Free AIOU Solved Assignment Code 854 Spring 2021
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|Title Name||Developing Material for Distance and Non Formal Education (854)|
|Service Type||Solved Assignment (Soft copy/PDF)|
|Product||Assignment of MA 2021-2022 (AIOU)|
Course: Developing Material for Distance and Non Formal Education (854)
Semester: Spring, 2021
ASSIGNMENT No. 1
- 1 Learning is a process by which behavior is changed, shaped or controlled. Discuss the statement in the light of learning theory.
Learning is a change in behaviour as a result of experience. Learning can be defined as relatively permanent change in behaviour potentiality that results from reinforced practice or experience (Steers and Porter).
A relatively permanent change in behaviour (or behaviour tendency) that occurs as a result of a person’s interaction with the environment.
Learning is defined as any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience.
> Learning involves change. How do we as leaders bring about change?
> Social learning is learning through experience, i.e., peer pressure.
> Much of the behavior in the classroom is a result of social learning, i.e., a student raises his hand to be recognized.
> Logical – Mathematical
> Study in a quiet setting.
> When reading, stop periodically to reflect on what you have read.
> Study applications, causes and effects of material.
> Write short summaries of material, (see page 314)
Four Learning Styles
> Bodily: Kinesthetic
> Visual: Spatial
> Verbal: Linguistic
> Logical: Mathematical
> By gaining a better understanding of different personalities, abilities and learning styles, we can better understand and predict the behavior of others as well as ourselves.
- Learning involves change, be it good or bad.
- The change in behaviour is relatively permanent.
- Only change in behaviour acquired through experience is considered learning.
- Some form of experience is necessary for learning. Experiences may be acquired directly through practice or observation or indirectly (i.e., reading).
- Learning is not confined to our schooling only. It is a life long process.
Determinants of Learning
- Motives (Drives)
They prompt people to action. They are the primary energisers of behaviour. They are subjective and represent the mental feelings of human beings.
They are objects that exist in the environment. They increase the probability of eliciting a specific response from a person. They may be two types :
(i) Generalisation : It takes place when the similar new stimuli repeat. It makes possible for a manager to predict human behaviour when stimuli are exactly alike. However, the negative implication of generalisation is that the manager may make false inferences and conclusions based on the principle of generalisation. For example, halo effect in perception occurs mainly because of generalisation.
(ii) Discrimination : In case of discrimination, responses vary to different stimuli. Discrimination has wide applications in organizational behaviour in view of individual differences in various aspects. For example, a supervisor may respond to a high producing worker in a positive manner, but in a different manner to one producing very less.
The stimuli results in responses – be these in the physical form or in terms, of attitudes or perception or in other phenomena.
It can be defined as anything that both increases the strength of response and tends to induce repetitions of the behaviour that preceded the reinforcement. It is a fundamental conditioning of learning. No measurable modification of behaviour can take place without reinforcement.
It means remembrance of learned behaviour over time. Converse is forgetting. Learning which is forgotten over time is called ‘extinction’. When the response strength returns after extinction without any intervening reinforcement, it is called ‘spontaneous recovery’.
Learning Through Feedback
- Any information about consequences of out behaviour
- Clarifies role perceptions
- Corrective feedback improves ability
- Positive feedback motivates future behaviour.
AIOU Solved Assignment Code 854 Spring 2021
Q No.2 suppose you have to offer a B.A level course in the area of distance education. How will you prepare a course proposal form? Explain.
The purpose of a course proposal is to provide catalog information along with the course’s purpose, content outline, learning outcomes and methods for assessing student learning.
The course proposal thus has a dual purpose: (1) to provide accurate and up-to-date course information for the College Catalog so that students can determine what they might expect to learn from the course and (2) to provide an outline of the course requirements for any instructor who will be designing and/or teaching the course.
Components of a Course Proposal
There are more than a dozen pieces of information necessary to create a course proposal: those related to catalog data, student learning and resources.
- Course Name (Subject and course number, i.e. COR-110)
- Transcript Title (short title)
- Number of Credits
- Semester to be scheduled
- Instructional Method
- Catalog Description
- Course Type
- Effective Semester (when course will first be offered)
Course Content, Learning Outcomes and Methods of Assessment
- Topical Outline
- Course Learning Outcomes
- Program Learning Outcomes (those aligned with the CLOs)
- College Competencies (those aligned with the CLOs, undergraduate courses only)
- Major Methods of Assessment
- Course Capacity
- Faculty Load (if different from the number of credits)
- Library Information Requirements
- Technology Requirements
- Facility (Classroom) Requirements
Course Modifications (modification proposals only)
- List of Changes
- Summary List of Changes
- Impact to Other Programs
For more information on each of these components go to the section How to Start a Course Proposal.
Types of Course Proposals
There are a number of different types of course proposals. Different types of proposals require different proposal templates and have different approval processes (workflows). Go to the How to Start a Course Proposal page and follow the steps for a detailed guide to creating a new course proposal.
New Permanent Course
Use this form for new courses and courses moving from experimental to permanent in the college catalog. (Courses changing from experimental to permanent status are treated as new courses because they have not yet been added to the Catalog. For a new experimental course, see the EXP proposal type below.)
The college capstone is an opportunity for students to pursue a self-directed experience in their professional program that intentionally integrates their liberal learning in the Core curriculum with their program learning. In addition to the substantive professional-based, hands-on project in this class, the capstone will include a professional ethics component and a self-evaluation/self-reflection component. If the modified course is a capstone, be sure that the course learning outcomes include the capstone learning outcomes and fill in the appropriate field to explain how Core learning outcomes are advanced and how the five CCC credits are distributed. Note that CCC credits are considered general education credits and reported as such to our accreditor, NECHE.
Starting in fall 2019, originators will use the Course Modification proposal template for course revisions that are substantive, administrative or both.
Substantive course modifications are any revisions in course delivery, learning outcomes, college competencies, or methods of assessment. Administrative changes to catalog data use a different proposal template and a less rigorous approval process (workflow). If you are making both administrative and substantive changes to a course, use one substantive course modification proposal to capture all of the revisions.
Some of the administrative changes are treated as “FYI” and do not require Curriculum Committee or Faculty Senate approval: course name (prefix and/or course number), course description, cross listing, or travel component. In the case that all of the proposed revisions fall only into the FYI category, the proposals will not need Curriculum Committee or Faculty Senate approval. The remaining administrative changes–changes in credits, prerequisites, code, grading scheme–do require Curriculum Committee and Faculty Senate approval.
The college capstone is an opportunity for students to pursue a self-directed experience in their professional program that intentionally integrates their liberal learning in the Core curriculum with their program learning. In addition to the substantive professional-based, hands-on project in this class, the capstone will include a professional ethics component and a self-evaluation/self-reflection component. If the modified course is a capstone, be sure that the course learning outcomes include the capstone learning outcomes and that the rationale explains how Core faculty have been involved in the revision process. If splitting a Capstone into separate courses, use the New Permanent Course proposal template for the additional course(s).
AIOU Solved Assignment 1 Code 854 Spring 2021
Q No.3 Distinguish between an aim and an objective. State what words should be used and what world should be avoided while writing the objectives.
(1) The aim is about what you hope to do, your overall intention in the project. It signals what and/or where you aspire to be by the end. It’s what you want to know. It is the point of doing the research. An aim is therefore generally broad. It is ambitious, but not beyond possibility.
The convention is that an aim is usually written using an infinitive verb – that is, it’s a to + action. So aims often start something like.. My aim in this project is … to map, to develop, to design, to track, to generate, to theorise, to build … Sometimes in the humanities and social sciences we have aims which attempt to acknowledge the inevitable partiality of what we do, so we aim ‘to investigate, to understand, and to explore… ‘ But lots of project reviewers and supervisors prefer to see something less tentative than this – they want something much less ambivalent, something more like to synthesise, to catalogue, to challenge, to critically interrogate ….
(2) The objectives, and there are usually more than one, are the specific steps you will take to achieve your aim. This is where you make the project tangible by saying how you are going to go about it.
Objectives are often expressed through active sentences. So, objectives often start something like In order to achieve this aim, I will… collect, construct, produce, test, trial, measure, document, pilot, deconstruct, analyse… Objectives are often presented as a (1) (2) (3) formatted list – this makes visible the sequence of big steps in the project. The list of objectives spells out what you actually and really will do to get to the point of it all.
You have to make the objectives relatively precise. Having a bunch of vague statements isn’t very helpful – so ‘I will investigate’ or ‘I will explore’ for example aren’t particularly useful ways to think about the research objectives. How will you know when an investigation has ended? How will you draw boundaries around an exploration? In thinking about the answer to these questions, you are likely to come up with the actual objectives.
Objectives have to be practical, do-able and achievable. Research reviewers generally look to see if the time and money available for the research will genuinely allow the researcher to achieve their objectives. They also look to see if the objectives are possible, actually research-able.
Because the objectives also act as project milestones, it’s helpful to express them as things that are able to be completed – so for example scoping an archive of materials will have an end point which may then lead on to a next stage/objective. Even if objectives are to occur simultaneously, rather than one after the other, it is important to be clear about what the end point of each step/objective will be, and how it will help achieve the aim.
It’s really helpful to think about what can go wrong with aims and objectives. There are some predictable problems that you want to avoid when writing them. These are some common aims-objectives issues:
- There are too many aims. One or two is usually enough. (I might stretch to three for other people’s projects if pushed, but I usually have only one for my own projects.)
- Aims and objectives waffle around, they don’t get to the point and the reader doesn’t have a clue what is actually intended and will be done – aims and objectives need to be concise and economically expressed.
- Aims and objectives don’t connect – the steps that are to be taken don’t match up with the overall intention.
- The aims and the objectives are not differentiated, they are basically the same things but said in different words.
- The objectives are a detailed laundry list rather than a set of stages in the research.
- The objectives don’t stack up with the research methods – in other words they are either not do-able, or what is to be done won’t achieve the desired results.
The final thing to say is that aims and objectives can’t be rushed. Because they generate the research questions and underpin the research design, sorting the aims and objectives are a crucial early stage in planning a research project. Aims and objectives are a foundation on which the entire project is constructed, so they need to be sturdy and durable.
AIOU Solved Assignment 2 Code 854 Spring 2021
Q No.4 describe the significance of structuring the writing for distance education. Differentiate among the three important approaches of structuring the writing for distance education.
Distance learning describes any learning that happens without the students being physically present in the lesson. (However, this could also apply to the teacher in certain situations.)
Historically, this described correspondence courses in which students would communicate with their schools or teachers by mail. More recently, distance education has moved online to include a huge range of systems and methods on practically any connected device.
Though there are lots of learning (and teaching) options online, there are a few types that are well supported by existing systems and established pedagogies.
- Video conferencing is a common way for teachers to interact directly with students in live lessons. This could be a one-on-one session or a class-like scenario in which multiple students connect to the teacher live.
- Synchronouslearning is when all the students learn together at the same time (and often even place) but the instructor is at another location. It often features video or teleconferencing that connects teachers and learners digitally.
- Asynchronouslearning is a less connected but also less constrained format. Instead of live online lessons, students are given learning tasks with deadlines. They then self-study to complete the assignments.
- Open-scheduleonline courses add yet another layer of flexibility. It is a type of asynchronous course setup, except there aren’t any deadlines either. This is ideal for learners with other demands on their time, such as professionals or stay-at-home parents.
- Fixed-timeonline courses are a type of synchronous course that requires online users to all visit a specific virtual location at a set time and place (e.g. a webinar). Unlike more rigid synchronous lessons, this does allow students from anywhere in the world to connect and interact online.
- Computer-baseddistance education is a fixed-time, synchronous lesson on computers, usually a computer lab. This is most common in existing institutions that already have access to the necessary devices.
- Hybrid learningis a specific type of blended learning where students are learning the same lesson in real-time (i.e. synchronous distance learning) but some of the students are physically present while others are learning remotely.
Distance education is clearly different from regular education in terms of a student or teacher’s physical presence. But what does that mean, exactly?
For the most part, it translates into increased freedom for both learners and educators, but it also requires higher degrees of discipline and planning to successfully complete the course of study.
The enhanced freedom of remote learning is most clearly seen in the fact that students can choose courses that fit their schedules and resources. (Teachers can do the same.) And in the case of digital learning, students can also choose the location and teaching styles that best suit their needs.
The flip side of freedom, however, is the discipline required to make the most of the lessons. Students need to self-motivate in order to actually get the work done, especially in systems that don’t require them to be present in some specific time or place. Teachers also need to be better organized with contingencies should their students need additional explanation, again especially if they are not teaching live and able to “read the room.”
In certain cases, however, distance learning is not just required but the best possible option. There are times when the advantages of remote education really have a chance to shine.
Advantages of Distance Learning
Certainly, live instruction is great. The face-to-face contact lets teachers and students connect in a very authentic way, which often results in strong rapport and understanding. While not impossible, this kind of connection still seems much easier in person. So why is distance learning even a thing?
As it turns out, there are a number of advantages when learning remotely. Here are just a few.
The top benefit of distance education is its flexibility. Students can choose when, where, and how they learn by selecting the time, place, and medium for their education. For those who want direct, live access to teachers there are video conferencing options. But for students who may be doing their training around a job or other responsibilities, a more relaxed schedule may work better. There are options to match virtually anyone’s needs.
And thanks to the proliferation of online learning options, there is a course structure on practically any subject that a person would want to study.
Whether due to remote location or being differently-abled, some students lack basic access to educational facilities. Remote learning programs offer every student the opportunity to learn and improve themself in the environment they find the most effective.
Remote learning also opens up new horizons of education in terms of international institutions. Major universities and trade schools the world over now offer recognized degrees, certificates, and professional qualifications online to learners of all ages.
Thanks to the scalable nature of digital learning especially, distance learning is driving down the cost of education. Online degrees are becoming almost commonplace, and there are even accredited online-only universities that can eliminate expensive infrastructure overhead and get straight to the teaching.
Regardless of whether you are an educator or a student, there are certain features that you should look for in a distance learning system to get the most out of it.
Ease of Use
Simplicity is the key. Any system you adopt to either teach or learn should be user-friendly for everyone involved. This means a clear interface and a set of certain essential features that include:
- Digital whiteboarding and annotation
- Media creation and sharing
- Screen recording with audio
- Direct student-to-teacher communication
- Multi-device compatibility
The credibility of a remote learning platform is really a combination of the instructor and the platform itself. For learners, it’s important to note how well recognized that platform’s credentials are. Does it provide a recognized degree? A professional certificate? A certificate of completion? These are all things to keep in mind before enrolling.
And educators looking to adopt a remote learning system, it’s important to know what kind of accreditation that system can bestow on your behalf or on the behalf of your institution. For academic degrees or professional qualifications, recognition by outside regulatory bodies will likely be necessary.
As most distance learning systems are made to be fairly flexible in this regard, the course schedule has a lot to do with its content and not the system. Still, it’s an important factor to consider when choosing a course.
AIOU Solved Assignment Code 854 Autumn 2021
Q No.5 discuss the term student activities and interaction. What care will you take is generating the activities?
Every day, teachers make countless real-time decisions and facilitate dozens of interactions between themselves and their students. Although they share this commonality, educators all over the country often talk about these decisions and interactions in different ways. The Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS), developed at the University of Virginia’s Center for Advanced Study of Teaching and Learning, helps educators view classrooms through a common lens and discuss them using a common language, providing support for improving the quality of teacher-student interactions and, ultimately, student learning.
The CLASS describes ten dimensions of teaching that are linked to student achievement and social development. Each of the ten dimensions falls into one of three broad categories: emotional support, classroom organization, and instructional support.
Emotional support refers to the ways teachers help children develop warm, supportive relationships, experience enjoyment and excitement about learning, feel comfortable in the classroom, and experience appropriate levels of autonomy or independence. This includes:
- Positive climate— the enjoyment and emotional connection that teachers have with students, as well as the nature of peer interactions;
- Negative climate— the level of expressed negativity such as anger, hostility or aggression exhibited by teachers and/or students in the classroom;
- Teacher sensitivity— teachers’ responsiveness to students’ academic and emotional needs; and
- Regard for student perspectives— the degree to which teachers’ interactions with students and classroom activities place an emphasis on students’ interests, motivations, and points of view.
Classroom organization refers to the ways teachers help children develop skills to regulate their own behavior, get the most learning out of each school day, and maintain interest in learning activities. This includes:
- Behavior management — how well teachers monitor, prevent, and redirect misbehavior;
- Productivity — how well the classroom runs with respect to routines, how well students understand the routine, and the degree to which teachers provide activities and directions so that maximum time can be spent in learning activities; and
- Instructional learning formats — how teachers engage students in activities and facilitate activities so that learning opportunities are maximized.
- Instructional supportrefers to the ways in which teachers effectively support students’ cognitive development and language growth. This includes:
- Concept development — how teachers use instructional discussions and activities to promote students’ higher-order thinking skills and cognition in contrast to a focus on rote instruction;
- Quality of feedback — how teachers expand participation and learning through feedback to students; and
- Language modeling — the extent to which teachers stimulate, facilitate, and encourage students’ language use.
In light of this, research suggests that considering the following interrelated elements when designing and implementing learning activities may help increase student engagement behaviorally, emotionally, and cognitively, thereby positively affecting student learning and achievement.
1. MAKE IT MEANINGFUL
In aiming for full engagement, it is essential that students perceive activities as being meaningful. Research has shown that if students do not consider a learning activity worthy of their time and effort, they might not engage in a satisfactory way, or may even disengage entirely in response (Fredricks, Blumenfeld, & Paris, 2004). To ensure that activities are personally meaningful, we can, for example, connect them with students’ previous knowledge and experiences, highlighting the value of an assigned activity in personally relevant ways. Also, adult or expert modeling can help to demonstrate why an individual activity is worth pursuing, and when and how it is used in real life.
2. FOSTER A SENSE OF COMPETENCE
The notion of competence may be understood as a student’s ongoing personal evaluation of whether he or she can succeed in a learning activity or challenge. (Can I do this?) Researchers have found that effectively performing an activity can positively impact subsequent engagement (Schunk & Mullen, 2012). To strengthen students’ sense of competence in learning activities, the assigned activities could:
- Be only slightly beyond students’ current levels of proficiency
- Make students demonstrate understanding throughout the activity
- Show peer coping models (i.e. students who struggle but eventually succeed at the activity) and peer mastery models (i.e. students who try and succeed at the activity)
- Include feedback that helps students to make progress
3. PROVIDE AUTONOMY SUPPORT
We may understand autonomy support as nurturing the students’ sense of control over their behaviors and goals. When teachers relinquish control (without losing power) to the students, rather than promoting compliance with directives and commands, student engagement levels are likely to increase as a result (Reeve, Jang, Carrell, Jeon, & Barch, 2004). Autonomy support can be implemented by:
- Welcoming students’ opinions and ideas into the flow of the activity
- Using informational, non-controlling language with students
- Giving students the time they need to understand and absorb an activity by themselves
4. EMBRACE COLLABORATIVE LEARNING
Collaborative learning is another powerful facilitator of engagement in learning activities. When students work effectively with others, their engagement may be amplified as a result (Wentzel, 2009), mostly due to experiencing a sense of connection to others during the activities (Deci & Ryan, 2000). To make group work more productive, strategies can be implemented to ensure that students know how to communicate and behave in that setting. Teacher modeling is one effective method (i.e. the teacher shows how collaboration is done), while avoiding homogeneous groups and grouping by ability, fostering individual accountability by assigning different roles, and evaluating both the student and the group performance also support collaborative learning.
5. ESTABLISH POSITIVE TEACHER-STUDENT RELATIONSHIPS
High-quality teacher-student relationships are another critical factor in determining student engagement, especially in the case of difficult students and those from lower socioeconomic backgrounds (Fredricks, 2014). When students form close and caring relationships with their teachers, they are fulfilling their developmental need for a connection with others and a sense of belonging in society (Scales, 1991). Teacher-student relationships can be facilitated by:
- Caring about students’ social and emotional needs
- Displaying positive attitudes and enthusiasm
- Increasing one-on-one time with students
- Treating students fairly
- Avoiding deception or promise-breaking
6. PROMOTE MASTERY ORIENTATIONS
Finally, students’ perspective of learning activities also determines their level of engagement. When students pursue an activity because they want to learn and understand (i.e. mastery orientations), rather than merely obtain a good grade, look smart, please their parents, or outperform peers (i.e. performance orientations), their engagement is more likely to be full and thorough (Anderman & Patrick, 2012). To encourage this mastery orientation mindset, consider various approaches, such as framing success in terms of learning (e.g. criterion-referenced) rather than performing (e.g. obtaining a good grade). You can also place the emphasis on individual progress by reducing social comparison (e.g. making grades private) and recognizing student improvement and effort.