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Free AIOU Solved Assignment Code 851 Spring 2023

Free AIOU Solved Assignment Code 851 Spring 2023

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Title Name System of Distance Education Code 851
University AIOU
Service Type Solved Assignment (Soft copy/PDF)
Course MA
Language ENGLISH
Semester 2023-2023
Assignment Code 851/2020-2023
Product Assignment of MA 2023-2023 (AIOU)

Course: System of Distance Education (851)
Semester: Spring, 2023

Q.1 Explain the different definitions of distance education.

Distance education is not a new concept. The most effective form of instruction in those days was to bring students together in one place and one time to learn from one of the masters. That form of traditional educational remains the dominant model of learning today. The early efforts of educators like William Rainey Harper in 1890 to establish alternatives were laughed at. Correspondence study, which was designed to provide educational opportunities for those who were not among the elite and who could not afford full-time residence at an educational institution, was looked down on as inferior education. Many educators regarded correspondence courses as simply business operations. Correspondence education offended the elitist and extremely undemocratic educational system that characterized the early years in this country (Pittman, 1991). Indeed, many correspondence courses were viewed as simply poor excuses for the real thing. However, the need to provide equal access to educational opportunities has always been part of our democratic ideals, so correspondence study took a new turn.

As radio developed during the First World War and television in the 1950s, instruction outside of the traditional classroom had suddenly found new delivery systems. There are many examples of how early radio and television were used in schools to deliver instruction at a distance. Wisconsin’s School of the Air was an early effort, in the 1920s, to affirm that the boundaries of the school were the boundaries of the state. More recently, audio and computer teleconferencing have influenced the delivery of instruction in public schools, higher education, the military, business, and industry. Following the establishment of the Open University in Britain in 1970, and Charles Wedemeyer’s innovative uses of media in 1986 at the University of Wisconsin, correspondence study began to use developing technologies to provide more effective Distance education.

In 1982, the International Council for Correspondence Education changed its name to the International Council for Distance education to reflect the developments in the field. With the rapid growth of new technologies and the evolution of systems for delivering information, Distance education, with its ideals of providing equality of access to education, became a reality. Today there are Distance education courses offered by dozens of public and private organizations and institutions to school districts, universities, the military, and large corporations. Direct satellite broadcasts are produced by more than 20 of the country’s major universities to provide over 500 courses in engineering delivered live by satellite as part of the National Technological University (NTU). In the corporate sector, more than $40 billion a year are spent by IBM, Kodak, and the Fortune 500 companies in Distance education programs.

What, exactly, are the prospects and promises of Distance education? Desmond Keegan (Keegan, 1980) identified six key elements of Distance education:

  • Separation of teacher and learner
  • Influence of an educational organization
  • Use of media to link teacher and learner
  • Two-way exchange of communication
  • Learners as individuals rather than grouped
  • Educators as an industrialized form

Distance education has traditionally been defined as instruction through print or electronic communications media to persons engaged in planned learning in a place or time different from that of the instructor or instructors. The traditional definition of Distance education is slowly being eroded as new technological developments challenge educators to conceptualize the idea of schooling and lifelong learning. At the same time, interest in the unlimited possibilities of individualized distance learning is growing with the development of each new communication technology. Although educational technologists agree that it is the systematic design of instruction that should drive the development of distance learning, the rapid development of computer related technologies has captured the interest of the public and has been responsible for much of the limelight in which distance educators currently find themselves. Although the United States has seen rapid growth in the use of technology for Distance education, much of the pioneering work has been done abroad.

The establishment of the British Open University in e United Kingdom in 1969 marked the beginning of the use of technology to supplement print-based instruction through well-designed courses. Learning materials were delivered on a large scale to students in three programs: undergraduates, postgraduates, and associate students. Although course materials were primarily print based, they were supported by a variety of technologies. No formal educational qualifications have been required to be admitted to the British Open University. Courses are closely monitored and have been successfully delivered to over 100,000 students. As a direct result of its success, the Open University model has been adopted by many countries in both the developed and developing world (Keegan, 1986). Researchers in the United Kingdom continue to be leaders in identifying problems and proposing solutions for practitioners in the field (Harry, Keegan & Magnus, 1993). The International Centre for Distance Learning, at the British Open University, maintains the most complete holdings of literature in both research and practice of international distance learning. Research studies, evaluation reports, course modules, books, journal articles, and ephemeral material concerning Distance education around the world are all available through quarterly accessions lists or on line.

The United States was slow to enter the Distance education marketplace, and when it did, a form of Distance education unique to its needs evolved. Not having the economic problems of some countries or the massive illiteracy problems of developing nations, the United States nevertheless had problems of economy of delivery. Teacher shortages in areas of science, math, and foreign language combined with state mandates to rural schools produced a climate, in the late 80s, conducive to the rapid growth of commercial courses such as those offered via satellite by the TI-IN network in Texas and at Oklahoma State University. In the United States, fewer than 10 states were promoting Distance education in 1987. A year later, that number had grown to two-thirds of the states, and by 1989 virtually all states were involved in distance learning programs. Perhaps the most important political document describing the state of

Distance education has been the report done for Congress by the Office of Technology Assessment in 1989 called Linking for Learning (Office of Technology Assessment, 1989). The report gives an overview of distance learning, the role of teachers, and reports of local, state, and federal projects. It describes the state of Distance education programs throughout the United States in 1989 and highlights how technology was being used in the schools. Model state networks and telecommunication delivery systems are outlined with recommendations given for setting up local and wide-area networks to link schools. Some projects, such as the Panhandle Shared Video Network and the Iowa Educational Telecommunications Network, serve as examples of operating video networks that are both ,efficient and cost effective.

In Europe and other Western countries, a global concern was beginning to emerge. In a recent report, the 12 members of the European Association of Distance Teaching Universities proposed a European Open University to begin in 1992. This is in direct response to the European Parliament, the Council of Europe, and the European Community (Bates, 1990). In this report, articles from authors in nine European countries describe the use of media and technology in higher education in Europe and reflect upon the need for providing unified educational access in the form of a European Open University to a culturally diverse population.

Telecommunication networks now circle the globe, linking people from many nations together in novel and exciting ways. As the borders of our global community continue to shrink, we search for new ways to improve communication by providing greater access to information on an international scale. Emerging communication technologies, and telecommunications in particular, provide highly cost-effective solutions to the problems of sharing information and promoting global understanding between people. In today’s electronic age, it is predicted that the amount of information produced will increase exponentially every year. Since economic and political power is directly related to access to information, many educators like Takeshi Utsurni, president of GLOSAS (Global Systems Analysis and Simulation) have worked to develop models of the “Global University” and the “Global Lecture Hall” which provide resources allowing less-affluent countries to keep up with advances in global research and education (Utsumi, Rossman & Rosen, 1990).

In the developing world, since the 1950s, the population has doubled to over 5 billion people, most of whom want to be literate and want greater educational opportunities for themselves and their children. The majority of this expanding population is in Asia, where there are massive problems of poverty, illiteracy, and disease. In most developing countries, such as Bangladesh, Distance education offers the promise of a system of information distribution through which new ideas, attitudes, and understanding might begin to ooze through the layers of the disadvantaged environments (Shah, 1989). Drawing upon the well-known model of the British Open University, countries such as Pakistan, India, and China have combined modem methods of teaching with emerging technologies in order to provide low-cost instruction for basic literacy and job training. Turkey has recently joined those nations involved in large-scale distance learning. Only 12 years old, their Distance education program has enrolled almost I million students and is the sixth largest Distance education program in the world (Demiray & Mclsaac, 1993).

Because of the economies of size and distribution, both industrialized and developing countries have embarked on Distance education programs. In the early 1980s, record numbers of students in developing countries have gained access to higher education through Distance education programs (Rumble & Harry, 1982). In many cases, local experts are not available to develop original programs in the language and culture of the people. For this reason, the majority of educational programs are either used intact from the host country or are superficially translated with very few adaptations to the local culture. When this is done, the results are often unsuccessful. The cultural values of the program designer become dominant, desirable, and used as the standard. There are many examples of programs from North America, Pakistan, Great Britain, and Europe that were purchased but never used in Africa and Asia because the material was not relevant in those countries. Because the appropriate design of instructional material is a critical element in its effectiveness, the issue of “who designs what and for whom” is central to any discussion of the economic, political, and cultural dangers that face distance educators using information technologies (Mclsaac, 1993). There have been a variety of efforts to identify theoretical foundations for the study of Distance education. Thus far, there has been little agreement about which theoretical principles are common to the field and even less agreement on how to proceed in conducting programmatic research.

AIOU Solved Assignment Code 851 Spring 2023

Q.2 Write in detail the characteristics of distance education.

Pakistani distance learning programs are an ideal option for students who wish to take advantage of Pakistani educational institutions but may not be able to, or may not want to, relocate to Pakistan for the duration of their study. Pakistani distance learning programs allow you to manage family or work obligations that may restrict your ability to relocate or travel while you achieve your educational goals and gain the knowledge and skills you need to advance your career and increase your earning potential.   Students considering a Pakistani distance learning program can ensure their success by keeping the following tips in mind: 1. determine your overall educational goals and select a distance learning program accordingly.

With state of the art universities and cutting edge degree programs, it is no wonder that schools all around Pakistan are seeing a surge in enrollment, both from within the country and internationally. More and more Pakistani schools are consistently ranking highly in international ratings such as the Times Higher Education Supplement. Clearly, studying in Pakistan can be fun, invigorating, and highly beneficial to any career path students might have.

However, for some students, the prospect of committing to a school full time in Pakistan may be more than they can feasibly handle. For students with full time jobs, a settled family life, or other responsibilities, uprooting and moving may simply not be practical. For these students, however, all hope is not lost. It is still possible to benefit from what a Pakistani education has to offer with distance learning options.

Fortunately, there are a growing number of Pakistan distance learning opportunities for students to choose from, with over 20 schools already offering some online coursework for students to select from. These distance learning options range from one time classes to full on degree programs. No matter what one’s goal is, from an associate degree to a higher level graduate degree, students can find a Pakistan distance learning opportunity to meet their needs. However, when selecting the right distance learning experience, there are some criteria to keep in mind in order to make the best choice possible.

First, no matter what one’s intentions may be, it is vital that students only consider schools that are fully accredited to offer distance learning options. Without accreditation, the coursework and degrees will not be recognized by other colleges and businesses, making them almost worthless in the long run. All respected schools will advertise their accreditation, leaving no questions for prospective students as to whether or not that school is a viable Pakistan distance learning opportunity.

Beyond accreditation, prospective students should consider the full range of course options. This is important for students who wish to pursue multiple classes through Pakistan distance learning, perhaps even a full degree. While the school may easily have one course of interest, it is wise to see if there are subsequent classes and appropriate degree tracks. While it is possible to mix and match courses from other schools, such tactics do come with more paperwork and headaches when it comes to transferring credits. Checking in advance to see which school has the best options for the given academic need is a far smarter option.

In addition to these basic facets of Pakistan distance learning, students should be sure to consider other important elements of a distance learning education. For example, students need to be aware if any on campus requirements are needed to complete the course or the degree track. Some degrees, especially at the advance levels, do require students to perform some face to face work on campus in order to complete the coursework. It is important to be aware of these requirements in advance in order to appropriately prepare if such on campus requirements do exist. Using these criteria, it is easy for anyone to sort through the many distance learning options and find one that fits any lifestyle and any educational goal. This way, through Pakistan distance learning, students can reap all the benefits that schools in Pakistan have to offer while still maintaining other parts of their lives. Many distance learning classes can be completed on the student’s schedule, with some full degrees available in two years. This flexibility makes it possible not only to complete a degree, but to enrich one’s life with the top educational experience possible.

AIOU Solved Assignment 1 Code 851 Spring 2023

Q.3 Discuss the promotion of distance education with reference to United States of America.

The latest statistics about online education in the USA reveal that enrolment in online classes has increased over 5% between fall 2015 and 2016 compared to the previous 3 years, according to the “Grade Increase” report released  by the Babson Survey Research Group.

Most interestingly, more American students are choosing local online degree programs, suggesting they prefer it because of the flexibility and reduced costs, and because they can also reach the campus easily if they want to or need it.

In total, more than 3.2 million students in the U.S. took at least one online course in 2020. Students choose to do online courses at both public and private universities, but the highest increase was at public universities.

Statistics about online studies in the USA help us with the profile of the typical online student these days, a profile you might identify with.

  • Most online students are already working.  More exactly 36% of online students are switching careers, while 34 % of them are looking to advance their career.
  • The average online student is in his early thirties. The average age of the distance learner is 32 years old, which shows that you can continue your studies even if you are a parent, an industry professional and everything in between.
  • Graduate students are more likely to do a degree online.
  • If you already have an undergraduate degree, it’s more likely you’ll find a suitable online graduate course. About 23% of graduate students in the USA study online, compared to 11 percent of undergraduates.

According to experts cited by the U.S. News, the number of students who enrol to an online degree in the US will continue to grow in 2023 while online programs will introduce more of the latest digital technologies in their teaching practices.

Secondly, there’s is a pressure to create more courses that teach job-specific skills, seeing how a large part of online students are looking for a career switch.

Thirdly, more health-related course will complete the online degree offers, because now it’s possible to virtually teach students how to interact with patients.

Starting with 2020 and the Coronavirus outbreak, demand for online degrees is booming as on-campus studies are postponed due to safety concerns. It’s safe to assume there probably has never been a greater demand for online studies globally.

If you are wondering why online education is so popular, here’s some background to help you better understand the advantages online education can have for you:

  • Accessibility: students are less bound by time and location
  • Flexibility: students are not constrained by a fixed schedule and can continue to keep their personal circumstances and/or work obligations
  • Affordability: distance education is often less expensive than traditional education, thus opening up learning opportunities to those people who otherwise, cannot cover the cost of a degree course.

Allowing any institution across the world to target anyone interested in their subject while reducing additional obstacles to international studies such as visa requirements, travel costs and travel time, makes online and distance education the next step to a truly globalized world of education.

AIOU Solved Assignment 2 Code 851 Spring 2023

Q.4 How far counselors perform their functions to facilitate distant learners? Discuss.

For years some counselors have provided students services to faculty and students involved in distance education, an environment where students were not physically on the originating campus of the course. This has included courses delivered by correspondence, television, and instructors who traveled to other geographical locations, such as military bases. During the last several years, interactive audio and video technology has been refined and implemented, thus providing another method to deliver courses. This form of distance education, often labeled distance learning, involves the use of equipped and networked classrooms on- and off- campuses. What role can academic counselors play in this environment? Since academic counselors have a long history of collaborating with faculty and students, with telecommunications and computing units, and with other counselors, it is expected they will seek opportunities for enhanced collaboration and services in the distance learning arena.

Recently, the authors in collaboration with the Association of Research Counselors (ARL) surveyed ARL members to determine the extent and type of involvement these counselors played in distance learning.(1) Surveys were distributed to all ARL members. Of the 76 (64%) respondents, 46 (62%) reported that their institution is participating in distance learning programs. When questioned about the program’s administration, only seven counselors reported that they administer the distance education program. In most instances, administration is the responsibility of academic departments or a continuing education program. Surprisingly, only three of the seven counselors that administer the program indicated that distance learning classrooms are located in the students. Four additional counselors reported that distance learning classrooms are located in the students. Classrooms are usually scheduled by the academic departments offering courses or the information technology/computing units. Proper functioning of the network is usually the responsibility of the technology/computing units; only two counselors reported that they maintain the network.

When the questions turned to students support for distance learning programs, we found that ARL counselors are providing a number of services. Half of the respondents (24) indicated that they provide assistance with the development of distance learning courses, especially in instructional design, multimedia development, and instructional evaluation. Other areas where counselors play a significant role include reserve services and bibliographic instruction and information literacy. What other services do counselors offer their remote users? All respondents indicated that their students catalog is accessible online to remote users, and over 74% circulate materials to those patrons. Seven counselors reported that the services offered to on- and off-site patrons differ. Four of these counselors do not circulate materials to distance learning patrons. Interstudents loan services were provided by over 81% of the counselors with 29 counselors providing services without restrictions. Patrons access interstudents loan services through several transmission methods. The most common methods are e-mail or World Wide Web requests. Some counselors provide for remote charging of items through their online catalogs or accept telephone charges. Only a few counselors, four, reported that patrons sent requests by fax or U.S. mail. Other students services available to distance learning students include reference service by telephone, e-mail, World Wide Web, and scheduled ‘one-on-one’ meetings. When we asked counselors if they work with the receiving institutions in the area of reserved readings, we found that five used electronic reserve systems that permitted access from any site; 18 established reserve units in off-site locations; while 23 counselors did not arrange reserve services for remote students. When the ARL counselors were asked what department coordinated students services with remote sites, 24 counselors named the Access Services Department. Only six counselors reported that the Extended Campus Librarian served as the coordinator, and in a few cases the distance education coordinator served in this capacity.

The final questions in the survey explored the issue of funding. Thirty percent of the counselors reported that they had received funding to develop distance learning programs. Funding for these projects came most often from special funding that included state grants, foundation grants, or internal reallocation. In a few instances the students received a budget adjustment from the institution. Six counselors that have a permanent budget for distance learning use it for funding technical support, coordination, and management.

The results of this survey indicate that the management of distance learning operations is not very common to ARL members. However, as one might expect, counselors generally offer the same type of students services to remote users and on-site students including online catalog access, reference and interstudents loan services. Usually their is no difference in providing students services to patron on- or off-site. Instructional support is another area where counselors play a major role. More specifically, counselors play a prominent role in instructional design, course redesign, and World Wide Web development for those who use distance learning.

Developing and strengthening alliances among distance learning partners is another important part of SIUC’s distance learning initiative. SIUC, SICCM, and SIHEC received a grant from the Illinois Board of Higher Education to enhance and expand the Regional Center for Distance Learning and Multimedia Development. This Center, administered by the Students, serves all the community colleges of southern Illinois, the campuses of Southern Illinois University, and the entire region. It serves as an avenue for exploring statewide cooperative efforts with other Illinois higher education consortia.

The mission of the Regional Center is to enhance teaching and learning by exploring innovative strategies, and sharing expertise throughout southern Illinois. Because of its location with the students, the Regional Center brings together the expertise of librarians, World Wide Web and multimedia developers, instructional designers, and graphic artists to offer a complete set of resources for support of teaching and learning in the distance learning environment. This relationship between the students and the Regional Center draws on the traditional role of the students as a central figure in the support for teaching and learning in the academic environment.

The Center is charged with enhancing and training and development opportunities for faculty and teachers within the region by complementing the services available in the member institutions. This sharing of the distributed expertise of the region’s faculty and teachers should improve student success and retention by enhancing teaching and learning.

The Center, located in Morris Students, provides a wide range of seminars and distance learning orientation sessions for interested faculty. These orientation sessions acquaint faculty with the technology being used in the two consortiums. Orientation sessions are followed by in-depth sessions that assist faculty in adapting their courses to the technology and other aspects of the interactive video classrooms. Another focus of the Regional Center is to train faculty on the integration and use of multimedia, instructional technology, and the World Wide Web in distance learning classes. Faculty in the consortia and in area schools can receive Internet training, classes on web-based course home pages, production of interactive practice tests, and the development of web-based multimedia modules for the World Wide Web. The Regional Center serves as a clearing house for access to this expertise. The Center offers a series of seminars for faculty working in the distance learning environment. These seminars include: “ABC’s and 124’s of LCD Projection,” “Geographical Information Systems and Desktop Mapping,” “Resource Sharing Among SICCM/SIHEC Member Institutions,” and “Information Literacy Overview,” “PowerPoint,” “Web Development,” and “Multimedia Use.”

Other resources offered include a list of copyright sites that are intended to be used as tools when developing materials for distance learning. The list includes such topics as general copyright information, distance education, and multimedia issues.

As counselors continue to make networked services available to patrons, they will be able to better serve their students at remote locations. The question of access and resources is a perennial one to counselors, but the advances that counselors have made in providing access to a diverse group of resources and to a widening constituency group speaks of the potential services that can be offered to remote users. Academic counselors have always been responsible for teaching, providing access to information resources, and consulting with faculty in course design. While our patrons were once expected to come to the students, we now ask how can we better reach the patron, with distance no longer a barrier. Distance learning provides an opportunity for the students to expand its service role on campus and within educational consortia

AIOU Solved Assignment Code 851 Autumn 2023

Q.5 Distance education cannot be promoted without the promotion of educational TV and radio. Explain with arguments.

Distance education established its roots as a form of instruction at least 150 years ago as correspondence study. Distance learning was not new. Open universities that numerous governments set up following the pioneering example of the United Kingdom is testimony to this. Distance learning, in the 1960s and 1970s, was already widespread; it was called correspondence education however, university correspondence branches were more eager to plough money back into the campus than to help correspondence students complete their studies. To serve students better the open universities have created student support networks that rely on collaboration with other institutions for study centers and tutors

With the advancements in telecommunications technologies, distance learning programs rapidly expanded so distance education is now defined as “the acquisition of knowledge and skills through mediated information and instruction, encompassing all technologies and other forms of learning at a distance. The history of distance education in the Indian context is valuable in that is shows there was more than one historical path of distance education and that the evolution of distance education has not been that easy for we had many obstacles to clear, blocks to break and barriers to overcome. Many of the same problems facing implementation and acceptance of educational innovations today along with new problems such as teacher shortages, overcrowded and unsafe schools, and unequal access to educational technology join other perennial issues in education such as gender bias and the bilingual education have been faced by distance education throughout its history.

The Positive Side: India is more illiterate now than it was fifty or a hundred years ago. Preparing students today for tomorrow’s workforce has a lot to do with teaching about how to use and evaluate knowledge.

The average Indian student of today is much better than that of yesterday. He is committed to the coursework, usually for the purpose of advancing in his career. For this reason, we can expect quality work and diligent participation from students of today especially in the distance learning context.

The distance education offers flexible learning through both online and print-based materials. Distance education courses are designed to provide one of the study options to students and others who are unable to attend scheduled classes on campus or who want to experience distance learning as part of their program.

Role of Media in Distance Education

 Distance education is inevitably linked to media and technology. The organizational pattern and operating practices of a distance education facility are generally based upon the same educational philosophy as conventional system. However the use of media is greater in Distance Learning.

Technologies and Media:

one of the greatest strengths of Open Distance Learning is its ability to harness the latest technologies to reach the unreached Employing mass media technologies distance education institutions have bridged distance and made education more accessible. Various technologies and delivery media are available for distance education. Different media types are used to deliver information. Each medium and each technology has its own strengths and weaknesses. Many factors control these media technologies. How a medium is used is more important than what particular technologies are selected. The use of the medium is part of the design of the distance education program itself. Certain resources may provide a better framework and cater to the different perspectives of the distance education learner: That is, the sender and receiver do not communicate at the same time.”

Audio- and Videocassettes

materials is generally expensive and involves specialized skills (recording, editing, directing). Some distance learning provide what’s called “video-based instruction”. In such program, video tapes are the main medium of delivery of information to the learner.

Radio and Television

Radio and television broadcasting has been used for educational purposes for many years  There are different types of broadcast: public, cable, and satellite. Some of the advantages of radio and television broadcasting is that they Audio- and videotapes have come to play an increasingly important role as media for distance education. These technologies are convenient and cost-effective. These media can be used to present the views of experts, which would increase the credibility of and interest in the materials. Materials that cannot be communicated by print could be communicated this way. Video is a powerful medium in terms of capturing attention, and conveying a lot of information quickly.


Producing audio- or videotape helps keeping students in track, and get people in the community involved, and may recruit new learners to the institute. Broadcast may be provided to learners through cable television network or satellite broadcast. Those channels can provide good quality broadcast and dedicated channels for educational purposes.

An important disadvantage of television broadcast that this site lists is that broadcast delivery encourages passive viewing rather than active participation. Students lack control over the medium and are unable to stop the flow of information to ask questions and enhance understanding


Teleconferencing involves the interaction of students and instructors via some form of telecommunications technology. Teleconferencing uses a variety of communication technologies such as satellite, microwave, and Instructional Television Fixed Service(ITFS). Services include producing, hosting, or broadcasting satellite downlinks, uplinks, or 2-way teleconferences to a number of locations. The studio classrooms have 3-camera production capability, an audio distribution system connecting remote locations and the studio on campus, and A-V equipment such as slide projectors, an overhead graphics camera and pad suitable for showing visual aids, 3/4″ or SVHS videotape recorders, computers etc. Computers can interface with the TV system for showing graphics or other visual aids and the Internet.


most common and least expensive form of teleconferencing. Supported with audio samples. A fact given here is that the basis for audio conferencing is always the telephone.

Audiographic teleconferencing systems involve the use of computer or facsimile technology to transmit visuals to support the audio. Some computer systems allow the transmission of graphics, programs, and data, where each site sees anything on the instructor computer screen, besides hearing the audio. Audigraphic systems are good for classes that involve a lot of illustration, such as equations, or computer applications. Videoconferencing can be transmitted via satellite, cable, or standard telephone lines. It requires compressing the videos and several equipment.

Videoconferencing allows learners and instructors to interact face-to-face.

Computer Conferencing allows students and instructors to interact via a computer network. This interaction can be through e-mail messages, file transfer, chat rooms, real audio and video, and others. With the fast progress in computer technology, computer conferencing is taking its place in educational technology. Computer conferencing provides good quality, easy to use, and cost-efficient way of interaction

Web-Based Instruction:

With the fast growth of the Internet, and the fast progress of communication, the world wide web is a new promising medium for distance learning. With the enormous number of resources available online, and the increasing number of people who have access to the Internet, web-based instruction is considered one of the fastest media for teaching and learning. The world wide web provides a cost-effective, technology rich, and interactive medium.

Media Selection Issues

There is a large number of technologies available for the delivery of distance education course. Selecting the medium is an important part of the efficiency of that course. Each medium has its own strengths and weaknesses, and these should be matched to the nature of the learning setting. The medium selection process should be undertaken for each course and each program, since they all have different requirements depending on the objectives, learners, and learning environment.


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