Free AIOU Solved Assignment Code 5629 Spring 2023
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Course: Research Methods in Mass Communication part-I (5629)
Semester: Spring, 2023
ASSIGNMENT No. 1
Q.1 Define research and explain the characteristics of scientific method.
The scientific method is arguably the best way yet discovered for distinguishing truth from non-truth. The simple version looks something like this:
- Make an observation.
- Invent a tentative description, called a hypothesis, that is consistent with what you have observed.
- Use the hypothesis to make predictions.
- Test those predictions by experiments or further observations and modify the hypothesis in the light of your results.
- Repeat steps 3 and 4 until there are no discrepancies between theory and experiment and/or observation.
When consistency is obtained, the hypothesis evolves into a theory and provides a coherent set of propositions which explain a class of phenomena. A theory is then a framework within which observations are explained and predictions are made.
Characteristics of scientific method
- The great advantage of the scientific method is that it is unbiased. One does not have to believe a given researcher, one can redo the experiment and determine whether his/her results are true or false. The conclusions will hold irrespective of the state of mind, or the religious persuasion, or the state of consciousness of the investigator and/or the subject of the investigation.
- For a scientific theory or hypothesis to be scientific, it must be subject to an experiment and/or discovery that could prove the theory or hypothesis untrue. A belief which cannot be disproved, even in principle, is not considered scientific.
- Anyone should be able to reproduce, at least in principle, the results obtained through the scientific method. In fact, most experiments and observations are repeated many times. If the original claims are not verified, the origin of such discrepancies is hunted down and exhaustively studied.
- Pseudoscience appears to be scientific on the surface, but in reality breaks some of the most fundamental tenets of the scientific method. Examples include Astrology, UFO-ology, Paranormal Studies, Many ‘New Age’ philosophies and medical practices. These areas all typically are weak in supporting evidence.
- Non-science is a means of seeking knowledge which is wholly unscientific. This mode does not use evidence or experiment. Requires no logic. Its tenets are based upon faith, political conviction, tradition, or intuition. Examples include religion and mysticism.
- “Nothing happens in contradiction to nature, only in contradiction to what we know of it.”
– Special Agent Dana Scully, The X-Files
- More techniques to distinguish science from non-science can be found in Carl Sagan’s Baloney Detection Kit
Which of the following hypotheses are scientific?
Better stock market decisions are made when the planets Venus, Earth, and Mars are aligned.
–This hypothesis is falsifiable, therefore scientific. It has been put to the test and has failed. It is therefore a scientific hypothesis which has been proven false.
Atoms are the smallest particles of matter that exist.
–This hypothesis is falsifiable, therefore scientific. It has been put to the test and has failed–neutrons, protons, etc. are smaller. It is therefore a scientific hypothesis which has been proven false.
Our Moon was formed when a Mars-sized objected collided with the Earth billions of years ago.
–This hypothesis is falsifiable, therefore scientific. In fact, this is the leading hypothesis for the formation of the Moon and there is convincing scientific evidence (e.g., composition of the Moon, age of the craters, etc.) to support it.
Space is permeated with an essence that is undetectable.
–Not falsifiable, therefore not scientific. So this is a nonscientific claim.
Albert Einstein is the greatest physicist of the 20th century.
–Unless there are some very objective criteria for this statement, this is an opinion only, not a scientific hypothesis.
Human beings will never set foot on the Moon.
–This hypothesis is falsifiable, therefore scientific. It has been put to the test and has failed–we have actually landed on the Moon. It is therefore a scientific hypothesis which has been proven false.
AIOU Solved Assignment Code 5629 Spring 2023
Q.2 Discuss the need importance and technique of literature review.
A literature review is a study – or, more accurately, a survey – involving scholarly material, with the aim to discuss published information about a specific topic or research question. Therefore, to write a literature review, it is compulsory that you are a real expert in the object of study. The results and findings will be published and made available to the public, namely scientists working in the same area of research.
First of all, don’t forget that writing a literature review is a great responsibility. It’s a document that is expected to be highly reliable, especially concerning its sources and findings. You have to feel intellectually comfortable in the area of study and highly proficient in the target language; misconceptions and errors do not have a place in a document as important as a literature review. In fact, you might want to consider text editing services, like those offered at Elsevier, to make sure your literature is following the highest standards of text quality. You want to make sure your literature review is memorable by its novelty and quality rather than language errors.
Writing a literature review requires expertise but also organization. We cannot teach you about your topic of research, but we can provide a few steps to guide you through conducting a literature review:
- Choose your topic or research question:
It should not be too comprehensive or too limited. You have to complete your task within a feasible time frame.
- Set the scope:
Define boundaries concerning the number of sources, time frame to be covered, geographical area, etc.
- Decide which databases you will use for your searches:
In order to search the best viable sources for your literature review, use highly regarded, comprehensive databases to get a big picture of the literature related to your topic.
- Search, search, and search: Now you’ll start to investigate the research on your topic. It’s critical that you keep track of all the sources.
Start by looking at research abstracts in detail to see if their respective studies relate to or are useful for your own work. Next, search for bibliographies and references that can help you broaden your list of resources. Choose the most relevant literature and remember to keep notes of their bibliographic references to be used later on.
- Review all the literature, appraising carefully it’s content:
After reading the study’s abstract, pay attention to the rest of the content of the articles you deem the “most relevant.” Identify methodologies, the most important questions they address, if they are well-designed and executed, and if they are cited enough, etc.
If it’s the first time you’ve published a literature review, note that it is important to follow a special structure. Just like in a thesis, for example, it is expected that you have an introduction – giving the general idea of the central topic and organizational pattern – a body – which contains the actual discussion of the sources – and finally the conclusion or recommendations – where you bring forward whatever you have drawn from the reviewed literature. The conclusion may even suggest there are no agreeable findings and that the discussion should be continued.
Literature reviews constantly feed new research, that constantly feeds literature reviews…and we could go on and on. The fact is, one acts like a force over the other and this is what makes science, as a global discipline, constantly develop and evolve. As a scientist, writing a literature review can be very beneficial to your career, and set you apart from the expert elite in your field of interest. But it also can be an overwhelming task, so don’t hesitate in contacting Elsevier for text editing services, either for profound edition or just a last revision. We guarantee the very highest standards. You can also save time by letting us suggest and make the necessary amendments to your manuscript, so that it fits the structural pattern of a literature review. Who knows how many worldwide researchers you will impact with your next perfectly written literature review.
AIOU Solved Assignment 1 Code 5629 Spring 2023
Q.3 Elaborate the steps involved in scientific research process.
The following steps outline a simple and effective strategy for writing a research paper. Depending on your familiarity with the topic and the challenges you encounter along the way, you may need to rearrange these steps.
Step 1: Identify and develop your topic
Selecting a topic can be the most challenging part of a research assignment. Since this is the very first step in writing a paper, it is vital that it be done correctly. Here are some tips for selecting a topic:
- Select a topic within the parameters set by the assignment. Many times your instructor will give you clear guidelines as to what you can and cannot write about. Failure to work within these guidelines may result in your proposed paper being deemed unacceptable by your instructor.
- Select a topic of personal interest to you and learn more about it. The research for and writing of a paper will be more enjoyable if you are writing about something that you find interesting.
- Select a topic for which you can find a manageable amount of information. Do a preliminary search of information sources to determine whether existing sources will meet your needs. If you find too much information, you may need to narrow your topic; if you find too little, you may need to broaden your topic.
- Be original. Your instructor reads hundreds of research papers every year, and many of them are on the same topics (topics in the news at the time, controversial issues, subjects for which there is ample and easily accessed information). Stand out from your classmates by selecting an interesting and off-the-beaten-path topic.
- Still can’t come up with a topic to write about? See your instructor for advice.
Once you have identified your topic, it may help to state it as a question. For example, if you are interested in finding out about the epidemic of obesity in the American population, you might pose the question “What are the causes of obesity in America ?” By posing your subject as a question you can more easily identify the main concepts or keywords to be used in your research.
Step 2 : Do a preliminary search for information
Before beginning your research in earnest, do a preliminary search to determine whether there is enough information out there for your needs and to set the context of your research. Look up your keywords in the appropriate titles in the library’s Reference collection (such as encyclopedias and dictionaries) and in other sources such as our catalog of books, periodical databases, and Internet search engines. Additional background information may be found in your lecture notes, textbooks, and reserve readings. You may find it necessary to adjust the focus of your topic in light of the resources available to you.
Step 3: Locate materials
With the direction of your research now clear to you, you can begin locating material on your topic. There are a number of places you can look for information:
If you are looking for books, do a subject search in the Alephcatalog. A Keyword search can be performed if the subject search doesn’t yield enough information. Print or write down the citation information (author, title,etc.) and the location (call number and collection) of the item(s). Note the circulation status. When you locate the book on the shelf, look at the books located nearby; similar items are always shelved in the same area. The Aleph catalog also indexes the library’s audio-visual holdings.
Use the library’s electronic periodical databases to find magazine and newspaper articles. Choose the databases and formats best suited to your particular topic; ask at the librarian at the Reference Desk if you need help figuring out which database best meets your needs. Many of the articles in the databases are available in full-text format.
Step 4: Evaluate your sources
See the CARS Checklist for Information Quality for tips on evaluating the authority and quality of the information you have located. Your instructor expects that you will provide credible, truthful, and reliable information and you have every right to expect that the sources you use are providing the same. This step is especially important when using Internet resources, many of which are regarded as less than reliable.
Step 5: Make notes
Consult the resources you have chosen and note the information that will be useful in your paper. Be sure to document all the sources you consult, even if you there is a chance you may not use that particular source. The author, title, publisher, URL, and other information will be needed later when creating a bibliography.
Step 6: Write your paper
Begin by organizing the information you have collected. The next step is the rough draft, wherein you get your ideas on paper in an unfinished fashion. This step will help you organize your ideas and determine the form your final paper will take. After this, you will revise the draft as many times as you think necessary to create a final product to turn in to your instructor.
Step 7: Cite your sources properly
Give credit where credit is due; cite your sources.
Citing or documenting the sources used in your research serves two purposes: it gives proper credit to the authors of the materials used, and it allows those who are reading your work to duplicate your research and locate the sources that you have listed as references. The MLA and the APA Styles are two popular citation formats.
Failure to cite your sources properly is plagiarism. Plagiarism is avoidable!
Step 8: Proofread
The final step in the process is to proofread the paper you have created. Read through the text and check for any errors in spelling, grammar, and punctuation. Make sure the sources you used are cited properly. Make sure the message that you want to get across to the reader has been thoroughly stated.
AIOU Solved Assignment 2 Code 5629 Spring 2023
Q.4 Explain sampling .Describe different types of probability and new probability sampling.
Sampling is a process used in statistical analysis in which a predetermined number of observations are taken from a larger population. The methodology used to sample from a larger population depends on the type of analysis being performed, but it may include simple random sampling or systematic sampling.
Non-probability sampling is a sampling procedure that will not bid a basis for any opinion of probability that elements in the universe will have a chance to be included in the study sample. We are going to see from diverse method of five different sampling considering the non-random designs. which are; Quota sampling, Accidental sampling, Judgemental sampling or Purposive sampling, Expert sampling, Snowball sampling, Modal instant sampling .From the listed the researcher has to deliberately select items to be sample. This type of sampling is costly in application.
Types of non-probability random sampling
The researcher here is ease of access to his sample population by using quota sample, his tallying will be at his convenience guide by some evident of characteristic, such as sex, race, based on population of interest. The sample selection is by the convenient door of the researcher, Any person or individual mistakenly seen with the same characteristics will be asked pertaining the subject of the research for inclusion. It will flow in the same manner until the desired number is achieved. Quota sampling is of two types; first proportionate quota sampling represent the characteristics of major population by sampling a proportional total. Example if we are interested in studying population of 40 percent of females and 60 percent of males. We need a 100 size for the sample; the selection will not stop unless the target is hit before stopping. Meanwhile when the exact number of either male or female is gotten, say 40 female, the selection for the male has to continue in the same process, eventually when a legitimate female comes across, it will not be selected because there number is already completed.
The major setback of purposive sampling is that you necessity to agree on the specific features of the quota to base on. This will be either to base on religion, age, education gender; etc. The non-proportional quota sampling is a technique with small restriction of minimum of sample number of unit from each category. It’s not interested in having a number that will match the proportions of the population. Rather need to have sufficient to guarantee that you will be capable to talk about even a small cluster in the population. The method is a non-probabilistic sampling that typically used in assuring that small groups of samples are adequately represented.
Is convenience in reading the sampling population, mostly used among marketers or newspaper researchers. It has the same advantages and disadvantages as quota sampling and it is not guided by any obvious characteristics.
Judgmental or purposive sampling
The sampling design is based on the judgement of the researcher as to who will provide the best information to succeed for the objectives study. The person conducting the research need to focus on those people with the same opinion to have the required information and be willing of sharing it.
The researcher here seeks for the consent of those that are expert or known expert in the area of study, and begin the process of collecting his information directly from individual or group of respondent. It also involves sample assembling of group of people that can demonstrate using their experience or those that specialised in part of the areas. The reasons for using expert sampling are to have a better way of constructing the views of individuals that are expert in a definite area. It is also used in providing confirmation of validity to another approach of a selection of sampling.
Is a design process of selection usually done by using, networks. It is useful when the researcher know little about a group or organisation to study; contact with few individuals will direct him to other group. The selection of the study sample will be useful for communication aspect, in making decision or indifussion of knowledge to people. The disadvantage is that the choice of the whole sample balances on the choice of individuals from the beginning of the stage, belonging to a particular clique or have ample biases. It will difficult to use when the sample becomes larger and larger.
Modal instant sampling
Frequent of cases is sample, in this type of sampling we sample the most frequent cases. It can also be seen as the one with the highest happening of value in a given distribution or the one with most characteristic incident. In a lot of formal public informal public opinion polls, for example, interviewing a typical voter. There are problems with these types of sampling. First off all how are we going to know a model of case or typical case? We can be able to say that a modal voter is could be any individual that has average of age, level of educational background and income in the population. But it will not be clear to use the average considering the skewed distribution of income, for example, and, how would you know that those three from the variables are only relevant event that will classify as representative voter? What if religion and ethnicity background is another factor?
Is can be used if we want to include all the opinions or views and we are not going to consider about representing of these views per head. This sampling is also called sampling of diversity and is almost opposite with the modal instant sampling, the interest is to have a comprehensive variety of ideas, not to identify the modal instance or typical once. We determine that there is a ground of all possible ideas applicable to some topic and that we want to sample the population not the population of those people who have the ideas. What the sample study need is ideas not people.
Probability sampling is also known as ‘random sampling this is a sampling which permits every single item from the universe to have an equal chance of presence in the sample. For instance in a raffle draw were individual units will be picked from the overall group not a deliberately nonetheless by certain process, this incident is only a blind of chance that will limits whether unique items or the additional items is to be preferred. Probability sampling type will going to be based on the following; Systematic random sampling, Stratified types of sampling, Cluster sampling, Multi-stage sampling, Area sampling
Types of probability sampling
Thus, in systematic sampling only the first unit is selected randomly and the remaining units of the sample are to be selected by a fixed period, it is not like a random sample in real sense, systematic sampling has confident points of having improvement over the simple random sample, as ample the systematic sample is feast more equally completed to the complete population. The execution of the method is very easy, less in cost and conveniently to use in case of a larger population.
Is applied when population from which sample to be drawn from the group does not have homogeneous group of stratified sampling technique, in generally it is used to obtain a representative of a good sample. Stratified type of sampling divide the universe into several sub group of population that are individually more homogeneous than the total population (the sub-populations differences are called strata) and select items will be selected from each stratum to generate a sample in this case each of the stratum will be more homogeneous with the population, more precise estimate will be generated from each for stratum. We get the estimate of the population from each stratum when there is better accuracy from each of the component; we get a better estimate of the whole. The stratified sampling gives more reliable and detailed information about the sample. The forming of strata is informed of purposive system from a well experience and special judgment of a researcher. The strata are defined by the population characteristics of the estimate. The fitted organized design for stratification is the pilot study, which assists in the determination of more appropriate and efficient planning for stratification and element within both of the stratum are homogeneous while element between each strata is heterogeneous. Items selection from each separately stratum is done by using simple random sampling and systematic random sampling because they are reflected more proper in a convinced situations. Proportional allocation is used when the sample size from different stratum will be kept proportional to the strata size. To compare the difference for the strata, selecting equal sample from each of the stratum would be more efficient even though the strata will be different in sizes.
In cases the strata differs not only by size but also in variability and it is considered reasonable to take larger samples from the more variable of strata and smaller samples from the less variable strata and account for both differences of stratum size and differences of stratum variability.
When the total area of the research is too large a better way for the researcher is to divide the area in to smaller part of the same or equal and then select randomly from the smaller units. it is expected that that the total population is to be divided in to relatively a smaller number which are still from the clusters of smaller units and then some of this cluster unit will be selected randomly so that it will be included in the general sampling.
One of the advantages of using the cluster sampling is economical in reducing cost by concentrating on the selected clusters it gives less precision than the simple random sampling.
Is an additional progress of the belief that cluster sampling have. Normally in multi-stage sampling design is applicable in a big inquires of geographical area, for the entire country. Multistage sampling has to with the combination of the various methods of probability sampling in most effective and efficient approach.
Is a design sampling that deals with subdivision of environment that represents clusters of unit’s that centered on terrestrial location.
AIOU Solved Assignment Code 5629 Autumn 2023
Q.5 Briefly discuss the various levels of measurement.
The level of measurement refers to the relationship among the values that are assigned to the attributes for a variable. What does that mean? Begin with the idea of the variable, in this example “party affiliation.”
That variable has a number of attributes. Let’s assume that in this particular election context the only relevant attributes are “republican”, “democrat”, and “independent”. For purposes of analyzing the results of this variable, we arbitrarily assign the values 1, 2 and 3 to the three attributes. The level of measurement describes the relationship among these three values. In this case, we simply are using the numbers as shorter placeholders for the lengthier text terms. We don’t assume that higher values mean “more” of something and lower numbers signify “less”. We don’t assume the value of 2 means that democrats are twice something that republicans are. We don’t assume that republicans are in first place or have the highest priority just because they have the value of 1. In this case, we only use the values as a shorter name for the attribute. Here, we would describe the level of measurement as “nominal”.
First, knowing the level of measurement helps you decide how to interpret the data from that variable. When you know that a measure is nominal (like the one just described), then you know that the numerical values are just short codes for the longer names. Second, knowing the level of measurement helps you decide what statistical analysis is appropriate on the values that were assigned. If a measure is nominal, then you know that you would never average the data values or do a t-test on the data.
There are typically four levels of measurement that are defined:
In nominal measurement the numerical values just “name” the attribute uniquely. No ordering of the cases is implied. For example, jersey numbers in basketball are measures at the nominal level. A player with number 30 is not more of anything than a player with number 15, and is certainly not twice whatever number 15 is.
In ordinal measurement the attributes can be rank-ordered. Here, distances between attributes do not have any meaning. For example, on a survey you might code Educational Attainment as 0=less than high school; 1=some high school.; 2=high school degree; 3=some college; 4=college degree; 5=post college. In this measure, higher numbers mean more education. But is distance from 0 to 1 same as 3 to 4? Of course not. The interval between values is not interpretable in an ordinal measure.
In interval measurement the distance between attributes does have meaning. For example, when we measure temperature (in Fahrenheit), the distance from 30-40 is same as distance from 70-80. The interval between values is interpretable. Because of this, it makes sense to compute an average of an interval variable, where it doesn’t make sense to do so for ordinal scales. But note that in interval measurement ratios don’t make any sense – 80 degrees is not twice as hot as 40 degrees (although the attribute value is twice as large).
Finally, in ratio measurement there is always an absolute zero that is meaningful. This means that you can construct a meaningful fraction (or ratio) with a ratio variable. Weight is a ratio variable. In applied social research most “count” variables are ratio, for example, the number of clients in past six months. Why? Because you can have zero clients and because it is meaningful to say that “…we had twice as many clients in the past six months as we did in the previous six months.”
It’s important to recognize that there is a hierarchy implied in the level of measurement idea. At lower levels of measurement, assumptions tend to be less restrictive and data analyses tend to be less sensitive. At each level up the hierarchy, the current level includes all of the qualities of the one below it and adds something new. In general, it is desirable to have a higher level of measurement (e.g., interval or ratio) rather than a lower one (nominal or ordinal).