Aiou Solved Assignments code 8601 Autumn & Spring 2023 assignments 1 and 2 General Methods of Teaching (8601) spring 2023. aiou past papers.
Course: General Methods of Teaching (8601)
Level: B.Ed (2.5 Years)
Semester: Autumn & Spring 2023
ASSIGNMENT No. 1
AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8601 Autumn & Spring 2023
Q.1 Reflect some common qualities of primary teachers? Why are these qualities
required for effective classroom learning?
We believe that personality traits are a combination of characteristics that are innate to us
as individuals as well as characteristics that develop out of specific life experiences. We are
firm believers that the personality trait makeup of a person goes a long way in determining
how successful they are.
There are certain personality traits that help teachers and students succeed. Success may
mean different things for different people. Teachers and students who hold the majority of
the following characteristics are almost always successful no matter how success is defined.
The ability to handle a sudden change without making it a distraction.
How Does this Trait Benefit Students? Students who have this trait can handle sudden
adversity without letting academics suffer.
How Does this Trait Benefit Teachers? Teachers who have this trait are quickly able to make
adjustments that minimize distractions when things do not go according to plan.
The ability to complete a task meticulously with efficiency and of the highest quality.
Students: Students who have this trait can produce high-quality work on a consistent and
Teachers: Teachers who have this trait are extremely organized, efficient, and provide their
students with quality lessons or activities on a daily basis.
The ability to think outside the box to solve a problem.
Students: Students who have this trait can think critically and are adept problem solvers.
Teachers: Teachers who have this trait are able to use their creativeness to build a
classroom that is inviting to students, to create lessons that are engaging, and they figure
out how to incorporate strategies to individualize lessons for every student.
The ability to fight through adversity without giving up to accomplish a goal.
Students: Students who have this trait are goal orientated, and they do not let anything get
in the way of accomplishing those goals.
Teachers: Teachers who have this trait figure out a way to get their job done. They do not
make excuses. They find ways to reach even the most difficult student through trial and
error without giving up.
The ability to relate to another person even though you may not share similar life
experiences or problems.
Students: Students who have this trait can relate to their classmates. They are not
judgmental or condescending. Instead, they are supportive and understanding.
Teachers: Teachers who have this trait can look beyond the walls of their classroom to
assess and meet their students’ needs. They recognize that some students live a difficult life
outside of school and try to figure out solutions for helping those students.
The ability to move beyond a situation in which you were wronged without feeling
resentment or holding a grudge.
Students: Students who have this trait will be able to let things go that could potentially
serve as a distraction when they have been wronged by someone else.
Teachers: Teachers who have this trait can work closely with administrators, parents,
students, or other teachers who may have created an issue or controversy that was
potentially detrimental to the teacher.
The ability to demonstrate sincerity through actions and words without hypocrisy.
Students: Students who have this trait are well-liked and trusted. They have many friends
and are often looked upon as leaders in their classroom.
Teachers: Teachers who have this trait are viewed as highly professional. Students and
parents buy into what they are selling, and they are often highly regarded by their peers.
The ability to be kind, courteous, and thankful when dealing with any situation.
Students: Students who have this trait are popular among their peers and well-liked by their
teachers. People are drawn to their personality. They often go out of their way to help
others any time an opportunity arises.
Teachers: Teachers who have this trait are well respected. They are invested in their school
beyond the four walls of their classroom. They volunteer for assignments, help other
teachers when needed, and even find ways to assist needy families in the community.
AIOU Solved Assignments 1 Code 8601 Autumn & Spring 2023
Q.2 (i) Write down the five merits of lesson planning for teachers.
Every teacher needs a carefully drawn lesson plan, irrespective of the training, experience or
competency. A lesson plan is required to assist the students in achieving the learning
objectives, on the short term and long term as well. Having a lesson is exactly like having a
complete and clear picture of how a learning process is going to take place and how
students are able to grasp and retain what is being taught to them.
Various researches have proven that pre-visualization success in athletic competitions and
business projects is a solid step in the way of actually achieving it. The same concept applies
to a classroom engagement too.
Without having a lesson plan, this visualization process will not work and the outcomes of
the learning process wouldn’t remotely be like what you have expected. These educators
need to plan their daily lessons in advance and adopt the most suitable teaching techniques
into a comprehensive lesson plan. Because going to classroom without lesson plan is
harmful to both the teachers and their students. Unprepared teacher will be considered as
the second rate at the job and will be viewed as unprofessional by their colleagues,
superiors, school administration and students.
Students, who learn under the inadequately prepared teacher, usually enjoy less than
optimum knowledge received from the teacher. Such students have low quality learning and
they appreciate the lesson concept too, hems compared with students who are highly
knowledgeable and learning under prepared educators. It is total waste of time and money
and effort when all the resources which are combined for a learning session goes into vain
due to the unprofessional management of the class. Above all, teachers and students under
this scenario generally have very low motivation to improve.
The 10 Advantages of having a Lesson Plan Before Going to Classroom
A thorough lesson plan inspired the teacher to improve the lesson plan further. You can
make it better for the purpose of achieving the lesson plan in a better way.
A lesson plan helps the teacher to evaluate his teaching and to compare it with set
objectives. This evaluation will help you in achieving the set targets in a better way .
These lesson plans develops self-confidence in the teacher and make them to work towards
4. Previous Knowledge of the Students
A teacher can take a proper care by considering the level and previous knowledge of the
students in your class.
5. Organized Matter
A teacher will be able to finish a particular lesson in a limited time frame. This will help him
or her to make the students learn a better and precise manner.
6. Ask Questions
A teacher will be able to ask proper and important questions to the students in the
classroom. This will engage the students in communication and help them in retaining the
A lesson plan works as a guide for the teacher in the classroom. It tells you what to teach so
that they can cover the entire lesson within a limited time frame.
A lesson plan creates the interest of the students in the lesson and makes them learn with
curiosity in subject matter.
A lesson plan stimulates the teacher to think in an organized way. This helps you to match
the ideal standard of teaching more quickly than ever.
10. Understand the Objectives
Through a lesson plan, a teacher is able to understand the objectives of the lesson properly
and make his students to understand them too, with ease.
Q.2 (ii) Highlight the steps of planning “Development of instruction”.
In the fourth step of the Development phase, you elaborate and build the products called
for in the Design phase blueprint. The finished product is often called courseware, content,
instruction, learning activities, or learning platform. Developing different forms of
courseware, such as activities, media, and concepts require a certain amount of art and
science. It is science as there is plenty of research that shows how people learn best and art
because you are designing for the human element?
However, you should always concentrate on building learning activities that will give the
learners real experience with the skills they need to perform, rather than simply telling and
showing them information. Activities are participative learning experiences, such as
exercises, role-plays, games, simulations, and reflective surveys that allow the learners to
practice and reflect in order to master a skill.
Story telling (war stories) and group discussions are also great learning activities as they
promote social learning. Note that learning activities that promote experience should
greatly outnumber content that is meant to be read or listened to.
Transforming Content into Experiences
Content that requires reading and listening should be limited so that the learners can spend
time with more valuable activities that provide experiences, however, this type of content
can be transformed into active learning, rather than passive learning.
Rather than repeating other content on this site, please read these sections as they provide
a lot of good information for designing and developing real learning experiences. Note that
they are pretty much independent, so you can read them in just about any order; however,
you should start with Introduction to Instructional Design (ID).
AIOU Solved Assignments 2 Code 8601 Autumn & Spring 2023
Q.3 Write a brief note on the theories of motivation?
From the very beginning, when the human organisations were established, various thinkers
have tried to find out the answer to what motivates people to work. Different approaches
applied by them have resulted in a number of theories concerning motivation.
These are discussed in brief in that order.
1. Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory:
It is probably safe to say that the most well-known theory of motivation is Maslow’s need
hierarchy theory Maslow’s theory is based on the human needs. Drawing chiefly on his
clinical experience, he classified all human needs into a hierarchical manner from the lower
to the higher order.
In essence, he believed that once a given level of need is satisfied, it no longer serves to
motivate man. Then, the next higher level of need has to be activated in order to motivate
the man. Maslow identified five levels in his need hierarchy as shown in figure 17.2.
2. Herzberg’s Motivation Hygiene Theory:
The psychologist Frederick Herzberg extended the work of Maslow and propsed a new
motivation theory popularly known as Herzberg’s Motivation Hygiene (Two-Factor) Theory.
Herzberg conducted a widely reported motivational study on 200 accountants and
engineers employed by firms in and around Western Pennsylvania.
He asked these people to describe two important incidents at their jobs:
(1) When did you feel particularly good about your job, and
(2) When did you feel exceptionally bad about your job? He used the critical incident
method of obtaining data.
The responses when analysed were found quite interesting and fairly consistent. The replies
respondents gave when they felt good about their jobs were significantly different from the
replies given when they felt bad. Reported good feelings were generally associated with job
satisfaction, whereas bad feeling with job dissatisfaction. Herzberg labelled the job satisfiers
motivators, and he called job dissatisfies hygiene or maintenance factors. Taken together,
the motivators and hygiene factors have become known as Herzberg’s two-factor theory of
3. McClelland’s Need Theory:
Another well-known need-based theory of motivation, as opposed to hierarchy of needs of
satisfaction-dissatisfaction, is the theory developed by McClelland and his associates’.
McClelland developed his theory based on Henry Murray’s developed long list of motives
and manifest needs used in his early studies of personality. McClelland’s need-theory is
closely associated with learning theory, because he believed that needs are learned or
acquired by the kinds of events people experienced in their environment and culture.
He found that people who acquire a particular need behave differently from those who do
not have. His theory focuses on Murray’s three needs; achievement, power and affiliation. In
the literature, these three needs are abbreviated “n Ach”, “n Pow”, and “n Aff” respectively’.
4. McGregor’s Participation Theory:
Douglas McGregor formulated two distinct views of human being based on participation of
workers. The first basically negative, labeled Theory X, and the other basically positive,
labled Theory Y.
Theory X is based on the following assumptions:
1. People are by nature indolent. That is, they like to work as little as possible.
2. People lack ambition, dislike responsibility, and prefer to be directed by others.
3. People are inherently self-centered and indifferent to organisational needs and goals.
4. People are generally gullible and not very sharp and bright.
5. Urwick’s Theory Z:
Much after the propositions of theories X and Y by McGregor, the three theorists Urwick,
Rangnekar, and Ouchi-propounded the third theory lebeled as Z theory.
The two propositions in Urwicks’s theory are that:
(i) Each individual should know the organisational goals precisely and the amount of
contribution through his efforts towards these goals.
(ii) Each individual should also know that the relation of organisational goals is going to
satisfy his/her needs positively.
In Urwick’s view, the above two make people ready to behave positively to accomplish both
organisational and individual goals.
However, Ouchi’s Theory Z has attracted the lot of attention of management practitioners
as well as researchers. It must be noted that Z does not stand for anything, is merely the last
alphabet in the English Language.
6. Argyris’s Theory:
Argyris has developed his motivation theory based on proposition how management
practices affect the individual behaviour and growth In his view, the seven changes taking
place in an individual personality make him/her a mature one. In other words, personality of
Argyris views that immaturity exists in individuals mainly because of organisational setting
and management practices such as task specialisation, chain of command, unity of
direction, and span of management. In order to make individuals grow mature, he proposes
gradual shift from the existing pyramidal organisation structure to humanistic system; from
existing management system to the more flexible and participative management.
AIOU Solved Assignments Code 8601 Autumn & Spring 2023
Q.4 Discuss merits and demerits of scientific method?
Merits and Demerits of Scientific Method of Teaching Science as are follows:
Merits of Scientific Method:
By making use of this method, various specific kinds of merits are being obtained by
teacher as well as students, mention of which are as follows:
a. An ability to propose and structure various kinds of problems get developed among the
b. They become self-dependent as role of teacher got reduced only as a guide.
c. As students have to collect various kinds of information from different sources, they learn
to explore different sources independently.
d. Students become able to formulate hypothesis on their own. Not only this, they learn to
test the hypothesis by collecting and evaluating data on their own by which hypothesis can
be accepted or rejected.
e. As students learn to do different functions independently, they become able to solve
various kinds of problems getting arise in their life on their own.
f. Level of self confidence gets developed among the students as a result of which they
become able to perform efficiently in different spheres of the life.
g. As students have to perform the complex functions of identifying the problem,
conducting the experiment, recording observations and drawing conclusions, thus various
kinds of skills get developed among them as a result of which they become more confident
and mature in their perspective.
Demerits of Scientific Method:
Although number of merits gets pursued by making use of scientific method, but still it is
not free from demerits, some of which are as follows:
a. This method can only be used by the teacher when he has enough time for teaching
purpose. However, this is not the case in most of the schools, because of which extent to
which this method is used is limited.
b. Only intelligent and brilliant students can solve out the problem on their own, but mental
capacities of all the students getting education in the same class differ as a result of which
this method cannot be used by teacher to impart education to different students.
c. This method can only be used in schools or institutions where there is provision of well-
equipped laboratories, however, majority of schools in our nation do not possess such kind
d. For this method, it is necessary to make provision of reference and other kind of
materials, which is not very easy for the teachers especially in our nation where there is
shortage of such sources.
When to Use:
From the above discussion it is clear that although this method is a very reliable kind
technique as under it students collect various kinds of information and data before drawing
any conclusion, but still this method should be used by the teacher in condition when
number of students in the class are less and they are more or less of same mental
Not only this, if there is proper provision of facilities like laboratory and science library in
the school, only then this method can prove to be successful, otherwise, at the end, teachers
will find themselves in a helpless situation as they will fail to attain the set objectives.
AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Autumn & Spring 2023 Code 8601
aiou solved assignments code 8601
Q.5 What is meant by inductive reasoning? Provide examples regarding application
of his method in classroom setting?
Inductive reasoning is a logical process in which multiple premises, all believed true or
found true most of the time, are combined to obtain a specific conclusion. Inductive
reasoning is often used in applications that involve prediction, forecasting, or behavior.
Here is an example:
· Every tornado I have ever seen in the United States rotated counterclockwise, and I
have seen dozens of them.
· We see a tornado in the distance, and we are in the United States.
· I conclude that the tornado we see right now must be rotating counterclockwise.
A meteorologist will tell you that in the United States (which lies in the northern
hemisphere), most tornadoes rotate counterclockwise, but not all of them do. Therefore, the
conclusion is probably true, but not necessarily true. Inductive reasoning is, unlike deductive
reasoning, not logically rigorous. Imperfection can exist and inaccurate conclusions can
occur, however rare; in deductive reasoning the conclusions are mathematically certain.
Inductive reasoning is sometimes confused with mathematical induction, an entirely
different process. Mathematical induction is a form of deductive reasoning, in which logical
certainties are “daisy chained” to derive a general conclusion about an infinite number of
objects or situations.
What’s inductive reasoning, and why is it important in the workplace? Inductive reasoning is
a type of logical thinking that involves forming generalizations based on specific incidents
you’ve experienced, observations you’ve made, or facts you know to be true or false.
Inductive reasoning is different from deductive reasoning, in which you start with a
generalization or theory, and then test it by applying it to specific incidents. Inductive
reasoning is an important critical thinking skill that many employers look for in their
employees. Therefore, it is a useful skill to highlight in your job applications and in your job
Inductive Reasoning in the Workplace
Inductive reasoning is an example of a soft skill. Unlike hard skills, which are specific to your
job and generally involve acquired knowledge, soft skills relate to how you interact with
people, social situations, and ideas.
Both hard and soft skills are essential for success in the workplace, but soft skills are
arguably harder to teach and to learn … which is why many employers place such a
premium on hiring candidates who possess these skills and can demonstrate them during
the interview process.
Employers value workers who can think logically as they solve problems and carry out tasks,
and who can discern patterns and develop strategies, policies, or proposals based on those
tendencies. These employees are practicing inductive reasoning.
Examples of Inductive Reasoning
In practice, inductive reasoning often appears invisible. You might not be aware that you’re
taking in information, recognizing a potential pattern, and then acting on your hypothesis –
but if you’re a good problem solver, chances are that these examples will feel familiar:
1. A teacher notices that his students learned more when hands-on activities were
incorporated into lessons, and then decides to regularly include a hands-on component in
his future lessons.
2. An architect discerns a pattern of cost overages for plumbing materials in jobs and opts
to increase the estimate for plumbing costs in subsequent proposals.
3. A stock broker observes that Intuit stock increased in value four years in a row during tax
season and recommends a buy to clients in March.
4. A recruiter conducts a study of recent hires who have achieved success and stayed on
with the organization. She finds that they graduated from three local colleges, so she
decides to focus recruiting efforts on those schools.
5. A salesperson presents testimonials of current customers to suggest to prospective
clients that her products are high quality and worth the purchase.
6. A defense attorney reviews the strategy employed by lawyers in similar cases and finds an
approach that has consistently led to acquittals. She then applies this approach to her own
aiou solved assignments code 8601 Autumn & Spring 2023