas Luther Gullick has given a keyword ’POSDCORB’ where P stands for Planning, O for Organizing, S for Staffing, D for Directing, Co for Co-ordination, R for reporting & B for Budgeting. But the most widely accepted are functions of management given by KOONTZ and O’DONNEL i.e. PlanningOrganizingStaffingDirecting and Controlling.

For theoretical purposes, it may be convenient to separate the function of management but practically these functions are overlapping in nature i.e. they are highly inseparable. Each function blends into the other & each affects the performance of others.

1.      Planning

It is the basic function of management. It deals with chalking out a future course of action & deciding in advance the most appropriate course of actions for achievement of pre-determined goals. According to KOONTZ, “Planning is deciding in advance – what to do, when to do & how to do. It bridges the gap from where we are & where we want to be”. A plan is a future course of actions. It is an exercise in problem solving & decision making. Planning is determination of courses of action to achieve desired goals. Thus, planning is a systematic thinking about ways & means for accomplishment of pre-determined goals. Planning is necessary to ensure proper utilization of human & non-human resources. It is all pervasive, it is an intellectual activity and it also helps in avoiding confusion, uncertainties, risks, wastages etc.

2.      Organizing

It is the process of bringing together physical, financial and human resources and developing productive relationship amongst them for achievement of organizational goals. According to Henry Fayol, “To organize a business is to provide it with everything useful or its functioning i.e. raw material, tools, capital and personnel’s”. To organize a business involves determining & providing human and non-human resources to the organizational structure. Organizing as a process involves:

    • Identification of activities.
    • Classification of grouping of activities.
    • Assignment of duties.
    • Delegation of authority and creation of responsibility.
    • Coordinating authority and responsibility relationships.

3.      Staffing

It is the function of manning the organization structure and keeping it manned. Staffing has assumed greater importance in the recent years due to advancement of technology, increase in size of business, complexity of human behavior etc. The main purpose o staffing is to put right man on right job i.e. square pegs in square holes and round pegs in round holes. According to Kootz & O’Donell, “Managerial function of staffing involves manning the organization structure through proper and effective selection, appraisal & development of personnel to fill the roles designed un the structure”. Staffing involves:

4.      Directing

It is that part of managerial function which actuates the organizational methods to work efficiently for achievement of organizational purposes. It is considered life-spark of the enterprise which sets it in motion the action of people because planning, organizing and staffing are the mere preparations for doing the work. Direction is that inert-personnel aspect of management which deals directly with influencing, guiding, supervising, motivating sub-ordinate for the achievement of organizational goals. Direction has following elements:

Supervision- implies overseeing the work of subordinates by their superiors. It is the act of watching & directing work & workers.

Motivation- means inspiring, stimulating or encouraging the sub-ordinates with zeal to work. Positive, negative, monetary, non-monetary incentives may be used for this purpose.

Leadership- may be defined as a process by which manager guides and influences the work of subordinates in desired direction.

Communications- is the process of passing information, experience, opinion etc from one person to another. It is a bridge of understanding.

5.      Controlling

It implies measurement of accomplishment against the standards and correction of deviation if any to ensure achievement of organizational goals. The purpose of controlling is to ensure that everything occurs in conformities with the standards. An efficient system of control helps to predict deviations before they actually occur. According to Theo Haimann, “Controlling is the process of checking whether or not proper progress is being made towards the objectives and goals and acting if necessary, to correct any deviation”. According to Koontz & O’Donell “Controlling is the measurement & correction of performance activities of subordinates in order to make sure that the enterprise objectives and plans desired to obtain them as being accomplished”. Therefore controlling has following steps:

  1. Establishment of standard performance.
    1. Measurement of actual performance.
    2. Comparison of actual performance with the standards and finding out deviation if any.
    3. Corrective action.

The term ‘management’ has been used in different senses. Sometimes it refers to the process of planning, organizing, staffing, directing, coordinating and controlling, at other times it is used to describe it as a function of managing people. It is also referred to as a body of knowledge, a practice and discipline. There are some who describe management as a technique of leadership and decision-making while some others have analyzed management as an economic resource, a factor of production or a system of authority.

Definitions:                                              

Various definitions of management are discussed as follows:

(A) Art of Getting Things Done:

Mary Parker Follett:

“Management is the art of getting things done through others.” Follett describes management as an art of directing the activities of other persons for reaching enterprise goals. It also suggests that a manager carries only a directing function.

Harold Koontz:

“Management is the art of getting things done through and with people in formally organized groups.” Koontz has emphasized that management is getting the work done with the co-operation of people working in the organization.

J.D. Mooney and A.C. Railey:

“Management is the art of directing and inspiring people.” Management not only directs but motivates people in the organization for getting their best for obtaining objectives.

As per the above mentioned definitions, management is the art of getting things done through people who may be managers or non-managers. At the level of chief executive, the work is got done through functional managers, at middle level the things are implemented through supervisors and at lower level of management through workers. Human and technical skills play an important role for getting things done. These definitions represent the traditional view point of management while workers are treated as a factor of production only. They are paid wages for doing their work.

This view point suffers from the following deficiencies:

(i) This concept does not specify what type of functions is required to be performed for getting things done from others.

(ii) Management is treated as an art. These days management has also acquired the status of science.

(iii) The workers are treated as means of getting results. The needs and aspirations of workers are not taken into account.

Management is much more than just getting the things done through others. Management may be a technique for getting things done through others by satisfying their needs and helping them grow. Harold Koontz emphasized the attainment of business goals with the co-operation of people working in the organization.

(B) Management as a Process:

Some authors view management as a process because it involves a number of functions. Management refers to all Involves different a manager does. Various functions which are performed by managers to make the efficient use of the available material and human resources so as to achieve the desired objectives are summed up as management. Thus, the functions of planning, organizing, staffing, directing, co-coordinating and controlling fall under the process of management.

Henry Fayol:

“To manage is to forecast and plan, to organize, to command, to co-ordinate, and to control.” Fayol described management as a process of five functions such as planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating and controlling. Modern authors, however, do not view co-ordination as a separate function of management.

George R. Terry:

“Management is a distinct process consisting of activities of planning, organizing, actuating and controlling, performed to determine and accomplish stated objectives with the use of human beings and other resources.” Though Terry has described four functions to be a part of management process but managerial functions are classified into five categories.

James L. Lundy:

“Management is principally the task of planning, coordinating, motivating and controlling the efforts of others towards a specific objective.” Lundy has also specified some functions which management has to perform for achieving organizational goals.

Louis Allen:

“Management is what a manager does.” This is a broad definition linking all the activities of the manager to the concept of management. Whatever work is undertaken by a manager forms a part of management. Above definitions associate management with the functions undertaken for running a business. There may be a difference as to what functions are required to be taken up by the management but functions such as planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling form the process of management.

These functions are continuously taken up. On the completion of last function, the first function starts again. The functions of management are interdependent and interlinked. In order to achieve the objectives, a manager has to perform various functions simultaneously.

(C) Management as a Discipline:

Sometimes the term ‘management’ is used to connote neither the activity nor the personnel who performs it, but as a body of knowledge, a practice and a discipline. In this sense, management refers to the principles and practices of management as a subject of study. Management is taught as a specialized branch of knowledge in educational institutions. It has drawn heavily from Psychology, Sociology, and Anthropology etc. A person acquiring degree or diploma in management can try for a managerial job.

Management is treated both as an art as well as science. An art is often regarded as the systematic application of skill or knowledge in effecting accomplishment of results. In management one has to use personal skill and knowledge in solving many complicated problems to achieve enterprise objectives. Management is regarded as a science because it has developed certain principles, generalizations and techniques which have more or less universal application. So management is a study of a specific discipline. When one says that a particular person is in management stream then it is assumed that he is studying a particular field of learning.

(D) Art and Science of Decision-Making and Leadership:

Decision-making and guiding others is considered an important element of management. A manager has to take various decisions every day for properly running an enterprise.

Donald J. Clough:

“Management is the art and science of decision-making and leadership.” The author views management as an art and science of decision-making. The quality of decisions determines the performance of a manager. He has also to provide leadership to subordinates for motivating them to undertake their work.

Rose Moore:

“Management means decision-making.” Decision-making cannot be the only function of management even though it is very important.

Stanley Vance:

“Management is simply the process of decision-making and control over the action of human beings for the express purpose of attaining pre­determined goals.” Stanley Vance has emphasized decision-making and control over the actions of employees for reaching the enterprise goals.

Association of Mechanical Engineers, U.S.A.: “Management is the art and science of preparing, organizing and directing human efforts applied to control the forces and utilize the materials of nature for the benefit of man.” The association has given a wide definition where it has emphasized that management controls and directs human efforts for utilizing natural resources for the benefit of man. The above mentioned definitions describe management as a science and art of decision making and controlling the activities of employees for obtaining enterprise objectives.

(E) An Art of Increasing Productivity:

Some authors are of the view that the science of management is used to increase productivity of the enterprise.

John F. Mee:

“Management may be defined as the art of securing maximum prosperity with a minimum of effort so as to secure maximum prosperity and happiness for both employees and employer and give public the best possible service.”

F.W. Taylor:

“Management is the art of knowing what you want to do in the best and cheapest way.”

Management is the art of securing maximum productivity at the minimum of cost so that it helps employers, employees and public in general. Public is also a stake holder in business, it should also benefit from good performance of business.

(F) Integration of Efforts:

Management makes use of human and physical resources for the benefit of the enterprise.

Keith and Gubellini:

“Management is the force that factors integrates men and physical plant into an effective operating unit.” Management integrates physical and human resources for operating the manufacturing process in a better way.

Barry M. Richman:

“Management entails the co­ordination of human and material resources towards the achievement of organizational objectives as well as the organization of the productive functions essential for achieving stated or accepted economic goals.” Management alms to co-ordinate and integrate various resources in the organization for achieving enterprise objectives. The thrust of above mentioned definitions is that integration and co-ordination of various factors of production is essential for running a business properly and this function is undertaken by management.

(G) Management as a Group of Managers:

The term management is frequently used to denote a Refers to managerial group of managerial personnel. When one says that personnel management of such and such company is efficient, he refers to the group of persons who are looking after the working of the enterprise. These persons individually are called managers. “Management is the body or group of people which performs certain managerial functions for the accomplishment of pre-determined goals.”

All managers perform managerial functions of planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling. These persons collectively arc called ‘body of managerial personnel.’ In actual practice the term ‘management’ is used to denote top management of the organization. Top management is mainly concerned with determination of objectives, strategic planning, policy formulation and overall control of the organization.

Concept of Management:

Objectives of Management:

The primary objective of management is to run the enterprise smoothly. The profit earning objective of a business is also to be kept in mind while undertaking various functions.

Following are the broad objectives of management:


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1. Proper Utilization of Resources:

The main objective of management is to use various resources of the enterprise in a most economic way. The proper use of men, materials, machines and money will help a business to earn sufficient profits to satisfy various interests. The proprietors will want more returns on their investments while employees, customers and public will expect a fair deal from the management. All these interests will be satisfied only when physical resources of the business are properly utilized.

2. Improving Performance:

Management should aim at improving the performance of each and every factor of production. The environment should be so congenial that workers are able to give their maximum to the enterprise. The fixing of objectives of various factors of production will help them in improving their performance.

3. Mobilizing Best Talent:

The management should try to employ persons in various fields so that better results are possible. The employment of specialists in various fields will be increasing the efficiency of various factors of production. There should be a proper environment which should encourage good persons to join the enterprise. The better pay scales, proper amenities, future growth potentialities will attract more people in joining a concern.

4. Planning for Future:

Another important objective of management is to prepare plans. No management should feel satisfied with today’s work if it has not thought of tomorrow. Future plans should take into consideration what is to be done next. Future performance will depend upon present planning. So, planning for future is essential to help the concern.

Scope or Branches of Management:

Management is an all pervasive function since it is required in all types of organized endeavour. Thus, its scope is very large.

The following activities are covered under the scope of management:

(i) Planning,

(ii) Organization

(iii) Staffing.

(iv) Directing,

(v) Coordinating, and

(vi) Controlling.

The operational aspects of business management, called the branches of management, are as follows:

  1. Production Management
  2. Marketing Management
  3. Financial Management.
  4. Personnel Management and
  5. Office Management.

1. Production Management:

Production means creation of utilities. This creation of utilities takes place when raw materials are converted into finished products. Production management, then, is that branch of management ‘which by scientific planning and regulation sets into motion that part of enterprise to which has been entrusted the task of actual translation of raw material into finished product.’

It is a very important field of management ,’for every production activity which has not been hammered on the anvil of effective planning and regulation will not reach the goal, it will not meet the customers and ultimately will force a business enterprise to close its doors of activities which will give birth to so many social evils’.

Plant location and layout, production policy, type of production, plant facilities, material handling, production planning and control, repair and maintenance, research and development, simplification and standardization, quality control and value analysis, etc., are the main problems involved in production management.

2. Marketing Management:

Marketing is a sum total of physical activities which are involved in the transfer of goods and services and which provide for their physical distribution. Marketing management refers to the planning, organizing, directing and controlling the activities of the persons working in the market division of a business enterprise with the aim of achieving the organization objectives.

It can be regarded as a process of identifying and assessing the consumer needs with a view to first converting them into products or services and then involving the same to the final consumer or user so as to satisfy their wants with a stress on profitability that ensures the optimum use of the resources available to the enterprise. Market analysis, marketing policy, brand name, pricing, channels of distribution, sales promotion, sale-mix, after sales service, market research, etc. are the problems of marketing management.

3. Financial Management:

Finance is viewed as one of the most important factors in every enterprise. Financial management is concerned with the managerial activities pertaining to the procurement and utilization of funds or finance for business purposes.

The main functions of financial management include:

(i) Estimation of capital requirements;

(ii) Ensuring a fair return to investors;

(iii) Determining the suitable sources of funds;

(iv) Laying down the optimum and suitable capital

Structure for the enterprise:

(i) Co-coordinating the operations of various departments;

(ii) Preparation, analysis and interpretation of financial statements;

(iii) Laying down a proper dividend policy; and

(iv) Negotiating for outside financing.

4. Personnel Management:

Personnel Management is that phase of management which deals with the effective control and use of manpower. Effective management of human resources is one of the most crucial factors associated with the success of an enterprise. Personnel management is concerned with managerial and operative functions.

Managerial functions of personnel management include:

(i) Personnel planning;

(ii) Organizing by setting up the structure of relationship among jobs, personnel and physical factors to contribute towards organization goals;

(iii) Directing the employees; and

(iv) Controlling.

The operating functions of personnel management are:

(i) Procurement of right kind and number of persons;

(ii) Training and development of employees;

(iii) Determination of adequate and equitable compensation of employees;

(iv) Integration of the interests of the personnel with that of the enterprise; and

(v) Providing good working conditions and welfare services to the employees.

5. Office Management:

The concept of management when applied to office is called ‘office management’. Office management is the technique of planning, coordinating and controlling office activities with a view to achieve common business objectives. One of the functions of management is to organize the office work in such a way that it helps the management in attaining its goals. It works as a service department for other departments.

The success of a business depends upon the efficiency of its administration. The efficiency of the administration depends upon the information supplied to it by the office. The volume of paper work in office has increased manifold in these days due to industrial revolution, population explosion, increased interference by government and complexities of taxation and other laws.

Harry H. Wylie defines office management as “the manipulation and control of men, methods, machines and material to achieve the best possible results—results of the highest possible quality with the expenditure of least possible effect and expense, in the shortest practicable time, and in a manner acceptable to the top management.”           

AIOU Solved Assignment Code 8605 Spring 2021

3 differentiate the inspection and supervision and discuss the characteristics of supervision.

According to Adams and Dickey, “Supervision is a planned programme for the improvement.” It exists in their opinion for one reason only to improve teaching and learning. So it is mainly concerned with “development of teachers and pupils.”

The dictionary of education defines supervision as “all efforts of designed schools towards providing leadership to teachers and other educational workers in the improvement of instruction ; involves the stimulation of professional growth and development of teachers, the selection and revision of educational objectives, materials on instruction and methods of teaching and the evaluation of instruction.” Here the word “supervision” means to guide and stimulate the activities of teachers with a view to improve them, i.e., teaching as well as instruction and promoting professional growth.

Now-a-days the concept of supervision has been changed. It is not concerned merely with improvement of teachers as it was conceived in the previous days, when the supervisory activities were directive and prescriptive. But now according to some experts, supervision requires a super plus vision a superior perspective attended by special preparation and position. To them the primary function of supervisors of all types is leadership, encouragement and recognition of leadership in any other person either in the professional staff or among the community participants.

Therefore they designate the supervisor as a leader who has possession of the following two qualities:

  1. A clear perspective of the school’s goals and awareness of its resources and qualities and another is,
  2. The ability to help others, contribute to this vision and to perceive and to act in accordance with it.

So it is now clear that the modern concept of supervision centres round the basic concept of instructional improvement through leadership and co-operation of all the agencies concerned.

Keeping this in view Neagly and Evans have strongly viewed that, “Modem supervision in school is positive democratic action aimed at the improvement of classroom instruction through the continued growth of all concerned – the educed, the teacher, the supervisor, the administrator and the parents of others interested lay person.”

Supporting this Barr and Burton have rightly stated that, “No doubt the aim of supervision is the improvement of teaching but this can be facilitated through the development of the teacher, the growth of the pupil and the improvement of the teaching-learning process as a whole.

It has been clearly visualized that the supervision seeks to be democratic in nature out and out which demands constant efforts on the part of inspecting officers. They have to stimulate co-ordinate, guide for continued growth of the teacher in a school, both individually and collectively in better understanding and more effective performances of all teaching activities.

As a result of which teachers may be better able to stimulate and guide the continued growth of every pupil towards the most intelligent participation in modern democratic society. This new concept is based on the belief that inspection and supervision are a co-operative enterprise in which both the teacher and inspecting officers have to participate actively.

From this discussion the term inspection has got priority in supervision which was not stressed on in earlier days because the degree of success of any supervisory activity or programme depends upon the degree of inspection done by the inspecting officials. Because they are the real supervisors of the educational programme. As both supervision and inspection are meant for the same purpose and inspection covers almost all the areas of supervision there is no necessity of bringing difference between supervision and inspection.

Scope of Supervision:

The scope of supervision is very wide which can be proved from the following aspects of education as the scope of supervision in education:

1. The Instructional Work:

The first and foremost task of the supervisor is how to improve the instruction.

For this, he supervises:

  1. Method of teaching employed for different subjects.
  2. Audio-visual aids used.
  3. The time table.
  4. The distribution of work among teachers.
  5. The written work of students and its correction.
  6. Teachers lesson diaries and scheme of work.

2. Co-Curricular Activities:

The supervisor supervises the organisation of various co- curricular activities keeping in view their need and importance.

These co-curricular activities are:

  1. Games and sports
  2. Dramatics
  3. School magazines
  4. Library services
  5. Educational tours
  6. Field trips and
  7. Picnics

3. Records and Registers:

The supervisor has to supervise all the records and registers of an educational institution or school by examining the following type of records:

  1. Admission Register
  2. Attendance Register
  3. The cash book

ADVERTISEMENTS:

  1. The log book
  2. The Stock Register and
  3. The Receipt Book

4. The School Environment:

The school environment has a profound role bringing over an improvement of educational process

For this the supervisor has to supervise the following aspects of the school environment:

  1. School Discipline
  2. Relationship between the head of the institution and his staff, between staff and students
  3. Emotional climate of the school
  4. General behaviour of students
  5. Cleanliness of the surroundings
  6. Goodwill of the self-government formed by students
  7. Plantation of trees
  8. Morale of the classroom
  9. Relationship among teachers
  10. Hygienic conditions of the toilet, canteen and water supply
  11. Relationship of the head of the institution or school with the community members
  12. Beautification of the campus

5. Management:

Supervision of management is also another aspect of the scope of supervision in education without which the overall improvement of teaching-learning process will never be successful.

The supervision of the management of the educational institution includes the following aspects with it:

  1. Co-operation of teachers and community members.
  2. The ability of the headmaster to run the school or institution.
  3. Co-operation, co-ordination and responsibility between teachers and headmaster in organizing any programme.
  4. Duties and responsibilities rendered by the teachers as the members of different sub-committees for different programmes.
  5. Problems with the managing committee.
  6. Achievements and failures of the school.

6. Guidance to Teachers:

The supervisor has not only to supervise but also guide the headmaster and teachers in their efforts for ensuring qualitative improvement of education.

For this supervision includes the following things in its jurisdiction:

  1. Innovations in teaching
  2. Remedial instruction
  3. Community mobilization and support
  4. Conducting seminars, conferences, meetings and workshops to discuss about problems and their solution.

7. Developmental Activities:

The supervisor supervises the developmental activities of the school in the following heads:

  1. Justification of developmental activities, proposals for extension of the school building.
  2. Allotment receipt and the progress made. Difficulties faced and the steps taken by the headmaster to wipe out the difficulties, and
  3. Construction of the new building and its progress.
  4. 4 describe the concept of educational planning. Also highlight the different types of educational planning.

There are conflicting ideas about the aims or purposes of education. These disagreements have existed since early times, relative to philosophical stands, specific contexts, and historical periods. For example, the purpose of education in the New England colonies was to prepare the child to read the bible in order to be able to seek salvation. Which of the aims below do you believe to be the most important? Why?

Intellectual Achievement: To provide students with academic knowledge and skills in order to prepare them for post-secondary education or the workforce. This has been the most agreed upon aim of education. Most parents want their children to reach high standards in math, English, history, and science.

Prosocial Values: To train students for responsible citizenship and prepare them for adulthood through socializing them in the norms and values of society. Teachers, who symbolize authority to the child, emphasize the values of a democratic society, such as patriotism, obedience, honesty, cooperation, competitiveness, and moral responsibility.

Economic Competitiveness (social efficiency): To provide students with skills and knowledge needed to be competitive in a global economy; become an effective and efficient work force; and prepare workers with values and socialization needed in the workplace through developing attitudes such as punctuality, cooperation, and following rules.

Personal Growth: To help students find self-fulfillment, personal relevance, clarification of personal values, communication and self-expression skills, and development of effective learning styles. Student interests and feelings are emphasized. The curriculum is created collaboratively between teachers and students to help students reach their potential.

Socialization and Culture: To impart culture to students through great ideas of western culture, such as works of art, literary classics, and basic skills so that they are literate and cultured citizens and can participate intelligently in American society. Schools are places where students from diverse language and cultural backgrounds learn English and learn about American traditions, holidays, historical figures, geography, and democracy.

Social Change: To help students become productive citizens that are capable of changing the social order through emphasis on social issues and solving of social problems. Students are provided with the knowledge and skills to improve society and are given opportunities to see themselves as both individuals and contributing to the group and the larger society. They are encouraged to participate in community service or service learning, so that they become reflective and responsive about the needs and problems in their community. A purpose of education is to advance social mobility, rather than perpetuate the status quo.

Equal Educational Opportunity: To ensure that all students have a free education, common curriculum, opportunities for diverse students to attend the same school, and equality of financial expenditure in a given locality. There is clear evidence that certain groups in American society are denied equal opportunity economically, socially, and educationally. It is essential that all children, regardless of race, ethnic background, gender, religion, socioeconomic level, or language, receive a quality education. A balance between diversity and unity is needed in schools.

Problem Solving: To teach students how to learn through the development of thinking, research, and study skills so that they become excellent problem solvers and creative thinkers who are capable of dealing with change. The rapidity of change today, technological advances, and the explosion of information require that students develop tools for lifelong learning.

‘Self-realization’ is the development and expression of characteristic attributes and potentials in a fashion which comprehensively discloses their subject’s real nature. Usually, the ‘self’ in question is the individual person, but the concept has also been applied to corporate bodies held to possess a unitary identity.

What constitutes the self’s ‘real nature’ is the key variable generating the many conceptions of self-realization. These can be grouped broadly into two types: (1) the ‘collectivist’, in which the self-realizing lifestyle, being either the same for all or specific to a person or subgroup of people, is ultimately definable only in the context, and perhaps with reference to the common purposes, of a collective social body; (2) the ‘individualist’, in which a person’s self-realization has no necessary connection with the ends of a particular community.

As an ethic, self-realization can be proposed as the means to achieve a life identified as good by some criterion independent of the self-realizing process, or held to be that which actually defines the good. Its critics typically argue that human nature is such that any equation of ‘self-realization’ and ‘goodness’ is implausible or undesirable.

When one practices and can successfully exist without any thought then one exists as a nameless, formless, Concentrating Entity, Consciousness, Chit Shakti (Sentient Energy), Atman (Self). This is called Self-Realization.

The Self-Realization is important because one gets to discover one’s true nature, true Self, gains the knowledge of the only single, unchanging, ever present, Ultimate Reality, Atman / Brahman, becomes selfless and a godly human being.

Oneness and Peace

When the knowledge of Brahman / Atman (Self-Realization) dawns, greed and selfishness would vanish. Morals and ethics would spring from within. It promotes kindness, open-heartedness, love and compassion. The prevailing “Profit Mentality” would give way to “Service Mentality”.

Knowledge of Brahman promotes Oneness and Peace, Unity in Diversity, Universal Brotherhood. Once we find individual peace, we can gallop towards establishing World Peace (Vishwa Shanti) and work towards Global Well-being (Loka Kshema). When all the people in the world live peacefully as one Global Family, it is called Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam (Maha Upanishad 6.72).

Due to Self-Realization, when we see Oneness everywhere then each one of us would be comprehensively winning this game of life hands down and would be glad to help others win it too. Can there be any greater success than this? Can their be any loftier ideal than this? Now can we appreciate and understand how important the Self-Realization is. This is what Advaita Philosophy is all about.

AIOU Solved Assignment Code 8605 Autumn 2021

5 critically examine the techniques and principles of classroom management. Also give suggestions for improving our classroom management system.

According to modern educational thinking the meaning of discipline is taken in wide spread form. Today, where the objective of education has been understood to develop qualities of successful citizenship and sociability in child, at the same place, school discipline is meant internal and external discipline which should develop physical, mental, social and ethical values.

Modern concept of discipline is one in which self-discipline and social disciplines are stressed especially or particularly. The great educationist John Dewey has influenced sufficiently. He says that according to maximum modem thoughts, the meaning of discipline is to prepare children for life in democratic society, to provide help to man in achieving knowledge, strength, habits, interest and ideas which are envisaged for the up-gradation of self, his companies and whole of the society.

Importance of Discipline:

Discipline is very much important in life. In absence of it man cannot utilize powers properly given by nature (God). Through discipline only man can attain power and by this power he becomes capable of developing of his natural tendencies with personal view point. Along with it, discipline is also very much important from social view point. The great philosopher, Aristotle said, “A nation is not built by mountains and trees, for withstanding it is built by character of its citizens”.

This statement is completely true. When the citizens of some country would be disciplined they would be capable of taking their country on the path of progress. A disciplined person is of good character, and pious by mind, words and actions. In this way, it is clear that for nation or entire society discipline is very important. This fact can be made clear with the help of history also.

The history is witnessed to the time, when some country becomes prey of indiscipline; it had to accept slavery of external powers. Through discipline, a man and entire society or nation get alert. In want of it, this power perishes which results severe consequences. In this way, what a man, what a nation and what a society, personality of all is made by the great by discipline.

Discipline in Educational Institution:

Discipline in schools generally means, “Orders and system in doing things, regularity and obedience to commands.” But discipline is not synonymous with class order. It should be identified with orderly behaviour in the classroom and other forms of school activities. Outward show of order can also be maintained by force of fear. That is not real discipline. Real discipline implies persuasion while order implies compulsion.

It is therefore important that school discipline or discipline in the educational institution should be there for a gradual building up of habits, self-control and co-operation and carried out pupils, not because it is imposed from above, but because of the recognition by its necessity and value. So, discipline in educational institution or school should imply the cultivation of certain desirable attitudes, habits and values in pupils.

Components of Discipline:

Some of the most important components of discipline which are used in educational institutions are as follows:

The foundation of discipline is deeply rooted in the total school programme and classroom situation.

It has a set of components, these are as follows:

(i) Head of the Institution:

The success or failure of any educational institution depends upon the personality of the head of that educational institution. He must possess some philosophy of discipline. He must have some well grounded fundamental principles which guide him to his treat the teachers and students.

(ii) The Teacher:

The teacher is the fountain head of discipline and character formation. With good teachers, half the problem of school discipline disappears. Besides, his cleverness and originality, every teacher should be a good disciplinarian himself. This will depend on his keen insight, patience, sympathy, love, justice and impartiality.

(iii) Co-curricular Activities:

Sports, Scouting, N.C.C., Social Service and community activities of the type, develop in students a sense of self-control and self-confidence, which is the cornerstone of discipline. Such activities give our students practical lessons on the basis of their will. Social co-operation, respect for authority and leadership training can pave the right way of instructing them in the fundamentals of true discipline.

(iv) Building up Traditions:

It is already known to every-body that the higher and nobler the traditions built-up by a school, the greater the efforts on the part of students and teachers to maintain those traditions. Traditions are transmitted from one generation of students to the other and as such, if properly guided, students would never try to lower the noble traditions built by those who have gone before them.

(v) Teaching Methods:

If appropriate methods of teaching are employed, the chances of students getting in-disciplined or going astray, will be few and far between. Classroom methods should be directed towards producing well-adjusted and self-disciplined individuals and towards the building up of a high morale.

(vi) Self-Government in Schools:

In every secondary school, students should be properly associated with the administration of discipline as well as with the health, sports, dramatics and other school activities. Such an association will make them obedient to rules and regulations far more real, meaningful and willing than when the same is imposed from above.

(vii) A Good School Environment:

Every educational institution or school should prepare its calendar in the beginning of new educational session, giving a clear idea of the aims, the courses of study, administrative rules and regulations, as well as the plans of curricular and co-curricular activities of the institution,

(viii) Judicious use of Rewards and Punishments:

Meritorious and successful efforts on the part of students, must be recognized and rewarded. But rewards must not encourage unhealthy competition among students. These should be very few and administered, in a manner that may appeal to the higher motive of students.

(ix) Effective Team-Workers:

A sense of unity, co-operation and fellow feeling, prevailing among the school staff is sure to reflect upon the pupils. The young pupils in schools watch very minutely the activities of their teachers and try to imitate them for good or bad, as the case may be. It is therefore necessary that in order to promote discipline among pupils, it must first be established and maintained among the members of school-staff.

Principles for Maintaining Discipline:

(1) The base of discipline should be love, trust and goodwill as fear or doubt based discipline is quite temporary or momentary. For maintaining true discipline, there should be love for each other among school authorities like principal, teachers and students. Love originates trust and sets the foundation of discipline.

(2) Good discipline should be based on co-operation. It is most essential to keep and maintain co-operation between principal and teachers, teachers and lady teachers, teachers and pupils, teachers and guardians and students and students. If there would be no co-operation it would be very difficult to maintain good discipline. For this we have to establish rapport among all necessarily.

(3) For maintaining discipline, punishment should not be used. If someone does not leave his bad habits in any way only then its use would be necessary. If punishment is used again and again, it may create various kinds of complexes in the mind of pupils. Due to this their personality might be imbalanced. Hence, punishment should not be used as far as possible.

(4) The entire climate of school should be made beautiful and coordinating. This responsibility should not be borne by teachers and authorities alone. Rather for creating this type of atmosphere the students, guardians and whole of the society will have to take responsibility.

(5) Various creative activities should be given place in the school or educational institution, so that, children may derive mental and emotional satisfaction by doing the various activities according to their interests. For this there will be no possibility of creating problems of indiscipline.

(6) The children should be imparted knowledge about the importance of discipline. For this, only discourses are not enough through the examples of the various great persons. Rather the knowledge regarding this should be imparted to the children and the principal himself and teachers should produce their examples before them.

(7) Sufficient liberty and facilities should be given to the students and teachers for doing their duties in the educational institution or in the school.

(8) The guardians should be encouraged for making family life beautiful and comfortable as the child passes most of his time in home. If the family life is not appropriate rather it is contaminated, there would be possibility of failure of good efforts of school. Thus, through various means, the guardians should be motivated for making their family life healthy and adaptable.

School discipline is the system of rules, punishments and behavioral strategies appropriate to the regulation of children and the maintenance of order in schools. Its aim is to create a safe and conducive learning environment in the classroom.

School discipline has two main goals: (1) ensure the safety of staff and students, and (2) create an environment conducive to learning. Serious student misconduct involving violent or criminal behavior defeats these goals and often makes headlines in the process. However, the commonest discipline problems involve noncriminal student behavior (Moles 1989).

It is important to keep the ultimate goal in mind while working to improve school discipline. As education researcher Daniel Duke (1989) points out, “the goal of good behavior is necessary, but not sufficient to ensure academic growth.” Effective school discipline strategies seek to encourage responsible behavior and to provide all students with a satisfying school experience as well as to discourage misconduct.

The word “discipline’ is derived from the Latin root “disciples” meaning a pupil or disciple. Naturally, the problem of discipline was taken to consist in bringing the conduct of the pupils into conformity with ideas and standards of the master. The pupil had to develop the virtue of docility and plasticity so that the teacher might impress his personality on them and mould them in his own image. This was the conception of the relationship between pupil and teacher everywhere. Its modern concept is very broad and inclusive one. It does not recognize difference between mental and moral behavior for the purpose of control, nor, in fact for any other purpose.

In fact, the individual mind is conceived of “as a function of social life-as not capable of operating by itself but as requiring continual stimulus from social agencies and finding its nutrition in social purpose”.

Modern view of discipline is to bring the same unity in the educative process and educative material as we find in real life. School must be a social organism in which social situations should be provided to stimulate and direct the impulses of the pupils in the pursuit of the common purposes through cooperative or shared activity. To obtain good result is also another view. Cooperation should improve the intellectual, moral, social and physical activities of the students in school environment and these must be directed towards the realization of the certain goals.

Purpose of the discipline is also develop the attitudes, habits, ideas, and code of conduct through the medium of the social life of the school which should be organized on a cooperative basis and inspired by higher ethical teaching of religion.

The purpose of discipline is to help the individual to acquire knowledge, habits, interests and ideals which conduce to the well being of himself, his fellows and society as a whole. It gives realization to the school that it must be reconstructed on the lines of the development and conscious pursuit of common ends in a cooperative spirit, each member contributing to the common good in accordance with special gifts. Life in the school thus organized becomes similar to the, and continuous with, life in democratic society, and discipline becomes co-extensive with the whole of school life.

Main points

  1. Discipline gives children a feeling of security by telling them what they may and may not do.
  2. It helps children to avoid from frequent feelings of guilt and shame for misbehavior-feelings that inevitably lead to unhappiness and poor adjustment.
  3. Discipline enables children to live according to standards approved by the social group and thus to win social approval.
  4. Through discipline, children learn to behave in a way that leads to praise that, they interpret as indications of love and acceptance which is essential to successful adjustment and happiness.
  5. Discipline serves as an ego-bolstering motivation, which encourages children to accomplish what is required of them.
  6. Discipline helps children to develop a conscious the “internalized voice” that guides them in making their own decisions and controlling their own behavior.

 

 

References:

  1. Mingst, K. “Cases and the Interactive Classroom”, International Studies Notes, 1994, 19 (2):1-6.
  2. Naumes, William, Art and Craft of Case Writing, Sharpe Reference; 2nd Edition (March 30, 2006).
  3. Ortmayer, L. L. “Decisions and Dilemmas: Writing Case Studies in International Affairs”, International Studies Notes, 1994, 19 (2): 28-33.
  4. Rohdes, Carolyn, Pivotal Decisions: Selected Cases in Twentieth-Century International Politics, Fort Worth: Harcourt College Publishers, 2000.
  5. Robyn, D. “What Makes a Good Case?” Kennedy School of Government Case Program, 1986, N15-86-673.
  6. Rukstad, M. G. Macroeconomic Decision-Making in the World Economy, Fort Worth, Texas: Dryden Press, 1992.

 

 

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