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Free AIOU Solved Assignment Code 1655 Spring 2021
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Course: Teaching of English (1655)
Level: ADE/B.Ed (4-Year)
Semester: Spring, 2021
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Q.1 How classroom strategies can be helpful in effective teaching? Examine some effective strategies for teaching English.
The classroom is a dynamic environment, bringing together students from different backgrounds with various abilities and personalities. Being an effective teacher therefore requires the implementation of creative and innovative teaching strategies in order to meet students’ individual needs.
Whether you’ve been teaching two months or twenty years, it can be difficult to know which teaching strategies will work best with your students. As a teacher there is no ‘one size fits all’ solution, so here is a range of effective teaching strategies you can use to inspire your classroom practice.
Bring dull academic concepts to life with visual and practical learning experiences, helping your students to understand how their schooling applies in the real-world.
Examples include using the interactive whiteboard to display photos, audio clips and videos, as well as encouraging your students to get out of their seats with classroom experiments and local field trips.
- Cooperative learning
Encourage students of mixed abilities to work together by promoting small group or whole class activities.
Through verbally expressing their ideas and responding to others your students will develop their self-confidence, as well as enhance their communication and critical thinking skills which are vital throughout life.
Solving mathematical puzzles, conducting scientific experiments and acting out short drama sketches are just a few examples of how cooperative learning can be incorporated into classroom lessons.
- Inquiry-based instruction
Pose thought-provoking questions which inspire your students to think for themselves and become more independent learners.
Encouraging students to ask questions and investigate their own ideas helps improve their problem-solving skills as well as gain a deeper understanding of academic concepts. Both of which are important life skills.
Inquiries can be science or math-based such as ‘why does my shadow change size?’ or ‘is the sum of two odd numbers always an even number?’. However, they can also be subjective and encourage students to express their unique views, e.g. ‘do poems have to rhyme?’ or ‘should all students wear uniform?’.
Differentiate your teaching by allocating tasks based on students’ abilities, to ensure no one gets left behind.
Assigning classroom activities according to students’ unique learning needs means individuals with higher academic capabilities are stretched and those who are struggling get the appropriate support.
This can involve handing out worksheets that vary in complexity to different groups of students, or setting up a range of work stations around the classroom which contain an assortment of tasks for students to choose from.
Moreover, using an educational tool such as Quizalize can save you hours of time because it automatically groups your students for you, so you can easily identify individual and whole class learning gaps.
- Technology in the classroom
Incorporating technology into your teaching is a great way to actively engage your students, especially as digital media surrounds young people in the 21st century.
Interactive whiteboards or mobile devices can be used to display images and videos, which helps students visualize new academic concepts. Learning can become more interactive when technology is used as students can physically engage during lessons as well as instantly research their ideas, which develops autonomy.
Mobile devices, such as iPads and/or tablets, can be used in the classroom for students to record results, take photos/videos or simply as a behaviour management technique. Plus, incorporating educational programmes such as Quizalize into your lesson plans is also a great way to make formative assessments fun and engaging.
- Behaviour management
Implementing an effective behaviour management strategy is crucial to gain your students respect and ensure students have an equal chance of reaching their full potential.
Noisy, disruptive classrooms do no encourage a productive learning environment, therefore developing an atmosphere of mutual respect through a combination of discipline and reward can be beneficial for both you and your students.
Examples include fun and interactive reward charts for younger students, where individuals move up or down based on behaviour with the top student receiving a prize at the end of the week. ‘Golden time’ can also work for students of all ages, with a choice of various activities such as games or no homework in reward for their hard work.
- Professional development
Engaging in regular professional development programmes is a great way to enhance teaching and learning in your classroom.
With educational policies constantly changing it is extremely useful to attend events where you can gain inspiration from other teachers and academics. It’s also a great excuse to get out of the classroom and work alongside other teachers just like you!
Sessions can include learning about new educational technologies, online safety training, advice on how to use your teaching assistant(s) and much more.
Being an effective teacher is a challenge because every student is unique, however, by using a combination of teaching strategies you can address students’ varying learning styles and academic capabilities as well as make your classroom a dynamic and motivational environment for students.
AIOU Solved Assignment Code 1655 Spring 2021
Q.2 Describe different methods for teaching of English. Also highlight merits and demerits of these methods.
Throughout the history of teaching languages a number of different teaching approaches and methodologies have been tried and tested with some being more popular and effective than others. If you’re just beginning your TEFL career, it would be beneficial to be familiar with a few of these.
The Direct Method
If you’ve ever heard the Direct Method being taught, you may have rightly mistaken it for some sort of military drill, which is not far off as it was first established in France and Germany in the early 1900’s to assist soldiers to communicate in a second language quickly.
The direct method of teaching English is also known as the Natural Method. It’s used to teach a number of different languages not just English, and the main idea of the Direct Method is that it only uses the target language that the students are trying to learn.
Its main focus is oral skill and it is taught via repetitive drilling. Grammar is taught using an inductive way and students need to try and guess the rules through the teacher’s oral presentation.
Today popular forms of the Direct Method are Callan and Berlitz.
The Grammar Translation Method
Just like its name suggests, this method of teaching English is grammar heavy and relies a lot on translation. This is the traditional or ‘classical’ way of learning a language and it’s still commonly used when learning some languages. Some countries prefer this style of teaching and the main idea behind this method is that the students learn all grammar rules, so they’re able to translate a number of sentences. This is particularly common for those students who wish to study literature at a deeper level.
The Audio Lingual Method
The Audio Lingual Method otherwise known as the New Key Method or Army Method is based on a behavirourist theory that things are able to be learned by constant reinforcement. However, just like in the army when someone behaves badly (or in this case bad use of English), the learner receives negative feedback and the contrary happens when a student demonstrates good use of English.
This is related to the Direct Method and just like its predecessor it only uses the target language. The biggest difference between the Audio Lingual Method and the Direct Method is its focus of teaching. The Direct Methods focuses on the teaching of vocabulary whereas the Audio Lingual Method focuses on specific grammar teachings.
The Structural Approach
As the name suggests, the method is all about structure. The idea is that any language is made up of complex grammar rules. These rules, according to this approach need to be learnt in a specific order, for example the logical thing would be to teach the verb “to be” prior to teaching the present continuous which requires using the auxiliary form of the verb “to be.”
This is a behaviourist theory and related to pseudoscience. This method relies heavily on students’ belief about the method’s effectiveness. This theory is intended to offer learners various choices, which in turn helps them become more responsible for their learning.
It relies a lot on the atmosphere and the physical surroundings of the class. It’s essential that all learners feel equally comfortable and confident. When teachers are training to use the Suggestopedia method, there’s a lot of art and music involved. Each Suggestopedia lesson is divided into three different phases – 1. Deciphering 2. Concert Session 3. Elaboration.
Total Physical Response
Total Physical Response, otherwise known as TPR is an approach that follows the idea of ‘learning by doing’. Beginners will learn English through a series of repetitive actions such as “Stand up”, “Open your book”, “Close the door”, and “Walk to the window and open it.” With TPR, the most important skill is aural comprehension and everything else will follow naturally later.
Communicative Language Teaching (CLT)
The idea behind this approach is to help learners communicate more effectively and correctly in realistic situations that they may find themselves in. This type of teaching involves focusing on important functions like suggesting, thanking, inviting, complaining, and asking for directions to name but a few.
AIOU Solved Assignment 1 Code 1655 Spring 2021
Q.3 What are the factors affecting pronunciation in learning? Also discuss causes of defective pronunciation in Pakistan.
As an ESL teacher you’ve probably already noticed the difference between teaching young learners and adults. The younger your students are, the easier it is for them to acquire an accurate pronunciation – and it becomes increasingly difficult as they age as the brain’s original plasticity diminishes, and it becomes more rigid. Now that said, this does not mean adult students should give up trying to improve their pronunciation. It just means they have to work harder. If you teach adult ESL learners, be ready to plan and devote some of your class time to targeted pronunciation practice.
Research and studies consistently show that ESL students with a positive attitude towards learning English learn faster. By the same token, students who are genuinely open-minded and interested in improving their pronunciation often do improve it. It is truly amazing what the right attitude can do. On the other hand, students who have prejudices or a natural dislike for English will be less successful than those with a positive attitude and open mind. If you have students who are openly negative or complain about the English language, try to have a nice long chat to address these issues. Before you can help students overcome their pronunciation barriers, you’ll need to help them overcome these others barriers first.
Out of these first three internal factors, motivation is the one that can really make a difference. Highly motivated students will in all likelihood have a better pronunciation. What motivates students to speak better? Most simply want to fit in; they don’t want to be discriminated against because they have a “funny” accent. Others, like adult learners, really need to speak clearly and effectively for professional business communication. If you have students who seem to lack motivation, use their passions to help them find it.
Native Language Interference
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Students from different nationalities have varying degrees of difficulty learning proper pronunciation. The difficulty depends on how different their native language is from English. For example, English is a stressed language; Spanish is a syllabic language; Chinese is a tonal language. Phonemes are different in each, as well as the way the mouth, teeth and tongue are used. Your students may have difficulty articulating some sounds because they simply do not exist in their native language, sounds like the“th”. First, you’ll need to assess your students’ difficulties and formulate a plan to overcome them. Identify the pronunciation problems. Is it a problem with stress? Some phonemes more than others? With Japanese students you may have to practice the “l” and the “r”. Whatever their difficulties are be sure to tailor your pronunciation exercises to help your students overcome them.
Exposure to English
It will come as no surprise that ESL students who live in English-speaking environment acquire better pronunciation faster because they are immersed in the language. But not all ESL students are immersed in an English-speaking environment. The degree to which they are exposed to English on a daily basis will determine how fast they’ll be able to improve their pronunciation. So, children who go to bilingual, English-speaking schools should have a better pronunciation than those who study English only a couple of times a week. If you have students who don’t have enough exposure to the English language,encourage them to increase it, either by listening to authentic audio or hanging out with English-speaking locals.
Not Explicitly Taught
One of the factors that may be affecting your students’ ability to acquire proper pronunciation is quite simply that it is not being explicitly taught in the classroom.This is one of the things that ESL classes often lack and one of the things that makes a world of difference in the acquisition of pronunciation. Do you correct their pronunciation mistakes as they speak, or do you give them specific pronunciation exercises that target certain phonemes, word pairs or verb endings? Be sure to devote some class time specifically to pronunciation practice.
Native vs. Non-Native Input
Students’ pronunciation largely depends on the pronunciation they hear on a daily basis. If they are immersed in a community where most of the individuals speak English with a non-native accent, this will surely influence their own pronunciation. Moreover, if the teacher has a non-native accent, it will affect students’ pronunciation as well.
Of course, you can teach English if your accent is not native perfect. But it is your responsibility to strive to improve your pronunciation as much as you can. It is also vital for you to encourage students to seek out native input, either by joining activities or groups with English speakers or spending some time in an English-speaking country.
Students must be proactive in their hopes to secure the right English pronunciation, but teachers are the coaches in this endeavor. These are the two sides of the pronunciation coin – partners working together to achieve a common goal. One can’t achieve it without the other.
Difficulties in English Pronunciation:
Pronunciation is an aspect of verbal communication which makes it more effective and attractive. Therefore, the significance of pronunciation becomes highly considerable in the process of verbal communication. Speakers of a particular language have a very deep and strong impact of the sounds of the alphabet on their pronunciation.
There are certain sounds which every language possesses. Most of the sounds which a language has seem to be similar, but they are not pronounced in the exact manner. There are certain differences in pronunciation. Therefore, when a person speaks any non-native language, he has to face certain sound difficulties.
For example, the Japanese do not have the sound of ‘r’ in their language. Therefore they have to use an alternative sound available in their language according to their convenience. While pronouncing the sound ‘r’, they pronounce ‘l’ sound. Similarly, the Arabic language does not have ‘p’ sound and they replace it with ‘b’ sound. But there are many other factors present which affect the pronunciation of sounds. A person who is a non-native speaker of any language always faces some problems.
AIOU Solved Assignment 2 Code 1655 Spring 2021
Q.4 Describe visual auditory and kinesthetic learning styles with examples.
Kinesthetic Learning Style
The most physical of all the learning styles, kinesthetic learners absorb information best through touch, movement and motion. The word kinesthetic refers to our ability to sense body position and movement. This means that to really understand something, they need to touch it, feel it and move it around.
How to Recognize Kinesthetic Learners
If your child means “Let me hold that,” whenever they say “Let me see that,” they’re likely a kinesthetic learner. They’re the kids who love building sets, model kits and interactive displays at the children’s museum They often tear things apart just so they can learn about them. If kinesthetic learners are offered the choice in art class, they’ll choose modeling clay over pencils or paint. From an early age, they’ll reach for books that encourage interaction—pop-ups, little doors that open and close or books with textures that can be touched or petted.
How to Help Kinesthetic Learners Excel
Whenever possible, offer your kinesthetic learner things to hold in their hands. Physical math manipulatives, such as pattern blocks and base ten blocks, can help kinesthetic learners internalize a new math concept. Help your child practice spelling by getting them letter-shaped magnets they can move around on the fridge. Give kinesthetic learners textured paper to write on and a variety of different sized pencils and pens to choose between.
You can add motion to otherwise sedentary homework sessions by getting your child a stationary bicycle or a big, bouncy exercise ball that they can sit on instead of a desk chair. We’ve also found at Whitby that standing desks are a good way to help fidgety kids focus more in our classrooms. You can create one at home by letting your child work on a counter or stacking books to create a workspace that’s higher than the traditional desk.
Kinesthetic learners also frequently benefit from using rhythmic motions like hand clapping or finger snapping when reading or practicing math facts. Make sure to encourage your child if you notice them unconsciously using rhythm to help themselves remember—if it’s too loud, just suggest quieter alternatives.
Visual Learning Style
As the name suggests, visual learners learn best when their sense of sight is engaged. They quickly show an affinity for books and reading, starting with picture books and quickly moving on to books with text. They are engaged by bright colors and clear diagrams and can learn from videos, demonstrations and classroom handouts. Of the three different learning styles, visual learning most closely conforms to traditional classroom teaching methods. Visual learners can glean information from reading assignments, from taking and reviewing handwritten notes and from the flip charts, diagrams and other visual aids that many teachers use.
How to Recognize Visual Learners
Visual learners can often be found at the front of the classroom, soaking up whatever they see their teacher write on the board. They are fascinated by bright colors and motion and will often use posters and mobiles to brighten their rooms. They like to draw and paint. Once they’ve read a story, they can retell it down to the smallest detail. They often say, “Show me,” when they’re trying to learn something new and like to see someone else perform a task before they try it themselves.
How to Help Visual Learners Excel
If your child is a visual learner, surround him or her with books. You’ll notice that even before he or she can read, your child will be interested in bright pictures and the stories they represent. A visual learner is probably also a budding artist. To help them remember information more clearly, stock up art supplies that they can use to create visual representations of what they’re learning. Visual learners can create drawings to help remember important facts, identify the main elements of a story line and solidify the meaning of new words in their heads.
Other good learning aids for visual learners include highlighters to use with notes and reading assignments, a small white board to create quick concept sketches, and flashcards. Since visual learners can easily become distracted if too many sights and colors compete for their attention, create a quiet, non-distracting space for them to work on their homework.
AIOU Solved Assignment Code 1655 Autumn 2021
Q.5 Describe different techniques for creating interest in vocabulary learning in English at secondary level in Pakistan?
English is often considered one of the most difficult languages to learn fluently, if you haven’t grown up speaking it. As a second language, mastering secondary level English can be a challenge, but helping your students gain a strong command of the language is far from impossible.
Stimulate Debate & Discussion – Encourage your students to debate on a variety of subjects: fictional characters from a popular television show, “what if…” future scenarios, improvements they’d like to see in their community or environment, and whatever else gets them talking.
Bring up some sensational celebrity gossip every now and then, or taboo ideas that other teachers won’t touch. Straying outside the established syllabus gives students more freedom to express themselves, and debating brings in an element of competition that’s entirely language-based.
Note: Steer clear of age-inappropriate topics, potential sore points and religious/cultural sensitivities.
Try Immersive Reading Activities – Studying English literature is one of the most effective ways to develop fluency in reading, writing and to some extent, speaking the language. Instead of focusing on formal acquisition of literary concepts alone, though, engage your students with creative immersion activities.
Get them to compose music, re-enact or paint something about which they’re currently reading. Let them work in groups and share ideas on certain projects, but include solo activities that encourage them to find their own unique meanings in poems, stories, and other literature as well.
Boost Writing Skills in Fun Ways – There’s only one way to really gain written fluency in any language – practice, practice, practice. Unfortunately, most students today rely on smartphones or computers to correct anything they write, whether it’s an instant message or a homework paper.
You need to make writing seem more interesting, especially when you’re competing against popular slang and “SMS language” that seem to be killing the written word. Try collaborative projects with a modern twist. Set up a blog where students can regularly publish poetry, translations, short stories or even memes as a group.
Create a List of Grammar-Based Apps – Teaching students the concepts of grammar and composition is less about theory and more about practice. The number of hours they spend in your class is limited, but they’re likely to have 24/7 access to a smartphone, tablet or laptop – use this to your advantage!
Leverage the power of web-based tools, by creating a list of the best apps and games that can be used for teaching English. Share these with your students to help them build their vocabulary, explore interactive platforms for learning, and improve their grammar through constant practice and exposure.
Maximize the Potential of Online Tools – Use smart classroom technology to monitor students’ progress, encourage them to try out online learning tools and interact with English speakers on social media platforms etc. These unconventional methods of teaching resonate with young students who are completely at home on the web.
The Internet offers a practically endless array of reading material for students learning English, right from free e-books and stories to social media content, translation tools and blog posts. While speaking a language is important, reading allows students to grasp concepts autonomously and build their vocabulary faster.
Build an Inspirational Study Environment – Don’t expect your students to get excited about learning if the classroom environment isn’t designed to inspire them. There are a number of ways to boost the learning appeal of a certain space, so get creative and set up a zone that encourages and motivates students.
If you’re an online English tutor, put in the time and effort to create a great website with well-written content and audio-visual aids. If you’re teaching English in a physical space, include resources that will prompt students to learn. For instance, create reading areas with a variety of material from different authors and genres.
Use Self- and Peer-Assessment for Motivation – Everyone learns at their own pace, but no one can resist the chance to mark someone else’s work or their own. This form of assessment allows students to grasp the values behind a certain concept, as well as understanding where they could improve.
Reviewing each other’s work and their own helps boost confidence in their abilities as well as motivate them through healthy competition. Guide them through the process with a marking model, and encourage them to look for examples of grammatical concepts that they may need to practice more.