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Free AIOU Solved Assignment Code 834 Spring 2023
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Course: Educational Technology (834)
Semester: Spring, 2023
ASSIGNMENT No. 1
- 1 Critically inspect the historical perspective of educational technology. Also suggest how educational technology can improve teaching practice?
Educational technology, sometimes shortened to EduTech or EdTech, is a wide field. Therefore, one can find many definitions, some of which are conflicting. Educational technology as an academic field can be considered either as a design science or as a collection of different research interests addressing fundamental issues of learning, teaching and social organization. Educational technology as practice refers to any form of teaching and learning that makes use of technology. Nevertheless, there are a few features on which most researchers and practitioners might agree:
- Use of technology is principled: Technology means the systematic application of scientific knowledge to practical tasks. Therefore, educational technology is based on theoretical knowledge drawn from different disciplines (communication, education, psychology, sociology, philosophy, artificial intelligence, computer science, etc.) plus experiential knowledge drawn from educational practice.
- Educational technology aims to improve education. Technology should facilitate learning processes and increase performance of the educational system(s) as it regards to effectiveness and/or efficiency.
In this short introduction we will try to give a preliminary definition of the field.
- Essential reading in educational technology
- educational technologies(different types of technologies used in education)
Educational technology is a very wide field. Therefore one can find many definitions, some of which are conflicting.
- Technologymeans the systematic application of scientific or other organized knowledge to practical task. Therefore, educational technology is based on theoretical knowledge from different disciplines (communication, psychology, sociology, philosophy, artificial intelligence, computer science, etc.) plus experiential knowledge from educational practise (Natalie Descryver)
- “Educational technology refers to the use of tools, technologies, processes, procedures, resources, and strategies to improve learning experiences in a variety of settings, such as formal learning, informal learning, non-formal learning, lifelong learning, learning on demand, workplace learning, and just-in-time learning. Educational technology approaches evolved from early uses of teaching tools and have rapidly expanded in recent years to include such devices and approaches as mobile technologies, virtual and augmented realities, simulations and immersive environments, collaborative learning, social networking, cloud computing, flipped classrooms, and more.”
Educational technology is a field. A educational technology refers to a technology that is particularly suited for education plus its usage/range of applications maybe. See the educational technologies article and the category educational technologies. Instructional technology and elearning which sometimes are used as a synonyms sometimes not. e-learning often refers to technology or designs used in distance teaching, but it also is used to describe any sort of technology use in education.
As of 2019, e-learning has been replaced by the word “digital learning” or sometimes edTech. We prefer continue using “educational technology”, although the term “digital learning” is more open to the idea that technology has become a general omnipresent tool, i.e. encompasses any sort of technology use in education.
The following graphic shows the evolution according to google trends. Globally speaking, interest in the field has much declined. This can be explained by the fact that search terms like “educational technology” have been replaced by trendy technology, such as “MOOC” or “e-learning”, not shown in the figure, as explained in the digital learning article.
Educational technology research always had an ambitious agenda. Sometimes it only aims at increased efficiency or effectiveness of current practise, but frequently it aims at pedagogical change. While it can be considered as a design science it also addresses fundamental issues of learning, teaching and social organization and therefore makes use of the full range of modern social science and life sciences methodology.
A field is implicitly defined by journals, conferences and study programs.
The Journal of Interactive Learning Research published by the association for the Advancement of Computing in Education included on March 2006 the following enumeration of interactive learning environments that gives an idea on the technical scope of the field.
- authoring systems
- cognitive toolsfor learning
- computer-assisted language learning
- computer-based assessment systems
- computer-based training
- computer-mediated communications
- computer-supported collaborative learning
- distributed learning environments
- electronic performance support systems
- interactive learning environments
- interactive multimedia systems
- interactive simulationsand games
- intelligent agents on the Internet
- intelligent tutoring systems
- virtual realitybased learning systems
AIOU Solved Assignment Code 834 Spring 2023
Q No 2 Write down Thorndike’s five subordinate laws to explain the learning process with relevant examples.
Thorndike’s Laws ofLearning:
1) Law of Readiness:-
First primary law of learning, according to him, is the ‘Law of Readiness’ or the ‘Law of Action Tendency’, which means that learning takes place when an action tendency is aroused through preparatory adjustment, set or attitude. Readiness means a preparation of action. If one is not prepared to learn, learning cannot be automatically instilled in him, for example, unless the typist, in order to learn typing prepares himself to start, he would not make much progress in a lethargic & unprepared manner.
2) Law of Exercise:-
The second law of learning is the ‘Law of Exercise’, which means that drill or practice helps in increasing efficiency and durability of learning and according to Throndike’s S-R Bond Theory, the connections are strengthened with trail or practice and the connections are weakened when trial or practice is discontinued. The ‘law of exercise’, therefore, is also understood as the ‘law of use and disuse’ in which case connections or bonds made in the brain cortex are weakened or loosened. Many examples of this case are found in case of human learning. Learning to drive a motor-car, typewriting, singing or memorizing a poem or a mathematical table, and music etc. need exercise and repetition of various movements and actions many times.
3) Law of Effect:-
The third law is the ‘Law of Effect’, according to which the trial or steps leading to satisfaction stamps in the bond or connection. Satisfying states lead to consolidation and strengthening of the connection, whereas dis-satisfaction, annoyance or pain lead to the weakening or stamping out of the connection. In fact, the ‘law of effect’ signifies that if the response satisfy the subject, they are learnt and selected, while those which are not satisfying are eliminated. Teaching, therefore, must be pleasing. The educator must obey the tastes and interests of his pupils. In other words, greater the satisfaction stronger will be the motive to learn. Thus, intensity is an important condition of ‘law of effect’. Besides these three basic laws, Throndike also refer to five subordinate laws which further help to explain the learning process. These are-
4) Law of Multiple – Response-
According to it the organism varies or changes its response till an appropriate behaviour is hit upon. Without varying the responses, the correspondence for the solution might never be elicited. If the individual wants to solve a puzzle, he is to try in different ways rather than mechanically persisting in the same way. Throndike’s cat in the puzzle box moved about and tried many ways to come out till finally it hit the latch with her paw which opened the door and it jumped out.
5) The Law of Set or Attitude-
Learning is guided by a total set or attitude of the organism, which determines not only what the person will do but what will satisfy or annoy him. For instance, unless the cricketer sets himself to make a century, he will not be able to score more runs. A student, similarly, unless he sets to get first position and has the attitude of being at the top, would while away the time and would not learn much. Hence, learning is affected more in the individual if he is set to learn more or to excel.
6) Pre- potency of Elements:-
According to this law, the learner reacts selectively to the important or essential in the situation and neglects the other features or elements which may be irrelevant or non- essential. The ability to deal with the essential or the relevant part of the situation, makes analytical and insightful learning possible. In this law of pre-potency of elements, Thorndike is really anticipating insight in learning which was more emphasized by the Gestaltions.
7) Law of Response by Analogy-
According to this law, the individual makes use of old experiences or acquisitions while learning a new situation. There is a tendency to utilise common elements in the new situation as existed in a similar past situation. The learning of driving a car, for instance, is facilitated by the earlier acquired skill of driving a motor cycle or even riding a bicycle because the perspective or maintaining a balance and controlling the handle helps in stearing the car.
8) The Law of Associative Shifting-
According to this law we may get an response, of which a learner is capable, associated with any other situation to which he is sensitive. Thorndike illustrated this by the act of teaching a cat to stand up at a command. A fish was dangled before the cat while he said ‘ stand up’. After a number trails by presenting the fish after uttering the command ‘stand up’, he later ousted the fish and the over all command of ‘stand up’ was found sufficient to evoke the response in the cat by standing up or her hind legs.
In brief implications of the Theory are-
1) According to this theory the task can be started from the easier aspect towards its difficult side. This approach will benefit the weaker and backward children.
2) A small child learns some skills through trial and error method only such as sitting, standing, walking, running etc. In teaching also the child rectifies the writing after commiting mistakes.
3) In this theory more emphasis has been laid on motivation. Thus, before starting teaching in the classroom the students should be properly motivated.
4) Practice leads a man towards maturity. Practice is the main feature of trial and error method. Practice helps in reducing the errors committed by the child in learning any concept.
5) Habits are formed as a result of repeitition. With the help of this theory the wrong habits of the children can be modified and the good habits strengthened.
6) The effects of rewards and punishment also affect the learning of the child. Thus, the theory lays emphasis on the use of reward and punishment in the class by the teacher.
7) The theory may be found quite helpful in changing the behaviour of the deliquent children. The teacher should cure such children making use of this theory.
8) With the help of this theory the teacher can control the negative emotions of the children such as anger, jealousy etc.
9) The teacher can improve his teaching methods making use of this theory. He must observe the effects of his teaching methods on the students and should not hesitate to make necessary changes in them, if required.
10) The theory pays more emphasis on oral drill work. Thus, a teacher should conduct oral drill of the taught contents. This help in strengthening the learning more.
AIOU Solved Assignment 1 Code 834 Spring 2023
Q No 3 Discuss the statement, “Education is a social process to bring about desirable changes in the individual according to the needs and philosophy of the society”.
Learning is an enduring change in behaviour, or the capacity to behave in a given fashion which results from practice or other forms of experience (Chunk, 2012). Learning can also be looked at as a relative permanent change of behaviour as a result of experience.
Learning theories are theories whose main concern is to link research with education. In other words learning theories explain how learning and teaching processes should be and/or should take place. As teachers deal with teaching and of equal importance learning of students, the contribution of various learning theories to teacher development is with some detail given hereunder.
Although theories differ in many ways, including their general assumptions and guiding principles, many rest on a common foundation. These theories differ in how they predict that learning occurs—in the processes of learning—and in what aspects of learning they stress. Thus, some theories are oriented more toward basic learning and others toward applied learning and, within that, in different content areas; some stress the role of development, others are strongly linked with instruction; and some emphasize motivation.
Behavioural learning theories
Behavioural learning theories view learning as change in rate/frequency of occurrence, or form of behaviour or response which occurs primarily as a function of environmental factors (Chunk, 2012). They also contend that learning involves the formation of associations between stimuli and responses. Behaviourists explain learning in terms of observable phenomena, and reinforcing consequences make the response more likely to occur whereas punishing consequences make it less likely. The role of environment specifically how stimuli are arranged and presented and how responses are reinforced are of most important. Motivation is the process whereby goal-directed activities are instigated and sustained.
As environment properly arranged help learning to occur, teachers should prepare the environment that will help learners to learn such as arranging activities that suit environment. Teachers also need to help learners make practice of what they have learned. This is important as learning is subject to the rate of occurrence of behaviour. The practicing is important for strengthening the responses.
Learning should be reinforced. Students should therefore be given rewards. Teachers are to reward any desired behaviour in learning. However to weaken the undesired behaviour learned, teachers should apply punishment. In developing the profession of teaching, teachers have to note that developing professionally has some benefits such as being able to help learners learn. Increasing the knowledge base, being rewarded economically and developing/improving their personal lives. This is to say teachers plan to develop professionally due to these observable benefits as well.
Cognitive learning theories
Cognitive learning theorists stress the acquisition of knowledge and skills, formation of mental structures and processing of information and beliefs (Chunk, 2012). To cognitivists, learning is an internal mental phenomenon inferred from what people say and do. They contend that learning best takes place by doing it (Aggarwal, 1994).
Cognitivists acknowledge the role of environmental conditions as influences on learning, but teachers’ explanations and demonstrations of concepts serve as environmental inputs for students. Practice of skills and correct feedback as needed promote learning. What students do with information, how they attend to, rehearse, transform, code, store, and retrieve is critically important. In general cognitivists suggest that learning takes place in the mind as is a result of mental processes on the information received.
Teachers should organise the teaching materials in a way that the concept in them can easily be acquired and processed by learners’ mind. Teachers need to use variety of teaching techniques. This helps teachers lead students to explore the concepts from different angels. Observational learning by Albert Bandura suggests that students learn by observing. Teachers therefore need to be role models to their students.
Current learning builds upon the previous one. Teachers therefore should seek for students’ prior knowledge before they launch new concepts. Teachers need to provide exercises and practices to the learners. This is because students learn best in the course of doing exercises. Exercises help to accommodate the information into the mind. Courses and topics should be divided into subparts which can easily be understood by students. The small parts should be taught in such a way that they reinforce each other.
Developmental theory of learning
This theory was put forward by Jean Piaget whose study focused on the development of children understanding. He did this through observing them while talking and performing different activities. His view was on how children`s minds work and develop has contributed a lot in education. His particular insight was on the role of maturation in increasing capacity of children to understand their world. It was recognized that, children cannot undertake certain tasks until they are psychologically mature enough to do so (Atherton, 2011).
Piaget put forward some ideas relating on his study;
Assimilation: The process by which a person takes material into their mind from the environment, which may mean changing the evidence of their senses to make it fit
Accomodation: The difference made to one’s mind or concepts by the process of assimilation. Note that assimilation and accommodation go together: you can’t have one without the other
Conservation: The realization that objects or sets of objects stay the same even when they are changed about or made to look different.
Egocentrism: the belief that you are the centre of the universe and everything revolves around.
Schema (or scheme): The representation in the mind of a set of perceptions, ideas, And /or actions, which go together (Atherton, 2011).
A teacher’s planning should provide opportunities for both learner and teacher to obtain and use information about progress towards learning goals. It also has to be flexible to respond to initial and emerging ideas and skills. Planning should include strategies like; how learners will receive feedback, how they will take part in assessing their learning and how they will be helped to make further progress to ensure that learners understand the goals they are pursuing and the criteria that will be applied in assessing their work (alternative assessment).
Learner involvement: the learner is engaged as a partner and encouraged to take the driving seat in learning so that they develop their own skills and awareness through self-assessment and peer review as well as through constructive feedback from teacher
– In teaching and learning teachers should treat students according to their level of maturity .This will enable learners to impart knowledge and skills compatible to their understanding ability. For example our education system in Tanzania is 2-7-4-2-3+ .where 2 stands for preschool education, 7 stands for primary education, 4 stands for ordinary level secondary education, 2 stands for advanced level secondary education and 3+ stands for tertiary education respectively (MoEVT, 1995).This structure also reflects also the age of learners for example preschool children can start at the age of 5-6 years the time where their is rapid language development. Teachers of this level do so to meet this objective.
– Teaching should commence from simple to complex or from abstract to concrete as far as development and maturity are concerned
Constructivism theories of learning
Constructivism is a theory of knowledge with roots in philosophy, and psychology. The founders of this theory are : Vygotsky, Brunner and John Dewey, they believe that (1) knowledge is not passively received but actively built up by the cognizing subject; (2) the function of cognition is adaptive and serves the organization of the experiential world . In other words, “learning involves constructing one’s own knowledge from one’s own experiences.” Constructivist learning, therefore, is a very personal endeavor, where by internalized concepts, rules, and general principles may consequently be applied in a practical real-world context. Meaning that humans generate knowledge and meaning from an interaction between their experiences and their ideas i.e. students will learn best by trying to make sense of something on their own with the teacher as a guide to help them along the way.
Hawkins (1994) said that knowledge is actively constructed by learners through interaction with physical phenomenon and interpersonal exchanges. Mathew (1994) said that constructivist teaching and constructivist learning are Oxymoronic terms meaning that they are two terms which goes together but they are controversial to each other. In constructivist teaching the teacher is required to enact agendas from outside the classroom that is it has to be of societal imperative but intended to enrich the curriculum at classroom level. Bell (1993) describes four forms of constructivist relationship between teacher and student these are;
Power on: This is a traditional approach of instruction where the teacher teaches and he/ then allows students to construct new knowledge post teaching process.
Power of: This is also a traditional approach of instruction where the teacher ignores learning opportunities in the course of teaching but students are told to take note of them to be explored post learning process.
Power for: This is a democratic approach of teaching where the learner is freer to explore physical environment so as to solve some problems and create new knowledge.
Power with: This is a democratic approach of teaching where learners have high opportunity in the course of learning. It was contended that, constructivist teaching scheme has five phases which are:
(i) Orientation: Focusing learners interest on a particular area for learning
(ii) Elicitation: Helping children become aware of their prior knowledge so that teacher can know student range of ideas.
(iii) Restructuring ideas: Helping children become aware of an alternative point of view these goes together with modifying, replacing or extending views.
(iv) Application of new idea: Reinforcing the newly constructed idea
(v). Review: Reflection on how learner`s ideas have changed
AIOU Solved Assignment 2 Code 834 Spring 2023
Q No 4 A teacher should recognize that her/ his class is a group constituted by pupils from various social, economic and religious backgrounds. Discuss the factors on which classroom interaction will mainly base.
The term classroom interaction refers to the interaction between the teacher and learners, and amongst the learners, in the classroom. Earlier studies of second language (L2) classroom interaction focused on the language used by the teacher and learners, the interaction generated, and their effect on L2 learning. More recent studies have begun to investigate the underlying factors which shape interaction in the classroom – e.g. teacher and learner beliefs, social and cultural background of the teacher and learners, and the psychological aspects of second and foreign language learning – providing further insights into the complexities of classroom interaction. L2 classroom interaction research began in the 1960s with the aim of evaluating the effectiveness of different methods in foreign language teaching in the hope that the findings would show the ‘best’ method and its characteristics. The methodology adopted was strongly influenced by first language (L1) classroom teaching research which was motivated by the need to assess objectively the teaching performance of student-teachers during practical teaching. Various classroom observation instruments have been proposed to capture the language used by the teacher and the interaction generated. These interaction analysis studies revealed that classroom processes are extremely complex and that a prescriptive approach to ascertain the ‘best’ method would be fundamentally flawed if the descriptive techniques are inadequate. Research efforts therefore turned to coping with problems of description, and the focus of classroom interaction studies shifted from prescriptive to descriptive and from evaluative to awareness-raising.
I have discovered that there are five components of effective classroom management that establish structures strong enough to entice and motivate student learning:
- Developing effective working relationships with students
- Training students on how learning takes place in your classroom
- Protecting and leveraging time
- Anticipating student behaviors in well-written lesson plans
- Establishing standards of behavior that promote student learning
- DEVELOP EFFECTIVE WORKING RELATIONSHIPS WITH YOUR STUDENTS
The most important component of classroom management is relationships. The relationships with my students start at the door when I shake the their hand and greet them with a smile (regardless of what misbehaviors might have happened the day before). Those relationships are strengthened, for example, when I use a student’s name and actively praise him or her. Those relationships are solidified when I spend individual time with each student to get to know them and then use that knowledge to create personal learning opportunities.
From the professional development program, Capturing Kids’ Hearts, there was one takeaway that benefited me the most: If I have a good relationship with my students, I can push them harder and further to learn because they trust me.
- TRAIN YOUR STUDENTS ON HOW LEARNING TAKES PLACE IN YOUR CLASSROOM
Your students need to know that you do not expect them to instantly learn, that everyone has an individual process for learning, and that if they follow your guidance, they will be successful in learning.
This is more than just talking about your homework policy, late work, and absences. It is revealing to your students how you are going to create — with them — a highly effective, low-maintenance, learning team. For example, I discuss with my students that the true power of a strategy such as Cornell Notes is not dividing the paper in two parts. The benefit of that strategy comes from writing the questions on the left side of the paper while reviewing their notes, and then taking the time to summarize what they learned. You have a learning philosophy that guides your teaching style; teach it to your students. Clearly map out for your students what you do to help them learn so that when you do it, they know what you are doing and why, and they will be more willing to help.
- PROTECT AND LEVERAGE YOUR TIME
An effective classroom manager must be prepared with materials and know how to transition students from one activity to another without wasting time. The number one thing we could do to increase our students’ academic performance is to increase the time spent on learning. Time is chipped away by taking attendance, announcements, summons to the office, restroom breaks, pep rally schedules, class meetings, special presentations, awards ceremonies, celebrations, and a myriad of other things.
- ANTICIPATE YOUR STUDENTS’ BEHAVIORS IN WELL-WRITTEN LESSON PLANS
Channeling student behaviors, interests, and attention into productive learning paths requires intuitive lesson planning. According to Robert Marzano, an education researcher, the focus of our lesson planning efforts should be getting students to ask and answer their own questions. Coming up with those types of questions on the spur of the moment can be difficult, but with a little advanced thought, you can incorporate those types of questions into your lesson plans. Ultimately, the best discipline management plan is a good lesson plan.
- ESTABLISH BEHAVIORAL STANDARDS
These standards should promote learning, as well as consequences that diminish or eliminate behaviors that impede learning. They shouldn’t be so detailed as to list every behavior and the corresponding consequence for failure to comply, but they should hit the main points regarding showing respect, communicating correctly, and coming prepared to learn. The standards should also interact smoothly with the other four components, especially teaching your students how learning takes place in your classroom.
- 5 The use of real objects as aids in teaching is the best way. Discuss this statement with the help of classroom practices
A device is an incentive introduced into the method of teaching for the purpose of stimulating the pupil and developing understanding through experiencing. The basis for all learning is experience, and usually the most effective type of learning is gained by concrete, direct, first-hand experience.
Teachers are often unable to give pupils first-hand experiences and resort to the written and oral use of words. The experienced teacher, however, realizes that the use of words alone cannot and will not, provide vivid learning experience.
Good teachers are constantly on the alert for methods and devices that will make learning meaningful. With the wise selection and use of a variety of instructional devices or audio-visual materials, experiences can b; provided that will develop understanding.
In directing the learning of the pupils through normal activities, the teacher will find that visual or audio-visual materials are used very extensively, Since the seventeenth century, when Comenius produced the Orbis Pictus, the extent to which teachers have been turning to visual materials as instructional aids has been increasing.
Likewise, Rousseau” stressed the value of visual education in his book, Emile.
Object-teaching and object-lesson were also emphasized by Pestalozzi. Dr. Sheldon44 of the Oswega Normal School in Canada introduced the idea into the United States. The experience of the American Army during the last world war showed the educational importance of devices such as movies, film- strips, the radio, and other pictorial materials for educational purposes.
The Army contrived devices that served well to awaken interest. Our society today is blessed with modern trends of communication. Never before have teachers possessed materials which will allow their pupils or students so completely to relieve the past, visit foreign lands, hear speeches of the world’s great men and women, or view planets of outer space.
These modern media are among the tools the modern teachers utilize in promoting growth and development of the pupils. The number of devices that maybe employed in teaching any subject will depend upon the nature of the subject-matter and the resourcefulness of the teacher.
Psychologists have long recognized the importance of concrete illustration in teaching. Devices whether visual or audio-visual materials, are valuable in the learning-teaching process because they stimulate interest and make possible the enrichment of the pupil’s experience.
It is generally admitted by educators that some people are able to comprehend abstractly, while others are more dependent upon concrete materials as aids to thought. It has been generally recognized that the more brilliant the individual is, the greater is his power for abstract thought; the lower the mentality, the greater is the dependence upon visual imagery as a medium of thought.
Recent studies show that the average and dull pupils need the use of material devices more than the bright pupils. The modern pupil is literally surrounded with endless profusion of aids to his learning, such as workbooks, drill cards, graphs, pictures, maps, slides, film strips, motion pictures, radio and exhibits of all kinds.
Television also offers great possibilities for use in the classroom. This situation grows out of the demands of an enriched and diversified curriculum and of the urge to vitalize instruction by providing a broader background of experience for the pupils and means of adjusting learning to the differences in interest and aptitudes of children.
AIOU Solved Assignment Code 834 Autumn 2023
Q No 5 In brief, the use of visual and audio-visual devices maybe given as follows:
1. To challenge the attention of the pupils:
The teacher who uses devices can usually maintain the full attention of the class. This is generally true in the lower grades. Devices should never be used by the teacher as mere attractions. Exposure to visual or audio-visual material and nothing more is not educative.
2. To stimulate the imagination and develop the mental imagery of the pupils:
Devices stimulate the imagination, of the pupils. Mental imagery can be used as a vehicle of thought and as a means of clarifying ideas.
3. To facilitate the understanding of the pupils:
The most widely accepted use of devices, whether visual or audio-visual, is its use in aiding understanding. Learning can be sped up by using models, movies, filmstrips, and pictorial material to supplement textbooks. Material devices give significance and colour to the idea presented by the teacher. Abstract ideas can be made concrete in the minds of the pupils by the use of devices. Diagrams and graphs, for example, are very useful in developing understanding in social studies and in mathematics. The graph is a good device in representing mathematical facts.
4. To provide incentive for action:
The use of devices, such as pictures and objects, arouses emotion and incites the individual to action. The teacher must select the right kind of &vice to excite the pupils to worthwhile intellectual activity. Asking the pupils to collect pictures representing water, air, land transportation wilt stimulates them to action.
5. To develop the ability to listen:
The ability to listen can be developed best through the use of audio-visual materials. It is also the responsibility of the school, to provide training for our pupils to be good listeners. Training in the art of listening is one of the aims of audio-visual education.
Teaching learning materials (TLMs) are the tools, which are used by teachers to help learners to learn concept with ease and efficiency. Below are the types of teaching materials used:
- Audio Aids: It includes human voice, telephonic conversation, audio discs/tapes, gramophone records, Radio broadcast.
- Visual Aids: It includes Visual (Verbal) Print e.g. Textbook, Supplementary book. Reference books, encyclopedia, Magazine, Newspaper, Documents and Clippings, Duplicated written material, Programmed material , Case Studies/Reports,
- Visual (Pictorial- Non Projected )–
- a) Non-projected two dimensional – Here the TLM is in form of an image or picture e.g. blackboard writing and drawing Charts, Posters, Maps,Diagrams, Graphs, Photographs, Cartoons, Comic strips.
- b) Non-Projected three-dimensional – This category includes three dimensional representation of the real object or phenomenon e.g. Models, Mock-up,Diorama, Globe, Relief Map, Specimen, Puppet, and Hologram.
- Visual (Projected but still) – Here the images are projected or displayed on a screen and thus are nearer reality than visual non-projected ones e.g. Slide, Filmstrips, Over Head Projector (OHP), Microfilm,Micro card, etc.
- Audio Visual TLMs are the projected aids, which use both auditory and visual senses to enhance learning e.g. Motion Picture Film, Television, Video discs/cassettes, slide – tape presentations, Multimedia, Computer.
The OECD Education Policy Committee and Group of National Experts (GNE) on School Resources, as well as the individual delegates to these bodies, provided essential support and analytical guidance since the inception of the project, and offered useful feedback on drafts of this report. At the time of publication of this report, the Group of National Experts was chaired by Mr Jørn Skovsgaard, Senior Advisor of the Danish Ministry of Education; and had as vice-chairs Ms Marie-Anne Persoons, Advisor International Policy in the Strategic Policy Support Division of the Flemish Ministry of Education and Training and Mr Matej Šiškovi , Director of the Educational Policy Institute at the Slovak Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Sports. Ms Shelley Robertson, Chief Advisor International Education, New Zealand Ministry of Education, served as vice-chair for the GNE from May 2014 to May 2015 and chaired its 1st meeting. The dedication and leadership of the chair and vice-chairs is gratefully acknowledged. The School Resources Review and this report also benefited substantially from the active involvement of different stakeholders with an interest in education. The Business and Industry Advisory Committee to the OECD (BIAC) and the Trade Union Advisory Committee to the OECD (TUAC) participated in meetings of the Group of National Experts on School Resources as permanent observers and commented on drafts of this report. During individual country reviews, students, parents, teachers, school leaders, researchers and employers made their time available to meet with review teams and to provide their perspective of school resource policy issues. Within a broader framework of collaboration, a partnership with the European Commission (EC) was established for the OECD School Resources Review, as part of which this report was prepared. The support of the EC covers part of the participation costs of countries which are part of the European Union Erasmus+ programme and contributes significantly to the preparation of the series of thematic comparative reports, including this report on school funding. The support of the European Commission for the School Resources Review is gratefully acknowledged. The review team would like to thank in particular current and former colleagues at the EC Directorate-General for Education and Culture, Unit A.2: Education and Training in Europe 2020 under the leadership of Michael Teutsch (until December 2016) and Denis Crowley (since January 2017) and deputy leadership of Mónika Képe-Holmberg, and Unit B.2: Schools and Multilingualism under the leadership of Sophie Beernaerts (until December 2016) and Michael Teutsch (since January 2017) and deputy leadership of Diana Jablonska. Unit A.2 co-ordinated the collaboration at the EC and contributed to the individual country reviews (see Annex D). In addition, collaboration with Eurydice, the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), the Organising Bureau of European School Student Unions (OBESSU), the Standing International Conference of Inspectorates (SICI), the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the UNESCO International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP-UNESCO) and the World Bank, ensured synergies between the work undertaken by different organisations and provided valuable input into the project and this report. The review is indebted to the many individual experts who contributed to the country review visits and the resulting country review reports that are part of the publication series OECD Reviews of School Resources (for the composition of the country review teams, see Annex D). Their expertise, analytical contributions to the country-specific reports and professional exchanges with OECD Secretariat members provided the foundation for analysing school funding from a comparative perspective in this report. The country background reports prepared by participating countries provided a further important source of information and thanks are due to all those who contributed to these reports. In addition to this publication, by June 2017, the review had generated 16 reports by participating countries, 10 reports by external review teams and several research papers (all available on the OECD website at www.oecd.org/education/schoolresourcesreview.htm). Within the OECD Directorate for Education and Skills, from its inception until the publication of this report, the review was carried out by the Early Childhood and Schools Division under the leadership of Michael Davidson (from January 2013 to September 2014) and Yuri Belfali (from October 2014 to July 2016) and by the Policy Advice and Implementation Division under the leadership of Paulo Santiago (since August 2016). Deborah Nusche (co-ordinator since December 2016), Thomas Radinger, Paulo Santiago (co-ordinator between January 2013 and July 2016) and Claire Shewbridge were responsible for the review, assuming leadership for the analytical work and individual country reviews. Important analytical contributions to the project were made by Anna Pons (who led the review of Kazakhstan) and Tracey Burns (who participated in the review of Uruguay). Eleonore Morena (since November 2014), Elizabeth Zachary (from October 2013 to December 2014) and Heike-Daniela Herzog (from January 2013 to September 2013) took responsibility for the administrative work within the review, the organisation of meetings and communication with the countries.