Free AIOU Solved Assignment Code 629 Spring 2021

Free AIOU Solved Assignment Code 629 Spring 2021

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Course: Guidance and Counselling in Elementary School (629)
Semester: Spring, 2021
ASSIGNMENT No. 1

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  1. 1 Explain the concept of guidance and counseling in the lighht of its historical development.

Guidance and Counseling is ‘all about change.’ In school, there are young people of different ages, sex, interests and life orientations. They all need some kind of proper guidance so that they can change without any pressure exerted on them. Since they are young, lack real life experience about life in general, are unaware of themselves, hey do not in any way know how to bring about changes nor understand their implications on their lives. Among them are those who may resist change because they are already tuned to particular approach to life, or are accustomed to what life means to them, and therefore would not like to change at all. This is the core of what you are about to begin doing, when you have completed the course. You are going to work with them and endeavor to cause desirable adjustments in them. These changes that are anticipated will be a reflection that you will have imbued them with skills of coping and/or what they can do on their own, to make changes in their lives. We live in a world full of rapid changes. These changes are coming about because of the technological developments taking place every now and then. Traditional cultures, beliefs, values and social relations in the traditional societies are being eroded very quickly by foreign cultures, through television, internet, magazines, music and other toxic influences. All these rapid changes are living young people confused, uncertain, and alienated. This state of affairs can be very devastating emotionally. These rapid changes leave us all confused to extent that we do not know what to do, or the next step to take. This is when your knowledge and skills in counseling become very handy to all of us. How all of us, including your students will change will depend on your ability to conduct guidance and counseling, notwithstanding our differences in terms of interest, personality, cultural background and life circumstances. So you as a teacher-counselor, you have embarked on another journey—a journey to help people, especially the learners to deal with changes that come suddenly and unexpectedly into their lives. Your positive and prompt contributions will in the end make them live independent, happy and effective life. Before you can do that, you need to acquire the knowledge, skills and mental set of a committed guidance and counselor in the school where you will be working. The Module Four: An Introduction to Guidance and Counseling has been written to make you become a good and effective and a prolific Guidance and Counselor in the school as well in the community. India has one of the world’s highest suicide rates among children belonging to the 15-29 age group. The main reasons include peer pressure, fear of failing in exam, depression, unemployment and likewise. There are several suicidal stories making headlines during the board examination.

Especially in India, children are under extreme stress, trauma and anxiety related to examinations caused due to peer pressure wherein children are forced to perform better. Students are taught to be perfect and well disciplined, as all teachers and parents want but it is also important to know the child’s consent.

The Indian Education System is always under the hammer for being competitive and focusing more on quantitative learning, long school hours, heavy school bags, improper curriculum. With this type of system, students tend to become less creative, innovative and leave no room for self-learning which is the need of the hour.

According to a recent news report in The Times of India, about 1 student commits suicide in every 55 minutes in India. In the past three years, more than 26,000 students have committed suicides due to stress, anxiety and depression.

Owing to huge competition and expensive education system, parents pressurize their children to perform well by packing them into a room with books and switching off the TV, internet connection and reducing the time for sports and other outdoor activities.

But this does not work. Rather, this makes the child depressed which burdens them with fulfilling expectations of their parents. Counselling helps in assisting the child in a proper direction so that he/she is well aware of what he/she wants to do in life. It is important to make your children understand the importance of education and guide them to pursue it.

Need for guidance, and the nature and aims of guidance are based on certain principles and assumptions. The principles of guidance generally accepted are the ones given by Crow and Crow. They are:

  1. Principle of all-round development of the individual.Guidance must take into account the all-round development of the individual when bringing about desirable adjustment in any particular area of his personality.
  2. The principle of human uniqueness.No two individuals are alike. Individuals differ in their physical, mental, social and emotional development. Guidance service must recognise these differences and guide each individual according to their specific need.
  3. Principle of holistic development.Guidance has to be imparted in the context of total development of personality. The child grows as a whole and even if one aspect of personality is in focus, the other areas of development which are indirectly influencing the personality have also to be kept in mind.
  4. The principle of cooperation.No individual can be forced into guidance. The consent and cooperation of the individual is a pre-requisite for providing guidance.
  5. The principle of continuity.Guidance should be regarded as a continuous process of service to an individual in different stages of his life.
  6. The principle of extension.Guidance service should not be limited to a few persons, who give observable evidence of its need, but it should be extended to all persons of all ages, who can benefit from it directly or indirectly.
  7. The principle of elaboration.Curriculum materials and teaching procedures should be elaborated according to the view point of guidance.
  8. The principle of adjustment.While it is true that guidance touches every aspect of an individual’s life, it is chiefly concerned with an individual’s physical or mental health, with his adjustment at home, school, society and vocation.
  9. Principle of individual needs.The individual and his needs are of utmost significance. Recognition of individual freedom, worth, respect and dignity is the hallmark of guidance. Freedom to make a choice and take a decision needs to be respected and encouraged.
  10. The principle of expert opinion.Specific and serious guidance problems should be referred to persons who are trained to deal with particular area of adjustment for their expert opinion.
  11. The principle of evaluation.The guidance programme should be evaluated in terms of its effectiveness and improvement. Evaluation is essential for the formulation of new goals or re-drafting the existing goals.
  12. The principle of responsibility.Parents and teachers have great responsibility in the execution of the work of guidance. The responsibility for guidance should be centred on a qualified and trained person, who is the head the guidance centre.
  13. The principle of periodic appraisal.Periodic appraisal should be made of the existing guidance programme so that requisite changes, if any can be carried out for its improvement.

Guidance and counselling are important for children, and schools have a huge role in bringing out the best in children. Good conduct is coveted, but sometimes young minds need guidance to polish their personality. Through counselling, children are given advice on how to manage and deal with emotional conflict and personal problems.

Proper counselling will help incorporate valuable lessons in their daily life. Some sessions should involve career guidance, where the students are advised on the selection of courses and different career paths. It’s important to prepare them for life after school and what to expect in the different fields they might opt for

Following are some of the benefits that students get from effective guidance & counselling:

  1. Students are given proper guidance on how to deal with psychological problems which can badly impact their studies. Through these sessions, the students will be able to develop certain problem-solving skills which to an extent help them deal with particular issues surrounding their lives.
  2. The students are advised on how to cope with different situations they tend to face in their school life. For instance, how should they talk politely or relate with their peers. This advice will give them perspective on how should they behave in certain scenarios.
  3. It helps to shape a student’s behaviour and also instil enough discipline in them. Proper guidance helps them achieve their goals, well guided & counselled students know what to do and how to do things in the best possible way.
  4. Students learn how to live in peace and harmony with others in the school community. Thereby, they also learn to appreciate other people in their class.
  5. It helps to bridge the gap between students and the school administration, since they are able to guide their problems through a proper counselling channel in the office.
  6. Students get comprehensive advice on career, courses and jobs that enable them to make a proper and informed choice and understand what they can do after they are done with school.
  7. It allows students to talk to teachers about various experiences that make them uncomfortable. They can openly share problems that they cannot share with their parents.
  8. Talks related to alcohol, drugs, personal feelings or any kind of abuse, can be openly discussed. Guidance and counselling also make students better human beings since they are counselled on how to act and behave in a particular situation
  9. It enables students undergoing certain difficulties in their lives, to ask questions and clarify them through guiding and counselling. Therefore, counselling helps them ask without any fear since the person in charge is willing to help.

India has one of the world’s highest suicide rates among children belonging to the 15-29 age group. The main reasons include peer pressure, fear of failing in exam, depression, unemployment and likewise. There are several suicidal stories making headlines during the board examination.

Especially in India, children are under extreme stress, trauma and anxiety related to examinations caused due to peer pressure wherein children are forced to perform better. Students are taught to be perfect and well disciplined, as all teachers and parents want but it is also important to know the child’s consent.

The Indian Education System is always under the hammer for being competitive and focusing more on quantitative learning, long school hours, heavy school bags, improper curriculum. With this type of system, students tend to become less creative, innovative and leave no room for self-learning which is the need of the hour.

According to a recent news report in The Times of India, about 1 student commits suicide in every 55 minutes in India. In the past three years, more than 26,000 students have committed suicides due to stress, anxiety and depression.

Owing to huge competition and expensive education system, parents pressurize their children to perform well by packing them into a room with books and switching off the TV, internet connection and reducing the time for sports and other outdoor activities.

But this does not work. Rather, this makes the child depressed which burdens them with fulfilling expectations of their parents. Counselling helps in assisting the child in a proper direction so that he/she is well aware of what he/she wants to do in life. It is important to make your children understand the importance of education and guide them to pursue it.

Some More Benefits of a Guidance and Counselling program:

  1. Prepares children for career and personal challenger through career and personal development.
  2. It makes them competent for future success.
  3. Equipes them with all the latest career trends.
  4. Improves personal development.
  5. Shapes the child for decision taking and making the process by developing their interpersonal skills.
  6. Induces teamwork and leadership qualities.
  7. Educates them about the changing world.
  8. Fosters effective learning.
  9. Gives them a feeling of being heard.
  10. Facilitates with better communication skills and enhances their personalities.

Role of a guidance counsellor:

  1. Gives wings to the dreams of children through vocational and career-oriented guidance.
  2. Lends a hear to individual problems both academic and personal.
  3. Aids in personal development.
  4. Offers information about jobs, interviews, career scopes, advantages of selecting a specific field, the process of achieving it.
  5. Advises on study techniques.
  6. Makes the child mentally prepared for future outcomes.
  7. Leads the child to a pathway by motivating on the strong points.
  8. Works on polishing the skills to reach a determined goal.
  9. Introduces to external agencies.

AIOU Solved Assignment Code 629 Spring 2021

Q No 2 Explain the four areas of guidance needs of young personal.

Counselling and guidance, referred to as psychological and pedagogical support, provided to pupils in nursery schools, schools and other educational institutions involves:

  • assessing pupils’ individual developmental and educational needs and psychological and physical abilities, and environmental factors which have impact on their functioning in a nursery school, school or educational institution; and
  • addressing the needs identified.

The assessment of children’s and young people’s developmental needs is one of the main responsibilities of teachers and specialists working with them.

Psychological and pedagogical support aims to help pupils fulfil their developmental potential and create conditions for their active and full participation in the life of their (nursery) school or institution and in their social environment.

The responsibilities of teachers, class or group tutors and specialists in (nursery) schools and educational institutions include, in particular:

  • assessing pupils’ individual developmental and educational needs and psychological and physical abilities;
  • identifying pupils’ strengths, predispositions, interests and aptitudes or talents;
  • identifying reasons behind academic failures or difficulties in pupils’ functioning, including barriers and constraints which make it difficult for them to function and participate in the life of their (nursery) school or educational institution;
  • taking measures which help pupils develop their competences and potential in order to enhance the effectiveness of their learning process and improve their functioning;
  • collaborating with a counselling and guidance centre in diagnostic and post-diagnostic processes, in particular, regarding:
    • performance / functional behaviour assessment;
    • barriers and constrains in the environment which make it difficult for pupils to function and participate in the life of their (nursery) school or institution;
    • outcomes of measures taken to improve pupils’ functioning and further measures to be planned.

Teachers, class or group tutors and specialists in (nursery) schools and other educational institutions undertake, in particular, the following activities:

  • in nursery schools: pedagogical observation aimed at early identification of developmental disharmonies and early intervention; and for children taking one-year preschool preparatory classes: pedagogical observation which ends with an analysis and assessment of children’s readiness for school (pre-school diagnosis);
  • in schools: pedagogical observation during ongoing work with pupils which is aimed at identifying:
    • learning difficulties and, for pupils in grades I to III of the primary school, competence deficits, language disorders, and the risk of specific learning difficulties;
    • potential and interests;
    • special aptitudes or talents;
    • support for pupils in education and career planning during ongoing work with them.

Where it is found that a child needs special pedagogical support in view of his / her difficulties or special talents, the nursery school, alternative preschool education setting, school or the institution initiates measures to meet these needs. This is an area where an educational institution provides counselling and guidance, referred to as psychological and pedagogical support.

Counselling and guidance sessions offered to children and young people are one of the various forms of psychological and pedagogical support.

Psychological and pedagogical support is also offered to pupils’/ parents and teachers in the form of counselling or guidance sessions, workshops and training sessions.

Support offered to parents and teachers aims to:

  • assist them in addressing pupils’ educational and learning problems;
  • develop their own educational skills to increase the effectiveness of psychological and pedagogical support provided to pupils.

Counselling sessions, workshops and training sessions are conducted by teachers, class / group tutors and specialists.

Specialists providing psychological and pedagogical support in (nursery) schools and other educational institutions include in particular:

  • psychologists,
  • pedagogues,
  • speech therapists,
  • careers advisers, and
  • educational therapists.

The responsibilities of specialists working in (nursery) schools and other educational institutions include:

  • conducting diagnostic examinations and assessments of children and young people;
  • providing psychological and pedagogical support in forms suited to the needs identified, and cooperating with teachers and other specialists in the field;
  • carrying out problem-prevention and information activities;
  • assisting parents and teachers in assessing children’s needs and supporting their development.

If there is no improvement in the pupil’s functioning despite the psychological and pedagogical support provided, the head of a given (nursery) school or educational institution, with the parents’ or adult learner’s consent, submits a request to a counselling and guidance centre to conduct an assessment / diagnosis and recommend methods for addressing the problems identified.

The tasks of a public counselling and guidance centre include:

  • conducting assessments for children and young people;
  • an assessment / diagnosis aims to identify the child’s individual developmental and educational needs and psychological and physical abilities; explain the child’s functioning mechanisms in relation to the problem identified; and propose methods for addressing the problem;
  • issuing statements / opinions and certificates concerning education for children and young people;
  • providing direct support to pupils and their parents;
  • carrying out problem-prevention activities and tasks supporting the educational function of (nursery) schools and other educational institutions, including support for teachers in addressing problems related to education and care;
  • support provided to (nursery) schools and other educational institutions.

Parents and pupils / learners seek support from a counselling and guidance centre on a voluntary basis.

Such centres perform assessments, provide information on the results of such assessments or issue opinions / statements and certificates at the request of a parent or an adult learner.

An assessment of the child’s needs helps to identify the lines of action to be taken as part of education and support for his / her development.

In particular, an assessment may result in :

  • issuing an opinion / statement, including:
    1. a statement recommending individualised early development support; this is the only type of statement issued by an assessment committee in a public counselling and guidance centre;
    2. a statement confirming specific learning difficulties;
    3. a statement on deferred entry into compulsory education;
    4. a statement on earlier entry into the primary school;
    5. a statement on permission to be granted to the pupil to follow an individualised programme;
    6. a statement recommending compulsory one-year preschool preparatory classes to be attended by the child outside a nursery school, preschool class or alternative preschool education setting;
    7. a statement concerning the pupil’s participation in full-time or part-time compulsory education outside school settings;
    8. a statement on exempting the pupil from learning a second foreign language;
    9. a statement recommending the inclusion of the pupil in therapeutic classes;
    10. a statement recommending an individualised learning path;
    11. a statement recommending adjustments to curriculum-based educational requirements to the pupil’s individual educational needs;
    12. a statement on priority in admitting the pupil with health problems to a post-primary school;
    13. a statement on permission to employ a juvenile for the purpose of training for a particular job or of vocational training;
    14. a statement confirming no contraindications for the child / young person to perform work or carry out other paid activities;
    15. a statement concerning other matters relating to the education of children and young people (for example, for medical doctors or courts of justice);
  • issuing a certificate recommending:
    1. special education,
    2. rehabilitation-and-education classes,
    3. individualised one-year preschool preparatory classes,
    4. individualised learning for children and young people;
  • direct psychological and pedagogical support provided by a centre to children or young people, parents or both children and parents;
  • support provided to teachers and specialists working with a child or young person in his / her educational institution.

An opinion / statement is provided to the parents or the adult learner concerned and may be forwarded to the educational institution that the pupil / learner attends only at the request of the parents or the adult learner.

Certificates are issued by assessment committees working in counselling and guidance centres, including public specialised centres.

Certificates are issued at parents’ or an adult learner’s request. They may participate in a session of an assessment committee and present their position. Certificates are issued to applicants only. Parents or learners can file a request for reconsideration within 14 days with the head of the regional education authorities via the committee issuing the certificate.

AIOU Solved Assignment 1 Code 629 Spring 2021

Q No 3 Write the guidance function of teachers and school principals.

Effective school principals care deeply about student success and recognize that test scores are not the only measure of a quality education. By immersing themselves in all aspects of the school system, principals monitor daily activities, as well as emerging issues. No day is the same because of the varied responsibilities of the job. If you are a visionary leader with effective communication skills and a desire to provide diverse students with an exceptional education, you may have what it takes to confidently serve in the role of a school principal.

Job Description

Functions of a principal at an elementary, middle or high school are similar, whether the setting is public or private. The role of a principal is to provide strategic direction in the school system. Principals develop standardized curricula, assess teaching methods, monitor student achievement, encourage parent involvement, revise policies and procedures, administer the budget, hire and evaluate staff and oversee facilities. Other important duties entail developing safety protocols and emergency response procedures.

Work often includes attending school functions after hours, such as basketball games, concerts, plays, parent conferences and school board meetings. Having a visible presence shows interest and dedication to students. Often problems arise which need immediate attention, such as a student disciplinary issue or a call from a worried parent whose child is struggling in the classroom.

Legislative emphasis on measurable student outcomes requires principals to collaborate with teachers to set and achieve high-performance goals. Principals must always be ready to answer questions from the public about how the school is rectifying any achievement gaps between diverse groups of students and performance overall.

Education Requirements

If you already have classroom teaching experience, you will have a jump-start on this career. Prior teaching experience, along with a Master of Science degree, is typically preferred or needed for hire. First, you must obtain a bachelor’s degree, preferably in education. Many aspiring principals spend a few years teaching to better understand student needs and teacher concerns. Although state licensing requirements vary, you will need a master’s degree in education administration for a school administrator license.

While working toward your master’s, you will study learning theories, multiculturalism, curriculum design, ethics, laws and regulations, state and federal standards, management techniques, teacher evaluation, budgeting and facilities management. Other requirements may include an internship and maintaining a portfolio of accomplishments in the program. Most states also expect principal candidates to pass a background check.

Industry

Principals work in elementary, middle or high schools in the private or public sector. Most principal jobs are in the public schools. They typically work long hours and attend many events and meetings outside the normal school day. Principals find it rewarding to work with children and families, but the job can also be stressful. Principals are under intense pressure to meet achievement standards, solve budget shortfalls, prevent bullying, continually update technology and hire qualified teachers.

Years of Experience

According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, the median pay for a principal in 2016 with a master’s degree and at least five years of experience is $92,510 per year. That means half of all principals earned more than that amount, and the other half earned less. Principals in Connecticut earned the highest median salary of $127,110. After working in the field for a while, some principals get more education, such as a doctorate, and become a school superintendent, overseeing the operations of an entire school district.

Job Growth Trend

Demand for principals is expected to increase by 8 percent between 2016 and 2026. That is about the same percentage increase as all other jobs. Several factors influence the number of expected principal openings, such as projected enrollment, available funding for new schools and the retirement of principals in the baby boomer demographic.


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Principals are essentially the day-to-day managers of elementary, middle and high schools. They lead faculty and staff and oversee daily operations of the schools. A higher education degree in administration or education is usually required for principals, who earned a median 2010 annual salary of $86,970 per year, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics. To succeed, principals must have at least adequate communication skills.

Faculty

Principals lead and motivate teachers in their buildings to provide quality education and perform other duties. They must communicate proactively during large group, small group and one-on-one meetings. Additionally, principals usually do period performance evaluations on teachers and provide both written and verbal feedback. Effective communication with faculty members is important for both technical performance, as well as for maintaining morale within the school.

Staff Management

Along with motivating instructional staff, principals manage other support staff and employees in daily operations. Other office administrators and assistants, counselors and additional support staff rely on effective communication from principals to perform their duties effectively. Principals also need to correct employee behavior and offer performance feedback to support staff. These school leaders are also tasked with developing a culture where faculty and staff are unified in the objective of providing an excellent educational experience.

Students and Parents

One of the more critical communication roles of principals is interacting with students and parents. This is often done at the beginning of a new school year to provide information. Principals also send out informational updates throughout the year. The more challenging aspect of communication is dealing with student discipline issues. Conveying what happened, the discipline and future expectations with students and parents is necessary to maintain a structured school atmosphere.

Public

Principals are also the primary spokesperson for the school in the community. This includes providing statements and press releases to the media. Part of this role includes speaking in front of the school board when necessary. In some cases, principals share information and offer input when school boards make strategic decisions. They also go before school boards in major discipline situations when a student faces expulsion.

A school superintendent oversees the daily operations and the long-range planning of a school district. Serving as the point person for all district matters, the role of a superintendent is to supervise school principals and district staff, work with school board members and to manage fiscal operations. School superintendent responsibilities include hiring staff, solving problems and lobbying for additional resources, when needed. A track record of school leadership and strong communication skills are essential for this position.

Job Description

The role of a superintendent is to serve as the overall senior leader of a school district. Understanding the big picture and daily operations are essential skills for this position. Working closely with the Department of Education, legislators and taxpayers, a superintendent must advocate for increased funding and must manage the needs of the district, within the confines of state allocations. Overseeing personnel matters is an essential duty of a superintendent. In the event of an emergency, a superintendent is called upon to make decisions and to serve as the face of the district. Inclement weather, bias incidents, school safety concerns, and workplace injuries are examples of issues that a superintendent must handle. Having strong interpersonal skills is an essential quality for a school superintendent so that he can develop positive relationships with parents, school board members and district employees. The role of a superintendent requires a long work day, which often begins early in the morning and ends by attending special meetings or an extra-curricular event, in the afternoon or evening.

Education Requirements

The road to becoming a superintendent begins with experience teaching in the classroom and later by serving as a principal of a school. An undergraduate degree in teaching, followed by a master’s degree in school administration is the usual path for this position. Given the competitive nature of this position, many districts require a doctorate in school administration or educational leadership. Preparatory classes for the role of a superintendent include instructional supervision, K-12 school law, administrative leadership, school improvement, community relations and curriculum development. In addition to relevant educational background, you will need to apply for state licensure as a principal. Most superintendents have 10 to 15 years of teaching and administrative experience, before applying for superintendent positions.

Industry

According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics in 2017, the average annual salary of school administrators was $94,390. Salaries vary by school district size. For example, a district of 25,000 students or more may earn in excess of $200,000.

Years of Experience

Experience makes a difference when assuming the role of a superintendent. In addition to serving as a teacher and principal, involvement in professional organizations and networking with other administrators will give you the edge in the job market. Landing a position as an assistant superintendent is a stepping stone for securing a job as a top school administrator.

Job Growth Trend

School superintendent positions are expected to increase between 1 to 5 percent between now and 2026. California, Texas, Illinois and Florida are among the states reporting the greatest number of job openings for this position.

A superintendent of public instruction is an elected state government official who works in the education department. The superintendent leads the implementation of educational policies, collaborates with educational officials to improve performance in schools, provides counsel to school districts and supervises pupil transport services. Although this is an elected position, having an advanced degree in educational leadership and extensive teaching experience can better position you to gain a nomination.

Implementing Policies

The superintendent of public instruction has a duty to implement all the educational policies set by the state’s education board. For example, if the board sets a policy that requires all schools to hire a professional development specialist to offer resident training services for teachers, the superintendent develops a sample job description to guide school managers and sets a time limit for hiring. The superintendent of public instruction also evaluates the effectiveness of various policies and provides suitable recommendations to the education board.

Enhancing Excellence

An effective superintendent of public instruction designs strategies that can improve the quality of education offered in schools and enhance students’ performance. For example, the superintendent can collaborate with the educational community and corporations to create an awards or scholarship program that offers sponsorships to outstanding students in secondary schools. This can help motivate underachieving students to work harder. She also conducts inspections in schools to assess leadership strategies and instructional methods, identify areas of concern and suggest remedial strategies.

Supervising Transport

Most schools provide transportation services for students who live long distances from the institutions. To guarantee the safety and equal treatment of all students, the superintendent of public instruction plays a key role in supervising these transport services. He ensures that schools keep buses in good condition and hire competent drivers to avoid accidents. The superintendent also evaluates schools’ transportation schedules and routes to determine support levels for pupil transportation services.

Providing Assistance

The superintendent of public instruction provides technical assistance and counsel on various issues to schools. For example, she helps schools implement educational programs for students with disabilities in accordance with federal and state regulations, such as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. The superintendent also provides guidelines for use in identifying special needs students, ensures schools hire qualified and certified special educators, and organizes conferences and training workshops for educators to gain more knowledge in handling special needs students .

AIOU Solved Assignment 2 Code 629 Spring 2021

Q No 4 Write the objectives and needs of guidance services.

  1. INTRODUCTION TO GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING
  2. TOPIC: Educational and Occupational Services & Counselling Services
  3. GUIDANCE Guidance is an assistance made available by a competent counselor to an individual of any age to help him direct his own life, develop his own point of view, make his own decision & carry his own burden. (Hamrin & Erikson) Guidance is a process of helping every individual, through his own effort to discover & develop his potentialities for his personal happiness & social usefulness.
  4. GUIDANCE SERVICE The systematic and organized procedures, tools and facilities to assist an individual in securing knowledge and skills needed in making plans and services, and in interpreting life. These services provide comprehensive information about opportunities, personality development, effective studying and learning.
  5. PURPOSES OF GUIDANCE SERVICES §Help students recognize, accept and develop their potential, adjust to the school, and develop the skills needed to cope with the problems they meet. §Help young people come to know and accept themselves, their aptitudes and interests §Teach pupils/students learn to use their interests and capabilities
  6. TYPES/AREAS OF GUIDANCE SERVICES Following are the list of areas of guidance: ØEducational service ØOccupational service ØCounselling service ØTesting service ØOrientation service ØPlacement service ØResearch and evaluation service
  7. EDUCATIONAL GUIDANCE SERVICE In the words of Brewer, “Educational guidance is a Conscious effort to assist in the intellectual growth of an individual.” Arthur A. Jones defined Educational Guidance “as the assistance given to pupils in their choices and adjustment with relation to schools, curriculum, courses and school life.”
  8. EDUCATIONAL INFORMATION Refers to the valid and usable data about all types of present and probable future educational or training opportunities and requirements. Examples oEducational Opportunities/Courses available oTeaching Methodologies oClientele oSocioeconomic Bracket of Clientele
  9. oKind of Institution oPopulation and Size oEntrance and Maintenance Requirements oRules and Regulations/Administrative Policies oTuition and other Fees oScholarship Grants oAcademic Calendar oFacilities and Services
  10. METHODS OF DISSEMINATION: qResource Speakers from various educational institutions qBrochures/Bulletins/Prospectus/ Flyers Class Visit qClass Visits/Educational Trips qInterviews qBulletin Board
  11. NEED OF EDUCATIONAL GUIDANCE SERVICE §Individual Differences §Need of Checking the Wastage and Stagnation in Education §The Need of Making Right Educational Choices §The Need of Proper Educational Adjustment §Decision of Further Education §Making the Grade §Education of Exceptional Children
  12. SERVICES OFFERED §Promoting guidance in support of the education of students. §Facilitating the transition of students from primary to secondary, from secondary to post-secondary educational institutions to other educational institutions and/or work. §Providing curricular guidance regarding subject options and choice of courses, at different levels.
  13. OCCUPATIONAL GUIDANCE SERVICE Introduction The occupational information service is very useful for students of secondary and higher secondary classes. It is a service designed to assist pupils to explore the world of work by propagating accurate, valid and useful information about educational and vocational opportunities, their characteristics, demands and requirements. More specifically, the occupational information service provides information about various vocational courses.
  14. OCCUPATIONAL INFORMATION Is the valid and usable data about positions & occupations, including duties, requirements for entrance, conditions of work, rewards offered, advancement pattern, existing and predicted supply of and demand for workers, and sources for further information.
  15. EXAMPLES §Conditions for work §Duties & requirements for work applications §Rewards offered §Existing or predicted supply of/demand for workers. §Advancement/Promotion patterns §Jobs/Occupations §Employment Possibilities/Job Openings §Wok/Tasks Involved §Difficulties and Challenges
  16. METHODS OF DISSEMINATION: §Group Guidance/Homeroom §Guidance Sessions §Experiential activities like field trips § Immersions § Career days, College days, Orientation days §Circulars, posters §Seminars, Symposia, Dialogues, Interactions §Pamphlets, Brochures, Bulletins §Bulletin Board Announcements
  17. NEED OF OCCUPATIONAL INFORMATION/ GUIDANCE SERVICE §Helps to choose your future occupation §Adequate information about various occupation §Occupational information makes the guidance service informative, motivational §Each occupation is different from the other in terms of characteristics and requirements
  18. SERVICES OFFERED §Providing personal career guidance. §Providing information through various activities, materials, seminars both at school and at systems level, through the organization of career seminars, career exhibitions, career orientation visits, information leaflets, etc. §Providing job exposure to the Form 4 or Form 5 students. §Promoting staff development in the field of guidance. §Participating in research projects related to guidance which include Tracer study. §Organizing seminars, talks and/or contacting parents on personal development, educational achievements, educational issues and developments. §Organizing seminars, talks and preventive programs on
  19. Occupational information • Students are provided work and job related information. • In those are: • About higher education • About institutions of city, country or abroad • About professions • About educational programs Educational Guidance • Educational Guidance is a cooperation that counselor offers to students in improving their life view point, decision making and taking responsibility. • Methods of Guidance: • Personal meeting • School record • Interview Educational and Occupational services
  20. COUNSELLING SERVICE Core activity through which all the other activities become meaningful.” (Hatch & Mitchell, 1981) Practice of professional service designed to guide an individual to a better understanding of…problems and potentialities by utilizing modern psychological principles and methods.” (Webster’s New International Dictionary, as cited by Schmidth, 1996)
  21. TYPES OF COUNSELLING SERVICES OFFERED: Group Counseling A group activity aimed to assist EACH INDIVIDUAL member of the group to solve his/her problem and make adjustments on how he/she behaves in the group. Guidance Activities (for Group Counseling): §Organizing Home Room Organizations §- earliest form to bring about group guidance activities. – Students/pupils are grouped into committees assigned for a particular task. Most of the time, a leader is chosen to spear head the activity. – Usual groups/assignments: Sweepers of the Day; Front yard Cleaners. § Lectures, conferences, programs, parties and convocations.
  22. INDIVIDUAL COUNSELING The counseling service is now more focused to one individual – how he/studies, plays or behaves in a group. Guidance Activities: (for Individual Counseling) vConsultation vVoluntary Counseling/Walk-in Counseling vReferral Counseling
  23. FAMILY COUNSELLING vThe counsellor is directly and indirectly involved in consultation or parenting and family counselling vThrough the counsellor, the schoolboard and parents can monitor the students’ development and achievement
  24. COUNSELLING GOALS: ØDevelopmental ØReinforcement ØExploratory ØEnhancement ØPreventive
  25. TYPES OF COUNSELLING Direct Counselling (prescriptive counselling). ØE.G WILLIAMSON is the chief exponent in this view point. ØCounsellor-centered: the counsellor direct the client to take steps in order to resolve his conflicts. ØIt is based on assumption that the client cannot
  26. NON-DIRECTIVE COUNSELLING ØCARL R. ROGER is the chief exponent in this viewpoint. ØThis school of thought is just reverse to that of directive counseling. ØIt is a client-centered process ØThe main function of the counsellor is to create an atmosphere in which the client can work out his problem.
  27. DIFFERENCE BTW DIRECTIVE & NON- DIRECTIVE Non-Directive vTime consuming vEmphasis on individual vEmphasis on emotional aspects vMethodology is indirect vDeals with self analysis and new problems of Adjustment may be Directive vEconomical /time saving vEmphasis on the problem vEmphasis on the intellectual aspect vMethdology is direct and persuasive vSolves immediate problems vHelp is offered by counsellor to take decisions
  28. ECLECTIC COUNSELLING ØEclectic counselling is a type of counselling which is neither counsellor-centered nor client centered; but a combination of both Ø Here the counsellor is neither too active as in directive counselling nor too passive as in non- directive counselling, but follows a middle course.
  29. TOOLS FOR COUNSELLING SERVICES Counselling services impose to use specific tools for collecting primary information from students. The tools for collection of information for counselling are divided into two broad categories. Tools 1.Psychological Tests 2.Non-testing Tools
  30. NON- TESTING TOOLS v Interview vObservation vAnecdotal record vCumulative record card vAutobiography and diary
  31. PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS They provides information about the individual’s psychological characteristics such as intelligence, aptitude, interests, abilities and personality. Before selection test their reliability, validity, practicability, etc. it should be clearly looked for. Psychological tests mainly divided into two categories: 1. Ability 2. Personality
  32. ETHICS OF COUNSELLOR vProfessional responsibility vThe counselling relationship vResearch and publication vAssessment and interpretation vConfidentiality
  33. SUMMARIZATION Today we have discussed about ØGuidance and its services ØEducational Guidance Services ØOccupational Guidance Services ØCounselling services

AIOU Solved Assignment Code 629 Autumn 2021

Q No 5 Write down some of the assumptions under piped by different authors about the concept of counseling.

“The role of vocational counsellor is to facilitate the aspiring youngsters and this is something which brought tremendous change in my way of dealing when I got the required training and subsequently the international certification,” says a confident Ms. Zubair. She is one of the 31 experts from across Pakistan, whohas recently been awarded international certification for vocational counselling and job placement services.

With 31 participants, who passed the international certification process of the German Chamber of Commerce and Industry (CCI) the number of internationally certified experts, offering vocational counselling and job placement services has reached to 49.The examination for the international certification was supported by the TVET Reform Support Programme, which is funded by the European Union, the Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, the Federal Republic of Germany and the Royal Norwegian Embassy. This Programme, which supports the Government of Pakistan in reforming the TVET system, has been commissioned by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation & Development (BMZ) and is being implemented by the Deutsche Gesellschaft fürInternationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH.

The preparatory course, she thinks,has improved her confidence because personality was also being judged throughout the process. She remarked that she would continue to extend the training to upcoming youth so it doesn’t stop with only certified VC & JP officers.

International recognition through certification will be a value addition for the trained officers,as well as respective provincial and federal authorities and private sector for identifying right and most suitable candidates for jobs.

These initiatives will not only support the government but will also play a significant role in the lives of the jobless young population through early vocational and career counselling in order to select the best possible options for themselves.

The preparatory course, she thinks,has improved her confidence because personality was also being judged throughout the process. She remarked that she would continue to extend the training to upcoming youth so it doesn’t stop with only certified VC & JP officers.

International recognition through certification will be a value addition for the trained officers,as well as respective provincial and federal authorities and private sector for identifying right and most suitable candidates for jobs.

These initiatives will not only support the government but will also play a significant role in the lives of the jobless young population through early vocational and career counselling in order to select the best possible options for themselves.

CounsellingX offers online career counselling services for Pakistani students. We counsel students to realise their ambitious career goals. Youngsters need career advice at an early stage of their professional life in order to select and establish their career. There are a lot of career counselling service providers in the market for aspiring professional, but very few have a team of licences and professional counsellors from all over the world.

At CounsellingX, we are providing end to end career guidance to make the right career choice. We provide career consulting services to clients all over the world.  We have a team of highly respected counsellors with extensive experience of working with international universities. Our counsellors from prestigious universities such as Harvard University, Cornell University, Boston University, Johns Hopkins University, London School of Economics, New York University, and University of Oxford. Our plans are cost and time efficient, and our counsellors pride themselves in deliverance of high quality services with consistence.

In the current age of rapidly-evolving scientific knowledge and advanced technologies, it is crucial to narrow the gap between academia and industry. The role of career counselling has assumed an important role. The requirement of student training and various professional services is increasing day by day. Many Pakistani students are interested in career counselling services such as resume writing, presentation skills, interviewing techniques, soft skills, organisational management skills and placements.

Through its career and admission counselling services, CounsellingX supports career development activities including university presentations, on-campus job fairs, seminars, workshops, and guest lectures on valuable skills. Following benefits can be availed from seminars, workshops, and job fairs:

  • Seminarshelp engage students in constructive debate. Discussing an academic subject for a better insight into areas of interest can help students get a clear picture of higher studies and future career options. Seminars also encourage the students to practice the skills they learn through seminars.
  • Workshops get the students Involved in hands-on activities. Such activities help them gain practical skills regarding their areas of interest.
  • Job Fairs not onlyprovide students networking opportunities with companies but also expose them to placement opportunities in the market.

We, at CounsellingX, provide career counselling services for Pakistani students to clear all of their confusions and answer all the queries. Online counselling is resource efficient, whether it is time or money. We also provide end to end online counselling to students for securing admission in international universities.

  • Browse the Counsellors

Have a look at the list of our counsellors. You can view their detailed profiles including academic background, work history, counselling history, and key strengths. If you find a counsellor suitable for your needs, you can directly message them.

  • Meet the Counsellor for Free

After you message a counsellor, one of our administrators will contact you. You can avail a free “Meet the counsellor” session, where you can talk to the counsellor and clear out any ambiguities. You will be able to have a 25-30 minutes discussion.

  • Get Started with Your Counselling

When you find the most suitable counsellor, you can hire them instantly. Pay the first instalment, and you will be able to start your personalized counselling session.

Counsellor Profile:

We have various Pakistani national and international admission counsellors who have graduated from top ranking universities and are currently working with admission departments of international universities. Our team provides online counselling which is specifically tailored to the regional needs of Pakistani students.

Ms. Fatima Naveed is a Pakistani national and currently lives in London, UK. She has a Master degree in International Development and Humanitarian Emergen from London School of Economics and Political Science, London. She has helped many Pakistani students get placement in Foundation, Bachelor and Master Programs of international universities, such as University of London, University of Bristol, University of Sussex, University of Bath, University of Bradford, and University of Brighton.

Her expertise are valuable for the students interested in Business, Management, Marketing, Communication, Journalism, Communications Technologies, Education, Family and Consumer Sciences, human Sciences, History, Liberal Arts, Languages, Sciences Studies and Humanities, Philosophy and Religious Studies, Psychology, and Social Sciences programs.

  • Accomplished counsellors from all over the globe.

CounsellingX believes in diversity, so our counsellors come from a multi-ethnic and multi-cultural background. Hence, we are able to offer a wide range of options when it comes to finding the most suitable counsellor for your admission needs.

  • Affordable Customized Help

Our counsellors work with a strong sense of social responsibility, so they charge less than 1/5th the amount an average counsellor would charge. Students can opt to topic-specific help, and do not need to spend extra on the services which are not required.

  • Satisfaction Guaranteed or 90% Payback

We trust in the quality of services and provide guaranteed satisfaction. In case, a student is not satisfied by a particular Counsellor, the counsellor can be changed on request or CounsellingX can refund up to 90% of the paid amount on demand.

  • Pay in Instalments

Students have the choice to pay in installments instead of the lump-sum amount. We ensure the financial security of our customers, as installments are less burdensome.

  • Quality Monitoring from CounsellingX Team

CounsellingX administrators monitor the quality of counselling services provided through this platform. Our team provides direct assistance to students and to avoid any confusion or issue.

Counselling X provides various career counselling plans for students in Pakistan. We not only offer a diverse range of counsellors to choose from, but also flexible counselling hours and payment methods.

  • Hourly Guidance

Student can hire an online counsellor on an hourly basis. This can help students get an idea of online counselling services and how it all works. This service provide it on an introductory price starting from $25 per hour.

  • End to End Counselling

Students who want to secure all the aspect, they should go for end to end counselling. Counsellor applies at number of places as per requirement.

 

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