Free AIOU Solved Assignment Code 5643 Spring 2023
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Course: Library Automation, Information Storage and Retrieval–I (5643)
Semester: Spring, 2023
ASSIGNMENT No. 1
Q.1 Define and explain the concept of library automation. Briefly explain the advantages and disadvantages of automation in different libraries’ perspective.
Library automation refers to the use of the computer to automate the typical procedures of libraries such as cataloging and circulation. In the process of library automation, a library makes the use of computers and other technologies to support its systems and services. Library automation is the conversion of a library’s procedures from manual to computerized, such as from a card catalog to an OPAC, or from manual circulation cards to an integrated library system.
Automation is a process of using machinery for easily working and saving human power and time. The main purpose of library automation is to free the librarians and library staff and to allow them to contribute more meaningfully to the spread of knowledge and information. In Library Science automation is ‘the technology concerned with the design and development of the process and system that minimizes the necessity of human intervention in their operation.’¹
Beginning in the 1960s with the development of the machine-readable catalog record (MARC), the process of automation has expanded to include the core functions of acquisitions, cataloging and authority control, serials control, circulation and inventory, and interlibrary loan and document delivery. The library automation field is currently dominated by a handful of systems vendors (Auto-Graphics, EOS International, Ex Libris, Follett, Innovative Interfaces, Polaris Library Systems, SirsiDynix, TLC, and VTLS).²
Recent trends in library automation include the growing importance of “add-ons” mostly related to the delivery of digital content (link resolvers, portal and metasearch interfaces, and e-resource management modules often provided by third-party vendors), better integration with the Web environment (rewriting fat PC clients as browser applications, using XML and style sheets for display, and developing XML import and export capabilities) and for academic libraries, closer integration of library systems with learning management systems.
Libraries are known for using Information and Communication Technology (ICT) both for automation of its routine activities as well as for providing search services to the users. Computers are increasingly used in libraries both for internal operations as well as for accessing information that is available in the four walls of the library. The application of computers avoid repetitive jobs and save labour and time both for users as well as outside the library staff. Computers are not only used as a data processing tool, but also for information storage, access and retrieval.
The use of computers for information storage and retrieval began with the production of computer-generated and printed indices for scientific and technical literature in 1960s. Subsequently, several organizations started using computers not only for generation and printing of indices but also for creation of computer readable databases, By early 1970s, several published indexing and abstracting journals, such as Biological Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts, Index Medicus, etc. were not only produced by computer, they were also made available as computerreadable databases on magnetic tapes and several organizations started subscribing to them on magnetic media to organize local information storage and retrieval services.
Integrated library automation packages were introduced in libraries in 1970s. Minicomputers were used in 1970s in the libraries to computerize operations like circulation, acquisition, cataloguing, serials and Library OPAC. The trend pickedup in early 1980s with introduction of PCs at a cost affordable to the libraries. Past two decades have witnessed unprecedented developments in computer technology. Resultantly, inexpensive computing resources are now within easy reach of libraries. Computers are being used increasingly to automate various activities in libraries using a suitable off-the-shelf general or specific-purpose software package now available in a wide range for library automation.
This module covers definition, history, need & purpose of library automation. Planning for library automation, automation of in-house operations i.e. Cataloguing, OPAC, Circulation, Acquisition, Serial Control etc. Barcode Technology & RFID is also covered in this module.
The initial work on library automation began in 1930’s when punch card equipment was implemented for circulation and acquisition in libraries. During the 1930’s and early 1940’s progress on computer systems was slow because of depression and World War II. The library automation progressed along with the developments in computer and communication technology. The landmark developments in history of library automation are as follows:
• From 1946 to 1947, two significant computers were built. The ENIAC I (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator) computer was developed by John Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert at the University of Pennsylvania. It contained over 18,000 vacuum tubes, weighed thirty tons and was housed in two stories of a building. Another computer, EDVAC, was designed to store two programs at once and switch between the sets of instructions.
• A major breakthrough occurred in 1947 when Bell Laboratories replaced vacuum tubes with the invention of the transistor. The transistors decreased the size of the computer, and at the same time increased the speed and capacity.
• The UNIVAC I (Universal Automatic Computer) became the first computer using transistors and was used at the U.S. Bureau of the Census from 1951 until 1963. Software development also was in progress during this time. Operating systems and programming languages were developed for the computers being built.
• Invention of integrated circuit by Robert Noyce of Intel and Jack Kirby of Texas Instruments in 1960s can be considered as yet another landmark. All the components of an electronic circuit were placed onto a single “chip” of silicon.
• Development of a new indexing technique called “keyword in context” (KWIC) by H.P. Luhn, in 1961 for articles appearing in Chemical Abstracts. Although keyword indexing was not new, it was found to be very suitable for the computer as it was inexpensive and it presented multiple access points.
• Use of computer for the production of machine readable catalogue records by the Library of Congress (LoC) in mid-1960s. Between 1965 and 1968, LoC began the MARC I project, followed quickly by MARC II. MARC was designed as way of “tagging” bibliographic records using 3-digit numbers to identify fields.
• The MARC II format became the basis of a standard incorporated by NISO (National Information Standards Organization) in 1974. This was a significant development because the standards meant that a bibliographic record could be read and transferred by the computer between different library systems.
• ARPANET, a network established by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency in 1969 brought into existence the use of e-mail, telnet and ftp.
• The use of commercial systems for searching reference databases (such as DIALOG) began in 1970s. BALLOTS (Bibliographical Automation of Large Library Operations) in the late 1970’s was one of the first and later became the foundation for RLIN (the Research Libraries Information Network).
• The On-line Computer Library Center started its first cooperative cataloguing venture in 1970s. This significant project facilitated technical processing of library materials in member libraries.
• A sub-net of ARPANET made MELVYL, the University of California online public access catalogue, available on a national level in 1980. The MELVYL is still used as centralized integrated library software by all the campuses of University of California.
• During 1980s, the size of computers decreased, at the same time, technology provided faster chips, additional RAM and greater storage capacity. The use
of microcomputers during the 1980’s expanded tremendously into the homes, schools, libraries and offices specially in developed countries.
• The UNESCO started distributing Micro CDS / ISIS in 1980s through its distribution centre in every developed country. Free availability of Micro CDS / ISIS, developed specially for library applications, proved a boon for the librarians in developing countries.
• Several integrated library package started appearing in the market place. The LibSys in India was launched towards the end of 1980s.
• In 1980s, several other software became available to librarians, such as spreadsheets and databases for help in library administration and information dissemination.
• The introduction of CD-ROMs in the late 80s changed the way libraries operate. CD-ROMs became available containing databases, software, and information previously only available through print, making the information more accessible.
• Connections to “outside” databases such as OCLC, DIALOG, and RLIN continued, however, in the early 90’s the databases that were previously available on-line became available on CD-ROM, either in parts or in their entirety. Libraries could then gain information through a variety of options.
• The Internet gave rise to yet another era in library automation. The use of networks for e-mail, ftp, telnet, Internet, and connections to on-line commercial systems grew.
• The World Wide Web developed in 1993 became the fastest growing media of information delivery of all kinds.
• Expert systems and knowledge systems became available in the 90s with improvement in software and hardware capabilities. With the development of more advanced silicon computer chips, enlarged storage space and faster, increased capacity telecommunication lines, the ability to quickly process, store, send and retrieve information is causing the current information delivery services to flourish.
AIOU Solved Assignment Code 5643 Spring 2023
Q.2 Discuss in detail the planning process of automation in a university se up.
Planning for library automation has been defined as planning for “integrated systems” that computerize an array of traditional library functions using a common database (Cohn, Kelsey & Fiels, 1992, v.) While this is still generally true, rapid technological change is forcing a reexamination of what it means to “automate the library.” As physical, spatial and temporal barriers to acquiring information continue to crumble, libraries must plan for a broader and more comprehensive approach to providing automated services.
Four years ago, the authors anticipated:
� vastly expanded storage of indexes, statistical data bases, and document databases within the library;
� full-text storage of documents, complete with full-text keyword searching and on-demand printing;
� access by users to library databases from home or office, with direct downloading of information and text on demand;
� the ability to access remote databases across the country and the world, and to download information and text on demand;
� storage of pictorial and graphic material; and,
� availability of “intelligent systems” providing transparent, one-step searching and access to various library in-house and remote databases. (Cohn, Kelsey & Fiels, 1992, p. 111.)
These capabilities and far more have become reality. Accordingly, today’s integrated system must not only provide access to the traditional cataloging, circulation, public catalog (OPAC) and acquisitions modules, but must be capable of connecting through the local system into the systems of other vendors, remote bibliographic databases, CD-ROM drives on a local area network (LAN), and the Internet. Users are expecting that their library systems be capable of, among other things:
� providing seamless integration between system gateway and OPAC modules;
� providing access for external users on the Internet to the library’s OPAC;
� monitoring the usage of remote databases that have been accessed through the gateway; and,
� accessing the Internet using a variety of graphical interfaces.
Essentially, what this means is that libraries must plan to use a local library system as a vehicle for achieving access to resources outside that system. Stimulated by the Internet, which has created universal connectivity to information resources heretofore unknown and/or inaccessible, and by Z39.50 interoperability standards and “gateways,” users of individual local systems are expecting to access the resources of other systems– anywhere and anytime. Moreover, the traditional definition of “publishing” has been stretched by the creation and instant availability of informational home pages and Web sites worldwide.
Given such increased complexities and heightened levels of expectation, libraries must learn all the more how to plan for the introduction of automation in an organized and systematic fashion. There is little mystery involved here: It is entirely a matter of building upon what you already know about your library, using tools that are readily at hand and, most importantly of all, involving the people — staff and users — who must live with the consequences of any automation decisions.
One of the most important planning tools involves collecting basic statistical information on the library and its operations. You will find that the same basic data will be needed again and again — whether for vendors from whom you are requesting cost estimates, or for other libraries with whom you may be seeking to cooperate in implementing automation.
The following are examples of commonly needed data:
� Number of titles and volumes in the collection, current and projected;
� Number of borrowers, current and projected;
� Number of materials circulated, current and projected;
� Number of new materials acquired, current and projected;
� Interlibrary loans, lent to and borrowed from other libraries;
� Description of any cooperative arrangements involving the library; and,
� Library address and hours of operation.
In addition, it is important to take stock of any existing automation in the library by compiling the following data:
� Percentage of collection that has catalog records in machine-readable form;
� Description of collection without machine-readable records, by category (e.g. monographs, audiovisuals);
� Description of currently-automated library functions (if any);
� Estimates of the location and number of workstations (to show where you intend to have equipment in any future system); and,
� Specifications for any existing equipment to be re-used with any future system (if any).
At the same time that this data is being assembled, it is important to assess user needs and set service priorities. This can be accomplished by undertaking a focused, strategic planning process designed to involve the library’s “stakeholders.”
A library planning to automate should undertake a process by which representative staff and users can identify service needs and objectives. The purpose of such an effort is to allow participants to articulate their interests and concerns, share perspectives and learn about possibilities in a collaborative setting. Group interaction is an important contributing factor in the success of the goal, which is to develop and sustain library automation in the years ahead.
Here are the basic steps involved in this process:
� Plan on a two-day, intensive planning effort.
� Ask participants to identify strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats in the library’s environment (known as “SWOT” factors in strategic planning) that are characteristic of or that confront the library.
� Group these factors into critical issue areas that are likely to have an impact on the libraries’ future in developing and sustaining automation.
� Ask participants to identify ideas and perceptions in relation to the question: “How do you see the library providing user-friendly, cost-effective automated services in five years?”
� Through a method of your own devising, ask participants to prioritize all of the ideas that come out of the above two “brainstorming” exercises.
� Ask participants to shape these priorities into the draft of a strategic “vision” for automation development consisting of a statement of purpose, goals and objectives for the library.
AIOU Solved Assignment 1 Code 5643 Spring 2023
Q.3 Discuss the issues in the selection of library software in Pakistani environment and provide solution to the issues.
Library Management Software is an application that allows automation of libraries and book databases. The software is commonly used by libraries and librarians to be able to manage and access their library resources through a single, computer-based platform. Such applications make it easy for library staff to manage books and records. Self-service or web-based library management applications allow users to efficiently search online libraries for desired book or material and read it online. As a librarian, library management system can become your best friend.
Library automation, in rudimentary form, began in the late 1960s and since 1990 has been the main focus of Pakistani librarianship. The generous financial assistance provided by the Netherlands Library Development Project (Pakistan) further accelerated the pace in this regard. However, the libraries in Pakistan have not registered any significant progress. Automated systems are lacking in large university libraries, as well as in college and public libraries. The largest group using this technology is specialist libraries. These libraries use automation primarily for a few selected operations. Some private sector universities have taken steps towards the planning and implementation of integrated library systems, but these are still in the trial stages. The National Library in Pakistan has also just made similar steps. The UNESCO sponsored CDS/ISIS is the most commonly used software; other popular packages used include ORACLE and INMAGIC. Some indigenous systems have also been developed, but without much success. IBM 386 and IBM 486 compatibles are used by the vast majority of libraries. Computer application education is yet to be introduced to schools by the country’s library. The major constraints on library automation include: absence of planning, non-availability of software, import restriction on choice of hardware, lack of competent manpower, non existence of standard, absence of co-operation etc. Pakistan Library Automation Group (PakLAG), a not-for-profit trust, came into existence in year 2000, when some young professionals from the field of Library & Information Science in Pakistan wanted to institutionalize their volunteer work. Lahore based activity soon spread all over the country and volunteers from other provinces and cities joined the efforts to promote the use of ICTs in libraries. PakLAG has its chapters in all four provinces and federal capital. There is no membership fee and no official sponsorship. The idea was to achieve the objectives by promoting the self-reliance and economical solutions.
Pakistan Library Automation Group (PakLAG) is committed to empower libraries and librarians of Pakistan to create true learning and research environment through learning the use of latest technologies, software and techniques. The objectives of PakLAG are:
- To provide professional and technical advice to libraries, information centers and documentation centers in their development programs.
- To recommend training programs for librarians so as to help them to develop, update and automate their libraries and documentation centers.
- To develop library automation and capacity building programs.
- To coordinate library development activities in the country with national as well as international development agencies and institutions.
- To provide information and conduct research studies on library development.
- To provide platform to the information professionals for the exchange of views, sharing of experiences, networking among libraries as well as to develop consensus upon the common issues faced by the profession.
- To provide research support and policy recommendations to government at all levels and to legislative bodies in the formation of policies regarding the libraries and information services.
Library Information Management System (LIMS): Free software for library housekeeping routines. Used in more than 100 libraries.
Multilingual Web OPAC: First multilingual web OPAC solution is distributed free of cost.
LOC Gateway and Zebra Server: PakLAG promotes the use of Library of Congress Gateway for Web OPACs in Pakistani libraries. Zebra Server (free software under GPL) is used for this purpose. PakLAG provides free help and training to librarians.
Listserv for LIS professionals: First mailing list for librarians in Pakistan. Current members: 4000
Online Directory of LIS Professionals: Contact information of Pakistani librarians.
Training of ICTs and Indexing & Retrieval Tools: Conducted eight workshops for librarians. Introduced many new ICT products for libraries.
PakLAG Koha: PakLAG has localized this open source library software. Local languages are incorporated. Some new features have also been added.
Searchable Database of Journals in National Digital Library: Available at PakLAG website. Journal title, subject, database and publisher searching can be done.
Publication Program: A PhD dissertation has been published. Some software user manuals have also been electronically published on CD-ROM.
Virtual Library: National and international links include web OPACs of libraries, online bookstores, online newspapers, online databases and journals, online directories and other reference sources, LIS resources, and computer science resources.
Free Consultancy in Library Automation: Helps in selection and purchase of hardware and software and advice on retrospective conversion. More than 200 libraries have enjoyed the benefits of this service.
Survey of ICT Training Needs: Conducted a survey of Pakistani librarians to design future training program.
AIOU Solved Assignment 2 Code 5643 Spring 2023
Q.4 Briefly explain library integrated system. Why evaluation of the system is important? Discuss. Also the advantages and disadvantages off any two library system being used in Pakistan.
An integrated library system is a computer-based system used to manage all the internal and external resources of the library. The integrated library system is used in many schools, colleges, institutions, universities, etc. It contains a wider scope than the language library system due to the advanced technology and functions.
They help the librarian in three ways:
- It increases the operational efficiency of the library.
- It provides access to the library’s collection.
- It provides access to external resources.
MODULES OF INTEGRATED LIBRARY SYSTEM
Integrated library system is also known as the library automation system. It is considered the nervous system of the library. It covers
Cataloging — It is used for generating and managing MARC records like the list of subjects, author name, description, etc. This module allows the user to search online for the existing items of the library. This module is further divided into sub-modules.
- Online searches
- Print catalogs
- Stock verification
- Export / Import data
Circulation — It keeps a record of all the books in the library and how they are circulated or issued to the students. It keeps a record of all the functions related to management, display, etc. in the library. It is further divided into sub-modules.
- Serial circulation
- Fine collection
- Member history
- System set-up
- Collection updates
Acquisition system — It refers to ordering or purchasing the material for the library whether it is a book, journal, CD/DVDs, etc. It supports budget and expenditure monitoring also. It is further divided into sub-modules that are:
- Enter title
- Request to vendor
- Update title details
- Place order
- Receiving of invoice
- Payment request
- Record keeping
Serials — This system maintains a record of the budget sanctioned for serials under different categories. It is further divided into sub-modules that are:
- New subscription
- Payment updates
Top functions for integrated library system:
Database — It is a place where all the information belongs to the library is stored. It is an important function of integrated library system as it integrates all the data of the library into one system. This helps the librarian to keep track of the record.
- Patron Management — This enables you to add, delete and manage your library patrons.
- Staff interfaces — Modern library management system has a web-based interface that is accessible through a local network.
- OPAC (Online Public Access Catalogue) — In this interface, patrons can search for books and other items; make payment of fees and other things.
- Reports — The ability to run various reports on item movement. This software can generate the end number of reports depend upon the user which type of reports he wants to generate.
INTEGRATED LIBRARY SYSTEM BENEFITS
Integrated Library System is an advance library system used in schools, colleges, universities, etc. It has replaced the traditional library system where students have to find books from one shelf to another shelf.
The integrated library system supports all the activities related to library functions and user services. It provides an online interactive system for processing, storage, and retrieval. It also facilitates the interchange of information with other organizations.
The benefits of integrated library system are:
- Easy searching — It enables online searching of library material, which leads to fast and easy searching. Students prefer these types of digital libraries.
- Computerized services — It supports computerized library services which help in easy stock management.
- Web-based information — It provides a high-quality web-based information gateway.
- User-friendly — It is a user-friendly software that facilitates all the functions to run in a seamless manner.
- Full access — It offers expanded access to library materials. It provides full access to the whole library material in an effective way.
Integrated library system is user friendly software which technically supports the software in following:
- Language — It refers to the programming language installed in the software should run smoothly.
- Technical compatibility — The software must support the latest version and run in operating system in the hardware.
- Ease of use — Software package should cover all the in-house functions of the library to make it simple and easy to use.
- Interface — It should facilitate the import and export of the data from other systems.
- Integration — It also offer the facility to integrate the data in the system.
- Support — Good support system is an advantage of software. If the software provides full support like online training, on-site training and help desk it is rated high.
- Training — Both on-site and off-site training are important in the software.
AIOU Solved Assignment Code 5643 Autumn 2023
Q.5 Discuss the assessment criteria of an integrated multilingual library system.
Prior research on academic library services have indicated that the impact of library services on information literacy could be determined through, e.g. Association of College and Research Libraries or according to the standards developed by a country. For instance, academic libraries could use the information to assess whether a student is an information literate, or what areas should be addressed and what standards should be followed. In the digital era, the skills required of an information literate student include the ability to, e.g. formulate an information query, and determine the type and format of the information source, select the most effective search strategy, assess the quality of information, use and share information following the ethical and legal principles. Prior studies in academic library research have tended to focus on the students’ needs and skills of information seeking and retrieval rather than students’ information literacy needs in research context. In the broader context of the contemporary information-driven society and environment, the role of information literacy is not only important in research context but also it has become increasingly significant and important – as it creates the basis for lifelong learning. As such, the emphasis of information literacy instruction in the academic library has become on teaching the process of research and providing lifelong learning skills needed for students, faculty members and staff members to function independently to meet their information needs. Competency in such skills is essential to full participation in society and work because these skills are regarded as the core ability to maintain lifelong learning. Additionally, the ACRL states that information literate learners are lifelong learners, more self-directed, and are able to master content, extend their investigations and assume greater control over their own learning.
Based on definition to be considered an information literate, a person must be able to know when information is required and be able to find, assess and utilise effectively the required information. At the higher education environments, information literacy is often defined as discrete abilities that students require to have in order to find, assess (evaluate), use and share information ethically. Students who are information literate are better equipped for today’s complex information landscape and environment than students who does not possess such skills and abilities.
As information literacy skills play a prominent role in students’ academic achievement, international students coming to continue their postgraduate studies in other countries may be at a problem due to lack of or insufficient literacy skills. They potentially experience more challenges than domestic students as the educational system in their home country might be different than from the host university systems. It has been argued that international students have different needs, demands and often encounter different challenges in the foreign universities.
Some authors such as international students’ challenges are related to their (low) information literacy skills and unfamiliarity of the academic setting and library services in which they have landed. In utilising the information for the study, international students share some of the same struggles as domestic students, but also encounter possibly new challenges. For example, the lack of research capability and information literacy skills may hinder international students to effectively find, retrieve and correctly and ethically use the available information for their academic studies. As a result, this group of students may not be able to effectively use the available library resources and other platforms accessible to them and may produce a low level of motivation and self-efficacy in communicating with the librarians, administrative personnel and the faculty members. Thus, it could be speculated that understanding the challenges that these students face and exploring the factors associated with these challenges can help academic libraries to find solutions helping student to improve their motivation and self-efficacy and assist them to adjust to the campus culture. Moreover, the major challenges international students face is often associated with the language and communication problems, adjusting to a new educational as well as library system, and general culture adjustments.
Moreover, globalization and advancement in technology provide opportunities for people to travel and to study overseas. In 2016, more than 23,000 international degree students were studying in the Finnish higher education institutions, and the number has increased dramatically during the last few years. According to the student administration systems at the Finnish universities and also the European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA), Finnish and other EU/EEA students refer to “domestic” students, while “international” students refer to those coming from outside of the EU/EEA. We intent to keep this definition throughout this research.
In general, the constant growth of the international students pursuing their education in other countries than their home universities and specially in the EU region, makes it particularly significant and relevant research endeavour to study information literacy amongst domestic and international students. Therefore, given the dynamic nature of the information environments in the digital age and the population growth of international students, more research is demanded to better understand students’ information literacy capabilities and related barriers.