AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8626 Autumn & Spring 2021. Solved Assignments code 8626 Teacher Education in Pakistan 2022. Allama iqbal open university old papers.
Aiou Solved Assignments 2 code 8626 Autumn & Spring 2021
Course Teacher Education in Pakistan (8626)
Level B.Ed (1.5Year)
Semester: Autumn & Spring 2021
Assignment no 02
Q.1 Differentiate between teaching practice and intemship with example. Also Explain the purpose and significance of teaching practice teacher education curriculum.
Difference between a Practicum and an Internship?
Understanding the difference between a practicum and an internship can better prepare students for the curriculum demands of their degree programs.
Essentially, educational practicums and internships are supervised on-site work experiences that allow students to practice and demonstrate their developing skills and competencies in their chosen career. While these experiences bear some similarities in design, their purpose and scope are quite different.
The Practicum Experience
Practicums are field experiences that allow a student to observe and document how working professionals perform their job responsibilities. Students will also participate to a limited extent in performing tasks under supervision by program professors and on-site staff. Concurrently, students enroll in a course which outlines the expectations and requirements of the practicum.
The expectations associated with a practicum vary according to the career.
For example, a practicum in teaching may require assisting the teacher with implementing small group instruction, whereas a practicum in nursing may entail recording vital signs for one or two patients under supervision. General characteristics of practicums include:
- Shadowing one or more assigned employees who will guide the on-site experience.
- Observing and correlating practices in the field with theories and methods previously studied.
- Recording data or assisting with tasks as directed by on-site personnel.
- Completing practicum course assignments.
Participation at the practicum site is typically two or three times per week for a few hours per session. No remuneration is expected for a practicum, but it does qualify for academic credit.
The Internship Experience
As compared to practicums, internships take on the characteristics of a real job focusing on independent application of skills and knowledge in the workplace setting. Students are placed with on-site professionals who manage their workload and oversee their performance much as an administrator in an actual employment setting would. Additionally, program instructors visit the student two to three times during the internship to evaluate their progress and performance.
Resource: What Kind of Internship Should I Get for a Master’s Degree in Counseling?
A major difference between a practicum and an internship involves the degree of expected involvement of the student with hands-on work. The expansion of task expectations can be demonstrated using the previous examples from the education and medical fields. Compared to a practicum student, student teaching interns would not only assist with lesson planning but collaborate with their supervising teachers to create and instruct whole-group lessons independently. In a similar fashion, nursing interns would go beyond mere charting of vital signs. They would be expected to understand and independently perform evaluation procedures on multiple patients, then accurately record their results and consult with their nursing supervisor about them.
Internships are usually considered to be full-time experiences, following the work schedule of the assigned placement. They also receive academic credit, and in some cases, may provide a stipend for services rendered.
As an avenue for preparing graduates for careers, academic practicum and internship experiences are valuable tools for learning. They not only afford students opportunities to demonstrate their knowledge and practice their skills in real world settings but prepare students for the realities of the workplace. By understanding the differences between a practicum and an internship, students have the advantage of being better prepared to navigate the curriculum of the degree programs they are pursuing.
Teacher training benefits skills
Authority’s skills-based teacher training has built a common approach to teaching and learning across schools in the area. Pupils’ thinking skills have progressed well, especially in transition between primary and secondary school and professional learning communities have encouraged teachers to share their experiences and practices.
Wareham is situated in north-east Wales and is bordered by Flint shire to the north-west, Denbighshire to the west, Posy’s to the south and England to the east. The total population is 133,207. The percentage of Wareham pupils of compulsory school age eligible for free school meals is 19%, similar to that nationally.
The local authority wanted to promote joint-working and better understanding of skills-based learning.
The local authority provides training for two teachers from each school, one of which should have a leadership responsibility and be responsible for developing teaching and learning across the school. Teachers attend the course with both primary and secondary colleagues from their cluster, supporting them in the development of professional learning communities to share good practice and agree a common skills-based approach with their feeder secondary school.
The course aims to:
- raise standards of pupil achievement and promote high-quality learning and teaching in schools;
- ensure that the teaching that learners receive and the learning they experience has a positive and sustained impact on the outcomes they achieve and on their wellbeing;
- support the building of a shared vision of successful teaching and effective learning, and a shared skills-based pedagogy;
- enable learners to become more engaged, effective and motivated and so achieve better quality outcomes;
- encourage teachers to talk about what makes good pedagogical practice, the elements that need to be present for effective teaching and successful learning to take place, and how these elements interact;
- And develop a common vocabulary to enable practitioners to converse across all sectors, settings and phases.
Teachers are asked to implement the strategies and research their effectiveness on raising pupil attainment. The outcome of their research is fed back to colleagues both at school and at the subsequent course. The headteacher of each school is given a copy of each teacher’s personal learning target agreed with the course leader. The headteacher is expected to monitor the action taken by the member of staff and ensure that the strategies learned on the course are embedded in classroom practice. Attendance on this course is a requirement for all newly qualified teachers appointed to Wareham schools.
As a result of the training, improvements include:
- a common approach to skills-based teaching and learning in all schools in the cluster;
- better continuity and progression in pupils’ thinking skills, especially in transition between key stage 2 and key stage 3;
- improved pupil achievement;
- The development of schools as professional learning communities.
Aiou Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Autumn & Spring 2021 code 8626
Q.2 Explain the uses and the possibilities of computer assisted instruction for teacher training. What kind of training is required for teacher educators for integrating computer Assisted Instruction in Teacher Education curriculum
Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI)
The most striking innovation in the field of educational technology is the use of computers in the instructional process. Computer Assisted Instruction is a natural outgrowth of the application of the principles of Programmed Instruction. The main objective of CAI is to provide the needed flexibility for individualizing the educational process. It meets the need of a specific learner in a way in which it almost impossible to do so in a face-to-face student teacher relationship. A computer is such a device which can cater to the needs of the individual learners by storing a large amount of information. It can process the information suiting to the needs of the individual learner. It can cater to great variety of educational needs that range widely with respect to educational levels, subject matter, and style of instruction and level of learning from drill and practice to problem solving.
Use of computer to assist in the presentation of instructional materials to a student, to monitor learning progress, or to select additional instructional materials in accordance with the needs of individual learners.
Modes of CAI
Drill and Practice: This mode is designed to teach basic facts. The student is asked to type in answers to questions and the computer tells him about the correctness of his response. The pupil is presented with more questions until the material is committed to memory. Control of learning rests with the computer since it initiates and controls the students’ activity. Although dill and practice programmes might help students memorize facts and information they can go beyond this and ask questions which involve the use of procedural knowledge to supply answers and provide reinforcement and feedback.
Tutorial: Tutorial is used to teach basic concepts or methods. The tutorial type utilizes written explanations, descriptions, questions, problems and graphic illustrations for teaching concepts much like a tutor. Tutorial mode is very useful when students show varying levels of conceptual understanding and it can provide for individual tutoring needs that may be difficult to satisfy through traditional instructional arrangements. The computer specifies the tasks and on submission of answers by the students, the computer checks and provides feedback. Control of the learning situation rests with the computer.
Simulation: Simulation deals with the representation of an event, system or equipment. This is an excellent mode which enables students to investigate and experiment with system and processes which are complex, dangerous and expensive. It has the unique ability to compress time and produce expensive, delicate or dangerous systems and equipment. Simulation allows students to investigate the optimum conditions for carrying out a particular process and gain an appreciation of the situation and constrains.
Modeling: Computer programs can be used to build complex mathematical models and explore them quantitatively, rapidly and in great detail. It is also easy to compare alternative models and investigate their relative behavior with respect to any parameters.
Educational Gaming: It can be programmed where the student is placed in a competitive position with either another student or the computer itself. These are best suited to teach rules, procedures, etc.
Affecting Technology Use
The first category is, quite obviously, one’s access to technology. For us, however, access is defined broadly to include the opportunities all participants have to utilize technology — students, teacher educators, classroom teachers and children and adolescents. The second category concerns the nature of training and ongoing support for learning about technology and, simultaneously, learning about the educational potential of technology. The final category deals with the social and instructional context that encourages (or discourages) both learning more about and using technology.
Access. Several investigations have found that loaning equipment and providing ongoing support promotes technology use among professors, students, and teachers (OTA, 1995) and can encourage social, collegial, and professional development activities. However, unless students have ongoing technical support, the advantages may be lost (Scrum, 1993). It has been our experience over three years that making equipment available is far from sufficient. The importance readily available, consistent, and expert help cannot be overemphasized. A non-threatening climate of support is essential for novice computer users and for continued sustained use of technology.
Finally, access also came to mean a forum for the discussion of controversial topics in university courses and seminars. We found evidence that supports others’ work suggesting that smaller sub-cultures or personal spaces in which students can interact outside of face-to-face meetings were created (Barnes, 1993; Varela, Thompson, & Rosh, 1991; Harrington, 1994). In one of the elementary teacher education programs at the University of Illinois, students described e-mail as helping them discuss ethnicity-related topics in a social studies methods course. They described face-to-face situations as being too threatening at certain points in the dialogue and valued e-mail as a safety zone in which dialogue flowed more freely. In a secondary mathematics course, an instructor described a situation where two preserve teachers wanted to discuss multiculturalism as it relates to the teaching of mathematics during the weekly on-campus seminar.
The supervisor did not view multiculturalism as separate from the teaching of mathematics and so encouraged the preserve teachers to discuss the issue on the class e-mail reflector in subsequent dialogue.
Training. For us training is not synonymous with a course on computer based technology. The Teaching Teleapprenticeships data suggest that modeling by instructors, incorporating technology in content related assignments, and providing an “on-call” support staff comprises a training model that increases the use of technology among teacher educators, as well as their students.
For example, one elementary cooperating teacher, after receiving a technology grant, devised a personal electronic teaching portfolio. After sharing her portfolio with three student teachers placed in her room, they too prepared an electronic teaching portfolio and, in subsequent student teaching placements, taught additional teachers in their preparation of electronic portfolios. Students reported that they also value opportunities to share specific classroom applications and experiences with mentors. In one of the secondary science student teaching cohorts, one technology-proficient student downloaded specific science experiments for classroom use from America On-line (AOL) and e-mailed the files to the other science student teachers who then printed out the information and used the experiments or kept them for future resource. These examples, plus numerous others suggest that modeling became a multi-directional activity. Users, no matter what role group, served as models for others as ideas were shared across campuses and classrooms.
In our project, as in several others, we found that training not connected to subject matter or immediate instructional purpose was not valued by students (Thompson & Schmidt, 1994). Several researchers have documented the importance of faculty demonstrating the use of technology in classroom instruction which are linked directly to subject matter (Brownell, 1991; Schmidt et al., 1994). One of the co-authors, then teaching prospective secondary English teachers, paired the preserve teachers with students in a rural high school English class and served as peer editors on the high scholars’ writing assignments all sent via e-mail. Analysis of the feedback from both university and high school students suggests that the prospective teachers were able to learn about technology use, high school students, and the evaluation of students’ work in an integrated manner. All participants, including the co-author, were very excited about the practical use of technology to promote learning for students and for prospective teachers.
When the prospective teachers only saw technology used as a tool, they were seldom able to incorporate technology into their own curriculum (Howard, 1994; Trashier et al., 1991). Secondary student teachers in content specific methods courses where professors and teaching assistants did not tie technology use into the course syllabus described not being comfortable with incorporating technology into their secondary classroom instruction. In one science cohort of student teachers, use of electronic mail was not a required component to the course and as a result, the student teachers reported not using the Internet much at all.
We are suggesting then, an expanded definition of the term training for technology in preserve education courses beyond that of the traditional didactic or autonomous course model. Inadequate and inappropriate training continues to be a barrier to the implementation of computer technologies. Training in technology use must coincide with course goals and be seen as an integral course component.
Context. Context, in the Teaching Teleapprenticeships project, was not defined as a computer lab, nor as a work station. Context included the program in which prospective teachers worked, the faculty with whom they worked, and the school settings in which they began practical applications of technology in teaching. While our project had some control over access and training, the contexts in which prospective teachers worked varied within districts and, in many cases, within buildings.
Secondary field experiences offered opportunities for technology use but not as consistently as elementary settings. Perhaps this disparity can be attributed to secondary teachers having different content preparations with different students different hours of the day, fewer opportunities at the high school level for team planning and teaching where knowledge and experiences can be shared, larger secondary student populations, and professional development opportunities at the secondary level which are tied more to content and individual teacher choice than at the elementary level. Or, perhaps this disparity could result from decisions to place high school and middle school computers in labs, as opposed to classrooms. This suggests that further study of the contexts for learning to teach is warranted.
Aside from this global difference, we also found differences between buildings. When hardware and software were not readily available at the school, technology use was unlikely and caused frustration among professors, teachers, and students who wanted to use technology. For example, an elementary school in one program at the University of Illinois experienced major difficulties in connecting to the network. This inhibited the student teachers’ use of the computer for Internet exploration and e-mail use. Students at this school spoke in interviews and wrote in semester program evaluations about repeatedly trying to gain access without success. They conveyed frustrations in the amount of time devoted to failed attempts and described an eventual “shutting down” of student teachers’ and teachers’ desire and willingness to use technology because of technical barriers.
Aiou Solved Assignments Autumn & Spring 2021 code 8626
Q.3 Highlight the importance of Microteaching and its scope in the development of novice teacher skill provide example to justify the answer.
Micro-teaching is a teacher training and faculty development technique whereby the teacher reviews a recording of a teaching session, in order to get constructive feedback from peers and/or students about what has worked and what improvements can be made to their teaching technique. Micro-teaching was invented in the mid-1960s at Stanford University by Dwight W. Allen, and has subsequently been used to develop educators in all forms of education.
Important to the consumers
Microeconomics provides the ways for proper allocation of money on different goods and services so that they can get maximum utility. There are different theories of consumers behavior, the theories explain how the consumers should spend the limited money they have to maximize their satisfaction
2. Important to the firms or businessmen
the firms or businessmen use the microeconomic theories of consumer behavior, production, cost, market, revenue and so on to make proper economic decisions. The microeconomics helps them to know the purchasing power of ability to pay, proper combination of inputs to maximize cost or maximize profit, effects of change in tax rates, subsidies and so on
3. Important to the government
Government can determine taxes, subsidies, wage level, allowances etc on the basis of effects of change in these factors on the demand for goods and services. Some goods are levied while some are subsidized. The salaries and allowances are adjusted on the basis of relationship between these variables and demand. Interest rate, exchange rate and money supply too are changed with the help of microeconomic theories.
4. Important for the study of other economic science.
Microeconomics helps us to study of other economic sciences like macroeconomics, public finance, monetary economics, labor economics, and international trade economics and so on. The theories and laws of these economic sciences are based upon micro economics theories and laws.
Importance of macroeconomics
1. To know the relationship between macroeconomics variables:
The macroeconomics helps us in the study of relationship between large numbers of macroeconomics variables. The variables are Aggregate consumption, Aggregate income, aggregate saving, Aggregate investment, Aggregate demand, Aggregate supply, Price level
2. To know the functioning of economy
Macroeconomics helps us to know how the economy functions, how it is regulated, for it macroeconomics provides us the knowledge of product market, labor market, capital market, land market, international trade market etc. it informs us the country can achieve equilibrium only if all of the markets are in equilibrium.
3. To correct unfavorable balance of trade and payment
Macroeconomics provides us different theories of international trade. It provides us different remedies of import dependency and greater outflow of money from the country. The government or country may adjust custom duty, exchange rate, transaction of gold etc to promote export and to reduce import.
4. To achieve high economic growth and employment level
with the help of theories and models of economic growth and employment we can induce investment increase in income and employment opportunities.
Aiou Solved Assignments 1 & 2 code 8626 Autumn & Spring 2021
Q.4 Compare the teacher education curricula of Malaysia and Pakistan
TEACHER TRAINING IN MALAYSIA
Education in Malaysia
Education in the country consist of pre-school, primary school, secondary, tertiary and postgraduate. The Kementerian Pellagra Malaysia is responsible from pre-school to secondary school while Ministry of Higher education is liable for tertiary education.
The majority of the primary school pupils continue their education at government secondary schools where the medium of instruction is Malay. The first 9 years of education is free and compulsory and pupils progress across the grade levels by automatic promotion.
There is no fixed age limit however commonly children start preschool education at the age of 5 years. Schooling can begin earlier, from 3-6, in Kindergarten. Preschool education usually lasts for 2 years, before they proceed to primary school at age 7. There is no formal preschool curriculum except a formal mandatory training and certification for principals and teachers before they may operate a preschool.
Primary Education in Malaysia consists of 6 years of education and is also referred as Standards 1 through 6. Students enter primary schools at the age of 7 and leave at the age of 12. Students are promoted to the next Standard without any examination. Vernacular schools generally conduct classes in Mandarin for Chinese vernacular schools and Tamil for Tamil vernacular schools. Participation in the UPSR is not compulsory, but many vernacular schools also administer the UPSR to their students as this allows for re-integration of their students into national schools for secondary education. Recently, attempts have been made to establish (Sekolah Wawasan) or vision schools. Vision schools share facilities with one or more national schools, ostensibly to encourage closer interaction.
SecondarySecondary schooling consists of 5 years of schooling and this is referred to as Form 1 to Form 5. Public secondary schools are considered as extensions of the national schools. In Form 3, the Penilaian Menengah Rendah or Lower Secondary Evaluation is taken by students. Depending on their results, they will be streamed into either the Science stream or Arts stream. The Science stream is generally more desirable, and students are allowed to elect to go to the Arts from the Science stream, but not vice-versa
MatriculationAfter SPM, students would have a choice of either studying Form 6 or the matriculation (pre-university). Should they choose to continue studying in Form 6, they will also take the Sijil Pelajaran Tinggi Malaysia or Malaysian Certificate of Higher Education examination (its British equivalent is the General Certificate of Education ‘A’ Levels examination). Form 6 consists of two years of study which is known as lower 6 and upper 6. In general, the STPM is only useful if one desires to attend a public university. The matriculation programme has undergone some criticism as it is a general consensus that this programme is much easier compared to STPM and serves to help Bumiputeras enter the public university easily.
Tertiary education in the public universities is heavily subsidised by the government. Applicants to public universities must have completed the matriculation program or have an STPM grade. Excellence in these examinations does not guarantee a place in a public university. The selection criteria are largely opaque as no strictly enforced defined guidelines exists.
Teacher Education Institutions
Mainly two types of teacher training institutes are providing training to teachers in Malaysia;
1. Pre-service teacher training institutes in Malaysia
In Malaysia, the training of pre-service teacher for both primary and secondary schools is mainly provided by the 28 teacher training colleges which are under the Teacher Education Division of the Ministry of Education, as well as the 11 public universities.
There are two main types of pre-service programmes:
The Malaysian Diploma of TeachingMDT)
and the Postgraduate Diploma of Teaching (PDT).
There are also a number of twinning programmes between local and overseas universities
where selected students train to be teachers. Across Malaysia, about 4000 teachers graduate each year from the MDT and about 3000 from the PDT.
In Service Programmes
Training for in service teachers on the other hand is divided into the following
(i) Special Degree Programme (For non graduates teachers)
(ii) Special Teaching Certificate (KSPK) and, (iii) Professional Development Courses.
In service teachers who follow these training programme usually will be given a full-paid salary and training allowance (for Special Teaching Certificate Course and Professional
Development Courses) or a half-pay leave.
Admission criteria for TTIs
The postgraduate diploma of teaching entry requirements includes a Bachelors Degree from a local or overseas university or institution of higher learning and a credit in Malay Language at the School Certificate level. Malaysia is in the process of upgrading the qualification of its teachers. By 2005, all secondary teachers are expected be university graduates, and that by 2021 all teachers will be graduates. For teachers who have a three-year teaching diploma based on “O” level educational qualification, the pathway to the degree is through a pre-course 14 week in-service programme in the subject matter plus one full-time year at a teacher training college and three full-time years at a university.
Medical teachers unlike most other teaching professionals are unique in that no special prior or in service training in pedagogic techniques is considered necessary for their recruitment as teachers or for their continued efficient performance in that capacity. The former has the inherent disadvantage of being essentially a passive process where one learns by imitation. It is time consuming and there is always the inherent possibility of bad role models. The latter process of learning “while doing” is even more risky.
Microteaching is so called since it is analogous to putting the teacher under a microscope so to say while he is teaching so that all faults in teaching methodology are brought into perspective for the observers to give a constructive feedback. It eliminates some of the complexities of learning to teach in the classroom situation such as the pressure of length of the lecture, the scope and content of the matter to be conveyed, the need to teach for a relatively long duration of time (usually an hour) and the need to face large numbers of students, some of whom are hostile temperamentally.
Microteaching also provides skilled supervision with an opportunity to get a constructive feedback. To go back to the analogy of the swimmer, while classroom teaching is like learning to swim at the deeper end of the pool, microteaching is an opportunity to practice at the shallower and less risky side.
Component skills approach
Inherent in the process of microteaching is what is called the “component skills approach”, i.e the activity of teaching as a whole is broken down for learning purposes to its individual component skills. These individual skills which go to make teaching are:
i) Lesson planning – having clear cut objectives, and an appropriate planned sequence.
ii) Set induction – the process of gaining pupil attention at the beginning of the class.
iii) Presentation – explaining, narrating, giving appropriate illustrations and examples, planned repetition where necessary.
iv) Stimulus variation – avoidance of boredom amongst students by gestures, movements, focusing, silence, changing sensory channels etc.
v) Proper use of audio – visual aids.
vi) Reinforcement- Recognising pupil difficulties, listening, encouraging pupil participation and response.
vii) Questioning – fluency in asking questions, passing questions and adapting questions.
viii) Silence and nonverbal cues (body language)
ix) Closure – method of concluding a teaching session so as to bring out the relevance of what has been learnt, its connection with past learning and its application to future learning.
:: Microteaching cycle
The components of the microteaching cycle are shown in Figure. The Microteaching cycle starts with planning. Video recording can be done if facilities permit. At the- end of the 5 or 10 minutes session as planned, the teacher is given a feedback on the deficiencies noticed in his teaching methodology. Feedback can be aided by playing back the video recording. Using the feedback to help himself, the teacher is asked to replan his lesson keeping the comments in view and reteach immediately the same lesson to another group. Such repeated cycles of teaching, feedback and reteaching help the teacher to improve his teaching skills one at a time. Several such sequences can be planned at the departmental level.
Advantages of microteaching
Microteaching has several advantages. It focuses on sharpening and developing specific teaching skills and eliminating errors. It enables understanding of behaviours important in classroom teaching. It increases the confidence of the learner teacher. It is a vehicle of continuous training applicable at all stages not only to teachers at the beginning of their career but also for more senior teachers. It enables projection of model instructional skills. It provides expert supervision and a constructive feedback and above all if provides for repeated practice without adverse consequences to the teacher or his students.
Lack of adequate and indepth awareness of the purpose of microteaching has led to criticisms that microteaching produces homogenised standard robots with set smiles and procedures. It is said to be (wrongly) a form of play acting in unnatural surroundings and it is feared that the acquired skills may not be internalised. However, these criticisms lack substance. A lot depends on the motivation of the teacher to improve himself and the ability of the observer to give a good feedback. Repeated experiments abroad have shown that over a period of time microteaching produces remarkable improvement in teaching skills.
Aiou Solved Assignments 1 & 2 code 8626 Autumn 2021
Q.5 Discuss the importance of establishment of participate between the teacher training institution of Pakistan.
A cornerstone of school transformation for improvement is the catalytic role of teachers and head teachers, which in turn is highly dependent upon their professional abilities. ITA since 2000,has been engaged with in-service training. This is conducted at both, in-country and out of country levels to support continuous professional development (CPD) for primary and secondary teachers and managers.
Continuous Professional Development (CPD) Teachers; Head teachers; Trainers and Supervisors
- To work directly with partner schools, public and private teacher training institution and the corporate sector as a service provider
- To enhance the overall professional expertise of school teachers and head teachrs (ECE, elementary/ secondary) in public sector and non-state schools (formal and non-formal systems)
- To inculcate general and specific pedagogical skills in teachers based on training needs assessment, evaluation and research
- To impart hands on techniques of classroom, curriculum management and extension
- To improve, adapt and redesign the content knowledge, skills and attitudes in Primary & Secondary level English, Mathematics and Science teaching
- To sensitize school heads/principals on educational management aspects with particular focus on education change theories, rights based education, interactive teaching methods, effective school management and support to emerging disciplines of brain sciences, ICTs, historical enquiry, and education for sustainable development
Out of Country In-Service Training:
Pakistani Teachers Training Summer Institute – at the Plymouth State University (PSU) USA PSU
In 2004 Pakistani Teachers Training Summer Institute was launched as the inaugural program, superseding the 9/11 commission Report which included a recommendation to “strengthen long-term U.S. and international commitments to the future of Pakistan”. Since 2004 each year the U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Educational & Cultural Affairs, has awarded US $250,000 to the Plymouth Sate Unviersity New Hampshire USA to bring 20-25 Pakistani administrators, managers and teachers to campus for a four to five-week groundbreaking program and cross-cultural exchange. The goal was to help educators enhance their subject knowledge, pedagogical skills and disposition toward new ways of teaching. Each year since 2004 the Summer Training Institute is a collaboration between Plymouth State University (PSU) NH, USA, Idara-e-Taleem-o-Aagahi (ITA) and School Improvement Network Pakistan (SINP). Plymouth State University Teachers Training Program is a continuation of Idara-e-Taleem-o-Aagahi’s (’Centre for Education and Consciousness’) struggle for capacity building of stakeholders from the education sector. This training is aimed at improving the pedagogical skills and knowledge amongst the teachers belonging mainly from the Public sector and from ethnically and geographically diverse backgrounds. Teachers themselves have been demanding for such training opportunities. This training program is expected to fulfill their demands and enhance their capacity to promote quality education in Pakistan.
- To develop and deliver technical training in the areas of Mathematics, Science and English, focusing in secondary level teachers, education managers / administrators, researchers and planners.
- To build and promote mutual understanding between the USA and Pakistan through such cross cultural education linkages.
- To provide training to 20 to 25 educators for a period of 5 weeks every year.
- To upgrade the skills of participants to improve their abilities in their respective fields.
- To introduce the modern techniques to participants, used in educational institutions.
Plymouth State University
Plymouth State University is a coeducational, residential university with an enrollment of approximately 3,800 undergraduate students and 1,500 graduate students. Established in 1871, the university offers B.A, B.Ed, B.Sc, M.BA, M.A and M.Ed degrees and the Certificate of Advanced Graduate Studies (CAGS) in Education. Plymouth State University is accredited by the New England Association of Schools and Colleges, the New Hampshire Post Secondary Education Commission, and the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE).
- New skills, knowledge and attitudes are sustained within the participating institutions and have led to improved organizational performance in research, teaching and learning outcomes in the core areas of Math, Science and English language.
- Participants on returning to their work sites commit themselves to share their new knowledge, skills and perceptions with colleagues and influence outreach-training services within Pakistan. Over 116,000 teachers/trainers have been trained by 65 alumni of PSU since 2004..the number is growing
- Majority of the returning participants/alumni have achieved significant promotions, In one case the Director Secondary Schools in AJK has become the Secretary Education AJ&K!
- A recurrent finding is that of attitudinal transformation which in turn has positively influenced professional practice
- Participants have formed networking teams and linkages with other groups to mutually enhance capabilities, reinforce leadership potentials and promote positive pedagogical trends within the country. It is hoped that such initiatives will lead to better learning outcomes and professionalism in the field of teaching in Pakistan.
- Such programs promote goodwill and cultural understanding between the Pakistani and American participants.
- Institutional partners of ITA ;
Federal Directorate of Education (FDE) ,
Federal College of Education (FCE), Islamabad
Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad
- Department of Education Sindh
Sindh Education Foundation (SEF)
Aga Khan University – Institute of Professional Development (AKU-IED)
- Fatimiyah School System Karachi
- Department of Education Balochistan
Department of Education Punjab
Directorate of Staff Development (DSD), Govt of Punjab
University of Education Lahore
- Punjab University – Institute of Education Research (IER)
- Punjab Education Foundation
- Government College of Elementary Training (GCET) -Multan;
Beaconhouse School System
- World Wild Life Fund
- Sanjan Nagar Public Education Trust (SNPET)
Directorate of Education- FATA
- Kashmir Education Foundation (KEF)
Department of Education AJK
xpanding from In-Service to Pre-Service – the natural synergy
With such a rich and diverse base of institutional partnerships and sometimes as many as 800 teachers trained each month for a six day training program, ITA decided in 2007 to embark on upgrading its work by embarking upon an enterprise titled: the Institution for Professional Development – Pakistan This shift has been readily supported by its board, its institutional partners and by corporate social responsibility (CSR) partners of ITA. UNILEVER Pakistan has agreed to finance the initial two years of work of IPD in its formation phase.
IPD Pakistan is poised to initiate a pre-service program for teachers and head teachers in 2009 September, with affiliation to the Punjab University and IER, IPD Pakistan aspires to become a degree awarding institution by 2012.
IPD will be engaging with the processes towards a pre-service teacher education reform program, particularly, the B.ed four year professional degree that has become a necessity to elevate the status and skill set of teachers. B.ed as a four year program will become the milestone for reform of PTC, CT and other diplomas which will all have a logical and modular link to the four year B.ed to allow for the existing PTC, CT teachers opportunities for working towards the B.ed through a flexible and staggered approach.
To establish a state of the art “institute for professional development Pakistan” for pre and in-service training of educators as a degree awarding institution
To established a well governed Institute of Professional Development meeting international standards of excellence and quality assurance
To engage in systemic reform of teacher education programs both pre and in-service in general, and pre service in particular towards a four year professional degree
To research for new paradigms of education and professional development by exploring indigenous sources, emerging brain sciences and technologies
To integrate in all options of professional development the dimensions of citizenship and civic education, historical methods and climate change /education for sustainable development.
To actively seek institutional linkages within Pakistan, South Asia and Internationally for affiliation, collaborative degrees and certification programs.
To mobilize scholarships for students in need particularly women and disadvantaged groups from multiple sources, government and non-government, both within and outside Pakistan.
In addition to its in-house trainers and resource person, ITA’s training unit’s capacity is further strengthened by 80 alumni trained from Plymouth State University NH, USA as a partnership between PSU and ITA. These comprise of resource persons from the Directorate of Staff Development (DSD), University of Punjab IER, University of Education Punjab, Federal College of Education (FCE), Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) Bureau of Curriculum Balochistan, Sindh Education Foundation (SEF), AKU –IED, Provincial Institute of Teachers Education (PITE), Government College of Elementary Teachers (GCETs), several head teachers, secondary level subject specialists. 90% belong to public sector.
ITA’s trainers have been certified by Punjab Education Foundation and ITA is rated as an A+ partner organization by the Punjab Education Foundation.
The following participatory tools/ methodologies are observed by the trainers to make the training sessions interactive and meaningful:
- Dialoguing for reflection and change
- Group work
- Interactive lectures supported by multi-media
Presentations by the trainees
- Role Play
- Oral and written assessment
- Usage of flipcharts
- Drawings/models by the participants
Training Modules & material developed by ITA
1. School Leadership
- Manual on Schools Improvement through Effective Leadership
- Focal Teachers Training manual
- Manual on School leadership Development program
- Training Facilitation Skills
Aiou Solved Assignments 2 code 8626 Autumn & Spring 2021
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