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Free AIOU Solved Assignment Code 847 Spring 2021
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Course: Adult Education in Comparative Perspective (847)
Semester: Spring, 2021
ASSIGNMENT No. 1
Q.1 Write a history of Adult education in Pakistan.
Only primary and secondary education, neither of which is compulsory, is offered in Pakistan. Students seeking higher education must go abroad to a university. Pakistan has three types of schools: Quranic schools, Dhivehi-language primary schools, and English-language primary and secondary schools. Schools in the last category are the only ones equipped to teach the standard curriculum. In 1992 approximately 20 percent of government revenues went to finance education, a significant increase over the 1982 expenditure of 8.5 percent. Part of the reason for this large expenditure results from recent increases in the construction of modern school facilities on many of the islands. In the late 1970s, faced with a great disparity between the quality of schooling offered in the islands and in Male, the government undertook an ambitious project to build one modern primary school in each of the nineteen administrative atolls. The government in Male directly controls the administration of these primary schools. Literacy is reportedly high; the claimed 1991 adult literacy rate of 98.2 percent would make Pakistan the highest in South Asia and the Indian Ocean region.
In Pakistan primary education comprises classes one through five, enrolling students in the corresponding ages six through ten. Secondary education is divided between classes six through ten, which represent overall secondary education, and classes eleven and twelve, which constitute higher secondary education. In 1992 Pakistan had a total of 73,642 pupils in school: 32,475 in government schools and 41,167 in private schools.
Traditionally, education was the responsibility of religious leaders and institutions. Most learning centered on individual tutorials in religious teachings. In 1924 the first formal schools opened in Male. These schools were call edhuruge, and served as Quranic schools. Edhuruge were only established on two other islands at this time. The basic primary school on the islands in the 1990s is the makthab, dating from the 1940s. Primary schools of a slightly larger scale in terms of curriculum, enrollment, and number of teachers, are called madhrasaa. During the 1940s, a widespread government campaign was organized to bring formal schooling to as many of the inhabited islands as possible. Enthusiastically supported by the islanders, who contributed a daily allotment of the fish catch to support the schools, many one-room structures of coral and lime with thatched roofs were constructed. The makthab assumed the functions of the traditional edhuruge while also providing a basic curriculum in reading, writing, and arithmetic. But with the death of reformist president Didi and the restoration of the sultanate in the early 1950s, official interest in the development of education in the atolls waned.
Throughout the 1960s, attention to education focused mainly on the two government schools in Male. In 1960 the medium of instruction changed from Dhivehi to English, and the curriculum was reorganized according to the imported London General Certificate of Education. In the early 1990s, secondary education was available only in Male’s English-medium schools, which had also preschool and primary-level offerings. Dhivehi-medium schools existed, but most were located in Male. These schools were private and charged a fee.
As of the early 1990s, education for the majority of Maldivian children continues to be provided by the makthab. In 1989 there were 211 community and private schools, and only fifty government schools. The results of a UN study of school enrollment in 1983 showed that the total number in the new government primary schools on the atolls was only 7,916, compared with 23,449 in private schools. In Male the number of students attending government schools was 5,892, with 5,341 in private schools. Throughout the 1980s, enrollment continued to rise as more government-sponsored schools were constructed in the atolls. In 1992 the first secondary school outside Male opened on Addu Atoll.
In 1975 the government, with international assistance, started vocational training at the Vocational Training Center in Male. The training covered electricity, engine repair and maintenance, machinery, welding, and refrigeration. Trainees were chosen from among fourth- and fifth-grade students. In the atolls, the Rural Youth Vocational Training Program provided training designed to meet local needs in engine repair and maintenance, tailoring, carpentry, and boat building. On the island of Mafuri on Male Atoll, a large juvenile reformatory also offered vocational training. Established by the Ministry of Home Affairs in 1979, the reformatory provided training courses in electrical and mechanical engineering, carpentry, welding, and tailoring, as well as a limited primary school academic curriculum.
International organizations enabled the creation of the Science Education Center in 1979 and an Arabic Islamic Education Center opened in 1989. Japanese aid enabled the founding of the Pakistan Center for Social Education in 1991. In the latter half of 1993 work began on the Pakistan Institute of Technical Education to help eliminate the shortage of skilled labor.
AIOU Solved Assignment Code 847 Spring 2021
Q.2 what do you understand by the term’s autonomy and self-direction.
As a way of getting started, let’s define each of the sub-constructs associated with self-direction in simple terms. Links to each of the Self-Direction sub-constructs are provided at the end of this webpage.
- Self-Directed Learning: Individuals direct their own learning by establish goals, developing and implementing plans, monitoring progress and evaluating results.
- Self-Regulated Learning: Individuals regulate their thinking and behaviors in order to maximize their potential for learning and improving their learning outcomes.
- Self-Regulation of Emotions: Individuals regulate their impulses and emotional responses to stimuli and events in their lives and learning.
- Executive Functions: These functions control and manage the complex processes that enable us to learn and live balanced lives.
- Goal Setting/Action Planning: Individuals have the capacity to establish goals, develop action plans and then take action to successfully achieve their goals.
The concept of self-directed learning has been present since my first contact with the field of adult education in the mid-1970s. To me, self-directed learning has always been there like a mantra in the field of adult education, showing up in literature and professional converse and debate. Despite this extensive focus in certain fora, I rarely met a learning situation where this approach was systematically used in practice. My experience tells me that self-directed learning has been a concept present in theory, discussions, and exchange of views, but seldom systematically put to practice in adult education. For the last three decades, I have held a position in higher education. In this field, a challenge is how to design appropriate educational programs to increase student activity and student responsibility concerning their own learning. From my point of view, the situation in higher education is also an obvious reason for increased focus on self-directed learning. Research in the field of self-directed learning may form a useful reflection basis for this transformation and provide a good basis for constructive planning of student active learning. The field of higher education requires a transformation from the authoritative role of the educator into the educator as a facilitator of learning. Self-directed learning should be a well-suited reflection basis for this shift. In my opinion, an essential condition for practical use of self-directed learning is to clarify all aspects of the concept, so that practice is not based on a limited understanding. The purpose of this article is not to locate all relevant literature related to self-directed learning but to give a basic understanding of the field based on essential written material. This article is a narrative review based on secondary sources which fit for the purpose of clarifying the different aspects of self-directed learning. The main text section is broken down to subparts showing different aspects considered central to the field of self-directed learning. The intention is to account for these aspects in a unified presentation, to provide a quick overview. The principle of self-direction can be dated long back to England in the 1800s, where terms such as self-help, self-improvement, and self-education were used (, p. 46). However, there are obvious reasons to date the scholarly study of self-directed learning back to the beginning of the 1960s. In 1961, Cyril Houle published his book The Inquiring Mind . This book made visible self-directed learning as an important part of adult learning . Houle’s intention was probably not to influence the study and practice of self-directed learning, but his contribution to the area is substantial. Houle did not often use the term self-directed learning, but through his definition, he helped to create space for self-directed learning as a legitimate form of adult education, Brockett and Donaghy state . In his definition of adult learning, he did not presuppose an educational agent to whom the learner should relate to. In Houle’s view, individuals can learn alone, in groups, or institutions. This understanding cleared the way for the term self-directed learning. Houle is also linked to self-directed learning through two of his doctoral graduates, Allen Tough and Malcolm Knowles. Tough’s work on self-directed learning was directly influenced by his study with Houle . Tough was also the first one to give a comprehensive description of self-directed learning [4, 5]. He concluded that adults spend a remarkable amount of time on what he called learning projects for the purpose of acquiring and maintaining specific characteristics and skills or changing in one way or another (, p. 250). The learning can be performed through reading, listening, observation, course participation, reflection, exercise, or otherwise.
AIOU Solved Assignment 1 Code 847 Spring 2021
Q.3 Explain and differentiate between literacy and basic Education.
The levels of literacy in Pakistan are disturbingly low. The total literacy rates of young people and adults in 1995 and 2005 were 65 per cent and 50 per cent respectively. In addition, there are also huge disparities in the levels of literacy between women and men. For example, between 1995 and 2004, the literacy rate for young males and females aged 15–24 years, was 77 per cent and 53 per cent, respectively. During the same period, the female adult (24 years and above) literacy rate was 35 per cent but was believed to be even lower among rural-based women and women from ethnic minorities.
Similarly, many Pakistani children face huge challenges in accessing quality and sustainable education and in continuing to attend school. According to the National Commission for Human Development (NCHD), although national statistics indicate a gross enrolment rate of 70 per cent in primary education, 50 per cent of these children drop out of school before reaching the fifth class/grade and thus, before acquiring the basic literacy competencies expected of primary school graduates. Only one-third of children (or 11 per cent of the total target population) who enrol in primary education manage to acquire effective literacy skills, indicating that high drop-out rates and failure to access quality and sustainable education partly account for the high rates of illiteracy in Pakistan. Overall, about 54 million Pakistanis are illiterate.
A number of socio-cultural and economic factors limit access to sustainable education for many Pakistanis. These include poverty, low state funding of the educational sector (for example in 2005, total expenditure on education was 2.4 per cent of GNP), inadequate human and institutional capacities, mismanagement and corruption. These challenges are exacerbated by high levels of political instability and insecurity as well as by conservative religious beliefs and practices which restrict education opportunities for girls and women.
In light of this and recognising that illiteracy is both the cause and consequence of poverty and national underdevelopment, the NCHD – an autonomous and federal statutory body – initiated the National Literacy Programme (NLP) in 2002 in an effort not just to combat illiteracy but also to empower people to become effective agents of social change and development. The NLP was also intended to support efforts of the Ministry of Education in the provision of education opportunities to the citizens.
The UPE programme primarily targets out-of-school children and young people and is thus principally intended to: to assist out-of-school children to gain access to education by setting up ‘feeder’ schools in areas with no government schools, increase the net enrolment of children into primary education and reduce the drop-out rate through technical support (under the UPEP) and social mobilisation and increase the learning achievement of children through the provision of quality education and adequate resources. The programme involves the compilation of a database of out-of-school children through door-to-door surveys which are conducted by community volunteers and the District Education Department (DED) as well as through social (or community) mobilisation to encourage families to enrol their children in school. The NCHD has also opened formal community-based primary schools in remote areas where such schools did not exist before, in order to ensure that every child has access to education. Similarly, more resources, including teachers and teaching-learning materials, have been made available to schools to cater for the increasing number of children enrolling into primary education. In order to prevent absenteeism or dropping-out, teachers and community volunteers have been empowered to follow-up and persuade parents and the children themselves to return to and remain in school.
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The NLP has facilitated the establishment of about 21,000 community-based feeder schools (CBFSs) in 50,000 villages and trained over 21,000 community-based literacy facilitators (feeder teachers). In addition, the UPE programme has also provided in-service and professional advancement training to 313,287 primary school teachers. These strategies have enabled about 7,879,253 out-of-school children (aged five to nine years)to have access to education resulting in a marked increase in the net enrolment ratio in primary school (from 52 per cent to 87 per cent) in most districts. Additionally, strong community mobilisation, including the mobilisation of about 40,000 volunteers, has resulted in a significant reduction in the drop-out rate: from 50 per cent to 18 per cent in most districts where the UPE programme has been implemented.
The Adult Literacy Programme (ALP)
The ALP is a basic literacy programme which endeavours to provide basic learning opportunities to young people and adults (mostly women) aged between 11 and 45 years old with little or no literacy skills. Most of the targeted beneficiaries have never attended school or dropped out of school before acquiring basic literacy skills due to socio-cultural and economic factors highlighted above. The NCHD target is to enrol about one million learners into the ALP per year, most of whom are women.
Aims and Objectives
- To nurture basic literacy skills among young people and adults.
- To combat illiteracy among adults, particularly women, in order to improve their standard of life as well as to play active roles in the education of their children.
- To enhance the capacity of families to address socio-economic and health challenges such as diseases, which fuel absenteeism from school or force their children to drop out of school.
- To improve the learning achievement of students by enabling mothers to support their children in their studies at home.
- To empower people to actively participate in community and national development through the provision of life skills training opportunities.
The following are key programme impacts:
- The NLP has established about 120,263 adult literacy centres in 122 districts and as a result, about 2,555,606 adult learners (95 per cent of whom are women) have graduated from the programme and are now able to read and write. The programme has significantly targeted and benefited women. It was not only intended to redress the imbalance in educational opportunities between men and women but also to empower women as they become better able to participate in community development activities as well as to contribute to the well-being of their families. Most importantly, the programme has also raised women’s awareness regarding critical social issues, particularly childcare, reproductive health and the risks of early marriages.
- The cooperation of the NCHD, DED and the community has been one of the programme’s major strengths which resulted in the production and broad dissemination of a wide range of contextually relevant teaching-learning materials across the whole country. It also strengthened institutional relationships which has, ultimately benefited the people.
- The intergenerational approach to literacy training has cultivated strong familial relationships (i.e. relations between parents and their children) as they help each other to master literacy skills. This has, reportedly, further nurtured positive behaviour among children and young people. Furthermore, many parents are now better able to support the education of their children, especially girls.
- Many programmes are now involved in income generating activities which has improved the living standards of participants’ families. Similarly, there is improved participation of programme graduates in community activities which has improved community relations and mechanisms for implementing community development projects.
- Overall, these positive contributions to combating illiteracy were recognised by being awarded the prestigious UNESCO International Reading Association Literacy Prize in 2006 for increasing the literacy rates in Pakistan.
AIOU Solved Assignment 2 Code 847 Spring 2021
Q.4 Discuss the role of Non-Government Organizations in promoting adult education.
NGOs have several strengths. First, they have a capacity for participatory planning; monitoring and evaluation; and social transformation through grass-root interaction. Other strengths include their ability to closely monitor the schools and teachers, and their capacity and willingness to provide need based teacher training. The history of Pakistani NGOs goes back to partition in 1947, however, not referred to as NGOs at that time, many voluntary organizations were set up to provide humanitarian aid to the refugees pouring into the country and to help victims. The government of Pakistan has long recognized the importance of NGOs in terms of government’s willingness to extend cooperation to NGOs. The experience of NGOs in recent years suggests that at the level of policy planning.
Building the school is only half the story. In Pakistan what are the required ingredients to transform a building into a school? Issues that need to be addressed include: How do you encourage parents to send their kids to schools? How do you get and keep teachers? How do you discourage student and teacher absenteeism? The provision of physical infrastructure needs to be supplemented by other measures to make sure the schools function properly: that both teachers and students attend regularly and that the education is of a high standard. Common implementation problems encountered under each project include:
- weak implementation capacity;
- frequent staff turnover;
- inadequate recurrent budgets;
- implementation delays;
- weak project management and supervision;
- weak coordination of activities, and among government institutions;
- incomplete training components ;
- underutilization of loan funds for capacity building, procurement and consultants;
- inadequate focus on qualitative changes;
- delayed and inadequate staffing of facilities (schools etc); and
- weak monitoring and minimal impact assessment
Working towards a common goal of improving the situation of primary education among the country’s populace, NGOs use a variety of strategies such as public-private partnership; Teacher training; Family literacy; Community participation; Community supported schools; Adopt-a-School; Running non formal/community based schools with effective community participation; and Developing human resources for the education sector.
NGOs are very clear about the fact that their role is not to replace the government but to ensure that the government effectively covers educational needs, with respect to quality, accessibility, affordability and equity in mind. NGOs assume several important roles such as advocacy, service delivery, capacity building, grass root community mobilization, innovation, social experimentation and research.
Most NGOs mobilize the community to acquire land, labor and capital for building the schools. Communities also help in hiring teachers and monitoring the overall performance of the school. This builds trust, and ownership, and it also removes any information asymmetries about the intentions of the parties involved. Sustainability of institutions is dependent on the community taking over, to an extent at least, and being involved with the institution.
To sum up, in spite of shortcomings, NGOs have an important role to play in meeting challenges of quality, access and affordability of primary education in Pakistan. Their involvement and their rapid growth spans over the last couple of decades, owing primarily to greater access to foreign and local funds.
The future role of NGOs is going to be much more dynamic. NGOs are already playing an important role in networking and creating partnerships. Their supportive role in the future will include a shift towards formal education, from the current predominantly non-formal focus, and greater involvement in both elementary and secondary education.
There is no doubt that progress has been made in the last few decades, but progress has been slow, and universalization of primary education still remains a relatively distant goal. There are also other issues that limit the progress. The state and society in Pakistan have, in many ways, accepted the fact that they need the help of NGOs and the private sector to ensure better delivery. The experiments of today, and especially the successes of today, can thus act as guides for tomorrow.
- The level of instruction, environment and teaching has to go hand in hand with the raising of education board standards. Treating the teachers with respect and endowing them with the status of important team members creates an enabling environment for them. NGOs should hire teachers from needy families who are not over qualified for the job.
- The most important lesson shared for making the schools a success, is effective surveillance of schools through a variety of mechanisms, including local surveillance through community education committees and through NGOs’ community mobilizers.
- Donor dependency is the biggest challenge. Sustainability becomes hard to achieve once time-bound funds are exhausted. However, there are donors who are NGO-dependent. Careful planning and proper utilization of funds is the NGO’s responsibility as the donors are not always development experts.
- The government must ensure that every person – child, youth and adult – shall be able to benefit from educational opportunities designed to meet their basic learning needs.
- An expanded vision is needed to serve the basic learning needs, institutional structures, curricula, and conventional delivery systems while building on the best in current practices. New possibilities exist today which result from the convergence of the increase in information and the unprecedented capacity to communicate. We must seize them with creativity and a determination for increased effectiveness.
- Educational authorities have a unique obligation to provide basic education forall, but they cannot be expected to supply every human, financial or organizational requirement for this task. New and revitalized partnerships at all levels will be necessary: partnerships among all sub-sectors and forms of education, recognizing the special role of teachers and that of administrators and other educational personnel; partnerships between education and other government departments, including planning, finance, labour, communications, and other social sectors; partnerships between government and non-governmental organizations, the private sector, local communities, religious groups, and families.
AIOU Solved Assignment Code 847 Autumn 2021
Q.5 critically examine the role of teacher in promoting adult education.
Adult education teachers coordinate and teach programmes designed specifically for adult learners. Typical activities involve designing and teaching courses, liaising with further education authorities and following curriculum development.
Adult education covers a whole spectrum of subjects, from academic areas like history and literature to practical subjects like IT and languages, as well as social and life skills. Learners are usually between 18 years of age and 85 and above; they may be recent school levers or retired people looking to extend their skills and knowledge base, to help them in day-to-day life.
Teachers organise and run tutorials, seminars and lectures in particular subjects. Along with the responsibilities of teaching and preparing lesson plans to engage people from a variety of backgrounds, the teachers often have to carry out administration tasks connected with the running of the programmes. Many of these will be accredited courses delivered through the VEC network of schools and colleges while others are delivered by locally based community groups which play a key role in attracting learners. Many of the locally based groups deliver accredited courses while others concentrate on ensuring that learners develop self-confidence about learning, enabling them to progress to accredited options.
- Planning, preparing and delivering lessons to classes.
- Involving learners in the planning and implementing of their learning activities.
- Creating a climate that encourages and supports learning.
- Fostering a spirit of collaboration in the learning setting.
- Developing a rapport with members of the class, to meet the needs of each and deliver a structured and fulfilling learning experience.
- Foster critically reflective thinking
- Assessing and recording pupils progress, through coursework and examinations.
- Participating in staff meetings.
Skills and qualities
- Highly conscientious and committed to the highest standards of professional service.
- Excellent communication and organisational skills.
- Caring and motivated by the best interests of his/her students.
- Enthusiasm for the subject material that will foster a love of learning by students.
- Willing to engage in ongoing professional development.
- Ability to relate well to different groups of students of different ages and ability levels.
- Team-player who can collaborate with colleagues.
As a teacher, you should:
- Enjoy communicating your understanding to others.
There is definitely a performance element to most teaching. Our section on interpersonal skills, including effective speaking, covers this in more detail, and there is a great deal of overlap with presentation skills.
- Have confidence.
You will need the confidence to look calm and professional even when tired and stressed.
- Have great organisational skills.
Have you prepared for the session and done any marking in time?
Have you kept what is needed for anyone in the group who was away?
If you are part of a teaching organisation, have you fed back results to any interested colleagues?
- Work effectively in groups.
In a school or college, you may be part of a group that teach at your level or within your subject. If so, you will have to agree between you what is to be taught and how to deal with any difficulties.
- Be able to deal with conflict.
There may be students who need to be told to work harder, or a disagreement between students that you need to help to sort out.
- Motivate your students to do their best.
This may require encouragement and/ or criticism, and probably a bit of both at different times.
- Empathise with your Students.
If you can see that your students are exhausted, there may be no point in trying to teach a very complicated topic. You need to create a feeling that you are all working together towards the same goal. This means building up trust and rapport.
- Give feedback.
Whether this takes the form of comments on performance or marking written work, it needs to be constructive. Offer praise as well as criticism whenever possible and tell your students how they can improve.