Free AIOU Solved Assignment Code 6508 Spring 2023
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Course: Teaching of English
Code : 6508
Semester: Spring, 2023
Level: M.A/M. Ed
ASSIGNMENT No. 1
- 1 Discuss the problems of teaching English in Pakistan?
Now I am going to discuss all the problems faced by teachers in teaching the English language.
1. Disturbed Environment of the Class
Environment matter most in learning and teaching the English language. Mostly the English teachers faced environmental problems in teaching the English language.
The disturbing environment of the classroom distracts the teachers and affects the teaching of the English language.
A suitable and comfortable environment is the basic need of teaching the English language.
If the environment is not suitable and comfortable for the teachers then it ruins all the teaching and learning process of the English language.
A positive and comfortable learning environment is very essential for teaching the English language.
Mostly the teachers faced such kind of disturbing environment in teaching the English language.
2. Limited Teaching Resources
Not only the English language, Teaching anything mostly depends on the resources.Mostly the teachers faced this kind of problem, the resources which are essential for delivering the lectures of the English language to the students for effective learning are not provided to them.
It became very difficult for the teachers to teach without the resources essential for the lectures.
The resources include speakers, mike, projectors, computer systems,s and other kinds of digital devices.
It makes the overall lecture and environment interesting and effective for the students and helps them in learning the English language.
3. A Large Number of Students in the Classroom
A large number of students in the classroom produce a lot of disturbance and stress for the teachers because teaching a large number of students the teachers have to do more effort and hardworking.
The problems caused by a large number of students are given below:
- Disturbed the teacher by making noises.
- Difficult to manage the class students.
- Engaging crowded students in learning is very difficult.
- The learning resources are not available for all the students.
These are some problems that arise in a crowded class.
4. Wrong Syllabus to be Teach
The syllabus is a kind of content that the teachers follow to teach to the students. The syllabus plays a very important role in teaching the English language and also in other subjects.
The syllabus helps the teachers to prepare the important factors of the course and organized the overall course to teach to the students step by step.
Mostly the teachers faced this problem in teaching the English language. The wrong syllabus is given to them to teach the students the English language.
The teachers teach the wrong syllabus will make negative impressions on the students, and by this, the students cannot learn and speak the English language.
5. Limited Time for Lecture to Teach
Time is the most important thing in learning the English language. It takes time for the teachers to observe their students and teach them at their level. The time of the class is very little for the teachers to teach the English language.
This one of the most difficult tasks for the teachers to teach in less time.
This is probably not possible for the teachers to complete the topics of their lectures in less time, which is not enough.
6. Students Hijack Lessons
Students hijack the lessons. Mostly the students are not interested in learning the English language. They hijack the lessons and do other kinds of activities and the English learning process is defeated.
The English language teachers always count the students because they cannot go further in the course if the students are missing.
7. Students Disturbed the Class
Sometimes the students get bored and try to do other activities during the lectures which disturbed the teachers during teaching the English language.
They try to speak to the other students during the lectures which disturbed the teachers a lot.
Some students come late for the lecture. They enter the class during the lecture it disturbed the teacher.
The disturbance is the biggest problem mostly the teachers faced in teaching the English language. It defeated all the learning process of learning the English language.
8. Using Other Languages in the Classrooms
Speaking other languages or speaking in the native language is the most noticeable issue faced by English teachers.
For the students, it’s very easy to speak in their native language or other languages which they can speak easily instead of the English language.
It’s very frustrating for the students trying to speak the language and think the words and sentences to speak which they didn’t know.
It’s very easy for them to communicate in their native language or the language they already have experience with.
This is the most common and big problem faced by the English teachers in teaching the English language to the students in which the English language is not their native language.
9. Student Depends on a Teacher
Another noticeable problem faced by the teachers is the students completely depend on the teachers. They didn’t try to learn and speak themselves.
Those students every time look to the teachers for helping them in learning and giving them the correct answers.
They didn’t try to make words and correct sentences in speaking the English language.
By this problem, the students didn’t learn the technical terms and conditions of how to use different kinds of tenses and words of the English language in speaking.
AIOU Solved Assignment Code 6508 Spring 2023
Q No 2 Write not on the theory of motivation in the context of teaching of English as a second language?
Motivation is a key factor for explaining the success or failure of any difficult activity. We know that success in a task is due to the fact that someone is motivated. It is easy in second language learning to state that a learner will be successful with the right motivation. Such claims supported by numerous studies and experiments in human learning. But they never offer a detailed understanding of what motivation is and what the sub components of motivation are. What does it mean to say that someone is motivated? How do we create, promote, and preserve motivation? All learners, teachers, material developers, and researchers agree that motivation is an important part of mastering a second or foreign language.
There are many different definitions for the term motivation. Crookes and Schmidt (1991) define motivation as the learner’s orientation regarding the goal of learning a second language. According to Ellliot and Covington (2001), motivation gives the reasons for people’s actions, desires, and needs. Motivation can also be defined as one’s direction to behavior or what causes a person to want to repeat a behavior and vice versa. Pardee (1990) said that a motive is what encourages the person to act in a certain way or develop an inclination for particular behavior. According to Gardner (1985), motivation is the combination of attempt plus desire to obtain the aim of learning the language plus favorable attitudes toward learning the language. Oxford and Shearin (1994) defined motivation as a desire to gain an objective, combined with the energy to work towards that objective. Narayanan (2006) said that motivation is the reason or reasons behind one’s actions or behaviors. Motivation is the reasons underlying behavior (Guay et al., 2010). Broussard and Garrison (2004) defined motivation as the attribute that moves us to do or not to do something.
Researchers have different views toward the different types of motivation. Lucas (2010) said that learners are intrinsically motivated to learn speaking and reading skills and are also intrinsically motivated through knowledge and achievement. According to Guthrie (1997), intrinsic motivation has a significant impact not only on reading comprehension but on the other aspects of reading such as reading breadth. Tercanlioglu (2001) stated that Turkish learners have positive attitudes towards reading because they read both for intrinsic and extrinsic motives. According to Ditual (2012), learners were highly motivated with positive attitudes towards learning English. They were both instrumentally and integratively motivated.
Chang (2010) expressed that class group impacted learners’ motivation and they felt relaxed with the motivated classmates. The other finding was that the inattentive learners demotivated their classmates. Moskovsy and Alrabai (2009) said that instrumental motivation plays more important role than the integrative motivation in EFL learning. The other result of this study indicated that integrative motivation is more pertinent to ESL learning. According to Moiinvaziri (2009), language learners were simultaneously motivated instrumentally and integratively. It was indicated learners were highly motivated towards learning English. Al-Otaibi (2004) declared that motivated learners spend much of their time to gain aims in learning foreign language and motivated learners can also learn language more effectively than unmotivated ones.
According to Al-Hazemi (2000), learners with strong desire to learn a language can obtain high level of competence in the target language. MacIntyre (1999) believed that a safe classroom climate is necessary for motivation and learners feel comfortable to learn a language in this idea condition.
Good and Brophy (1994) stated that motivation cannot be developed in a difficult classroom and teachers should create an effective learning environment for their learners. They continued that effective language learning occurs in a relaxed and friendly class. Ziahosseini and Salehi (2008) expressed that extrinsic motivation does not relate with the selection of language learning strategies. They emphasized that Iranian EFL learners are intrinsically motivated.
Sadighi and Maghsudi (2000) examined the impact of two kinds of motivation, namely, integrative and instrumental on English proficiency of the EFL learners in Iran. The results obtained from this study demonstrated a significant difference between the means of the English proficiency scores of integratively motivated learners and the instrumentally motivated ones.
According to Gardner and Lambert (1972), learners are motivated to learn when they think of themselves as competent persons, deal with materials arranged to their level, see goal in their activities, see their studies as significant, are given difficult work, live in a safe environment, have the chance to express psychological needs for success, recognition, and acceptance, think that the learning is for them and not for their teachers, work with interesting materials, have opportunity to make decisions and feel responsibility for participating, and experience more success than failure.
The other dimension of motivation construct is the degree to which learners are intrinsically or extrinsically motivated. According to Edward Deci (1975), intrinsic motivation is the one for which there is no apparent reward except the activity itself. People engage in the tasks for their own sake and not because they lead to an extrinsic reward. Intrinsic motivation is aimed at bringing about certain internally rewarding consequences like feelings of competence and selfdetermination. Extrinsically motivated behaviors are done in anticipation of a reward from outside and beyond the self. Behaviors initiated to avoid punishment are also extrinsically motivated, even though many intrinsic advantages can result from those who view punishment avoidance as a challenge that can make their sense of proficiency and selfdetermination
This study examined the role of motivation in language learning through reviewing some of the most considerable research in the field. Learners’ motivation can go up and down depending on the context of language learning. Motivation has a key role in the development of language skills. Teachers can play a significant role in motivating learners to the learning of a second/foreign language. Motivation is an important factor in learning a foreign language which is in influenced by different variables. Motivation sometimes overlooked by some EFL teachers in urging their Learners to learn more. We as EFL teachers should teach our learners to promote motivation. Teachers should help their learners to find motivation in the areas where they do not expect it and also to research for their own motivational processes so they can take advantage of it.
AIOU Solved Assignment 1 Code 6508 Spring 2023
3 Explain the difference between teaching approach and method. Further describe merits and limitations of Direct Methods of teaching English?
Difference Between Teaching Approach And Method
What is Approach?
The approach is said to be a scheme through which you can outlook a task or a project. Word approach is derived from the Latin word means “Go nearer to.” The approach is related to a specific direction or an angle to deal with your task. There could be more than two ways to approach any task. According to the academics, approach belongs to a theoretical set-up that you are going to use in your project. For instance, a professor gives some literature tasks to his students and asks them to write a review on it. There will be several approaches to fulfill the literature task. Some students finish their work by look over the language. However, some students approach their work by analyzing the structure or form, while other students focus on the theme.
Likewise, to analyze literature work, students use different angles and theories. To illustrate, Jean Rhys “White Saragossa Sea “can be approach by using a combination of two theories, i.e., “Postcolonial theories” and “Feminist theories.” Overall, the approach is an idea or design to defeat a problem and face a given situation. Generally, the approach is a concept that explains the style or way of a person and his reaction or behavior regarding face such a tough situation. The level of approach is just an idea, and it does not involve any steps that are tested or prove from time to time.
The intentional succession of actions in any situation or problem summarizes the approach of a person who is dealing with the situation. So the approach is defined as “Way to handle a situation, or a problem is known as an approach.” It changes from time to time, situation to situation, and with different individuals, although there is not a specific formula with such slight variations that can be measured as an approach.
According to Richards and Rodgers (1986), “approach belongs to a general presumption about how to learn a language” means the approach is a theoretical view of what language is and how it can learn. In short, the approach is a way to contemplate teaching and learning. The approach leads to the methods of the way of teaching. However, the communicative approach is known best current approach to teach language.
What is Method?
The method is a process or procedure of doing something. It is always schematic, structured, and in an organized form. The method is a step by step explanation to finish a task or to perform in a situation. When you are dealing with a mathematical problem, then first, we going to use an approach to look-over the basic theory and then indulge in its method or process. When we solve a problem step by step, it is its method.
Method refers to the procedure that has been tested and proves to help out and to overcome the problems. The method is always well organized, well mannered, and well researched to overcome a problem. The nature of the method is scientific and accomplished in a scheme having small steps. The method can be consummated according to the requirement of a specific situation. A method is a specific technique, tool, or procedure used to accomplish data, e.g., surveys, experiments and statistical analysis.
The method provides comprehensive steps that are required to finish a problem or to overcome a situation and to achieve a goal. For beginners of any field, the method is necessary to solve even minor problems. For instance, in literature, if you’re writing an essay or a novel and if you supervise research, you gather the data, analyze the literature and make a procedure this way of analyzing and the procedure is a method. The method illustrates how to do something or how to cope with a situation.
A method involves a specific syllabus, materials of choice to boost learning. A method is a type of organizing or plan that depends on the approach. The method is a systematic and theoretical analysis of data and applied in different fields of study. Typically, it covers the overall concept, paradigm, and theoretical overview, qualitative and quantitative techniques. Quantitative methods are usually related to sample size by simply collecting data and by analyzing. Qualitative methods are generally flexible and allow you to explore concepts and experiments properly and keenly.
- An approach is an act, whereas a method is a process to finish a task.
- The approach means to handle something, although the method refers to the system of doing something.
- The approach is just a concept conversely method is a step by step procedure.
- The approach is casual on the flip side method is organized and coherent.
- The method is a comprehensive technique, while the approach is general.
- The word method is more specific as compared to the approach.
- Approach refers to ideas; on the other hand, the method is a complete procedure.
Merits And Limitations Of Direct Methods Of Teaching English
Merits of the direct method:
- The learner receives more input in the target language than when the language is instructed in their native language.
- The learner creates direct associations between words in the foreign language and concepts in their mind, actions, situations, etc., instead of indirect connections via words in their native language. (This can be important when words in the target language are difficult to map to words in the native language.)
- Because of the above, the learner is encouraged much earlier to think in the target language (which may reduce interference from the native language, although no language teaching method prevents it entirely).
- Classes have few students, so the intensity of the learning process can be increased.
Limitations of the direct method:
- Activities are much more teacher-guided than in certain other methods that allow, e.g., peer teaching/peer learning.
- There is no emphasis on authentic materials.
- Some learners may not like the delay in learning to read and write, e.g. if they need to learn the language for professional reasons.
- The direct method requires a high level of language competence in teachers, since they are not supposed to compensate lower language skills by relying on their native language.
- The small class size made the direct method unsuitable for public education.
- At the beginning, the learner may feel overwhelmed by the new language, and certain emotional states (anxiousness, frustration, anger, …) can have a negative effect on learning. The direct method did not deal with these psychological aspects.
- Some concepts are difficult to explain without recourse to the learner’s native language. (However, if an occasional translations is allowed, this need not be a disadvantage of the direct method.)
- When there is a big distance between the learner’s native language and the target language, certain aspects are difficult to explain without using the learner’s native language. This is especially the case for grammar and certain communicative and cultural subtleties. At the early stages, the learner simply lacks the vocabulary to understand these aspects when they are explained in the foreign language.
Davies, Alan; Elders, Catherine, eds.: The Handbook of Applied Linguistics. Blackwell Publishing, 2004
AIOU Solved Assignment 2 Code 6508 Spring 2023
4 Describe principles to teach English at school level. What do you suggest the best method for teaching of English at secondary level? Why?
Here we discuss the principles of teaching English at school level
Principle 1: Know your Learners
English teachers should understand the students’ personal and educational background so they can tailor classes according to their students’ needs more effectively. Learning about the students’ culture, first language, and past experiences are useful while preparing lesson plans, materials, and projects.
Principle 2: Create Conditions for Language Learning
Creating a positive atmosphere in class considering physical space, materials, and student integration promotes better learning experiences for English students. A pleasant atmosphere makes students feel comfortable and more confident in participating and expressing themselves in a positive way, which is essential for learning development. Additionally, setting high expectations, differentiation, and motivation help learners deepen their English language skills.
Principle 3: Design High-Quality Lessons for Language Development
Creating meaningful and exceptional lesson plans that develop the students’ language acquisition and their content learning process remains essential. Teachers may engage students in authentic language practice experiences, supporting their learning strategies and critical thinking development. According to the 6 Principles manifesto, “gestures, visuals, demonstrations, embedded definitions, audio supports, and bilingual glossaries make information comprehensible.”
Principle 4: Adapt Lesson Delivery as Needed
Assessing students and adapting lesson plans accordingly remains a must. Reflecting on the students’ performance and development improves the quality of many English lessons. There are several ways to do so: reteaching content, adapting activities and materials, adjusting instructions and tasks, being flexible with the students’ response time they allow students.
Principle 5: Monitor and Assess Student Language Development
Outstanding ESL/EFL teachers also monitor and assess students’ language development to measure and document progress. English students learn in different ways and speed. Therefore, English teachers should prepare different forms of assessment while providing constructive feedback appropriate for the students’ ages and levels for continual student improvement.
Principle 6: Engage and Collaborate Within a Community of Practice
This last principle suggests English teachers should collaborate with each other to support their English language learners. Sharing classroom experiences, reflecting critically on teaching practices, following current ELT research, joining and engaging in professional groups, attending academic conferences, and engaging in online learning groups are all ways to be active within a community of practice. This advice might benefit teachers, their co-workers, their students and the institutions where we work. Is this last suggestion a tad self-serving for TESOL? Yes, but it’s also a practical suggestion for dedicated ESOL professionals.
Best Method For Teaching Of English At Secondary Level? Why?
English is often considered one of the most difficult languages to learn fluently, if you haven’t grown up speaking it. As a second language, mastering secondary level English can be a challenge, but helping your students gain a strong command of the language is far from impossible.
Here are some of the more creative approaches that could deliver the results you need:
- Stimulate Debate & Discussion– Encourage your students to debate on a variety of subjects: fictional characters from a popular television show, “what if…” future scenarios, improvements they’d like to see in their community or environment, and whatever else gets them talking.
Bring up some sensational celebrity gossip every now and then, or taboo ideas that other teachers won’t touch. Straying outside the established syllabus gives students more freedom to express themselves, and debating brings in an element of competition that’s entirely language-based.
- Try Immersive Reading Activities– Studying English literature is one of the most effective ways to develop fluency in reading, writing and to some extent, speaking the language. Instead of focusing on formal acquisition of literary concepts alone, though, engage your students with creative immersion activities.
Get them to compose music, re-enact or paint something about which they’re currently reading. Let them work in groups and share ideas on certain projects, but include solo activities that encourage them to find their own unique meanings in poems, stories, and other literature as well.
- Boost Writing Skills in Fun Ways – There’s only one way to really gain written fluency in any language – practice, practice, practice. Unfortunately, most students today rely on smartphones or computers to correct anything they write, whether it’s an instant message or a homework paper.
- Create a List of Grammar-Based Apps – Teaching students the concepts of grammar and composition is less about theory and more about practice. The number of hours they spend in your class is limited, but they’re likely to have 24/7 access to a smartphone, tablet or laptop – use this to your advantage!
Leverage the power of web-based tools, by creating a list of the best apps and games that can be used for teaching English. Share these with your students to help them build their vocabulary, explore interactive platforms for learning, and improve their grammar through constant practice and exposure.
- Maximize the Potential of Online Tools – Use smart classroom technology to monitor students’ progress, encourage them to try out online learning tools and interact with English speakers on social media platforms etc. These unconventional methods of teaching resonate with young students who are completely at home on the web.
- Build an Inspirational Study Environment – Don’t expect your students to get excited about learning if the classroom environment isn’t designed to inspire them. There are a number of ways to boost the learning appeal of a certain space, so get creative and set up a zone that encourages and motivates students.
- Use Self- and Peer-Assessment for Motivation – Everyone learns at their own pace, but no one can resist the chance to mark someone else’s work or their own. This form of assessment allows students to grasp the values behind a certain concept, as well as understanding where they could improve.
AIOU Solved Assignment Code 6508 Autumn 2023
5 Write a note on English reading skills?
It’s easier to learn English reading than you think! Here, we will discuss how you can improve using staircases and scaffolding.
When a house is built, it doesn’t all get done at the same time. Workers have to build some temporary structures to help keep the house standing up and to help them work on the higher parts. These structures are called scaffolding.
Scaffolding is also a method of learning. The idea is that, to learn a skill well, you need to learn smaller parts that will help you “build” your knowledge and skills.
This is true for reading comprehension too! To really understand what you read, you might need to work on other skills first. You might need to practice reading quickly (or slowly). You might need to stop choosing very difficult books, and start choosing the right books for your skill level. Start easier, start smaller and slower, and then gradually increase the difficulty.
Remember this when you’re working to improve your reading comprehension—and any other English language skill!
The steps below will show you exactly how to improve reading skills the right way. Use these tips and you’ll be understanding a lot more of what you read.
Is Reading English Hard? How to Improve English Reading with 8 Easy Steps
1. Always Make Special Time to Read
Reading for fun can be done anywhere. You could take a fun book out on a bus, in bed or at the office, and you can enjoy it.
However, if you’re reading to improve your comprehension, you need to focus and study.
This means you need to make a special time for this reading. Making time for your reading will let you focus well without risk of being interrupted. This time should be quiet, and you should avoid being distracted.
You should try to spend at least 30 minutes every day on focused reading. That’s how to improve your reading skills seriously and successfully. The more you read, the more you’ll improve.
Turn your reading process into a ritual, something you repeat every time you sit down to focus on reading English.
Follow these steps, or any other steps that you’d like to make a part of your reading process:
- Find a quiet, comfortable spot with bright lighting to sit.
- Get everything you might need ready before you sit down. For example, you might want to have a pen, your notebook, a dictionary and something to drink.
- Decide how long you will read. (30 minutes is a good minimum amount of time.)
- Put all your electronics on silent mode (or turn them off) and put them away.
Turning off the sound on your electronics might not seem important, but it’s something you really must do!
If you have a specific process for preparing to read, then your brain will know when you’re about to read and you’ll be more focused before you even start.
2. Read the Right Books
If you dislike science fiction, you might not want to read a book about a man stuck on Mars. When you’re choosing books (and other texts) to read, keep two things in mind:
- What you’re interested in
- Your reading level
Whenever you can, you should read things that you enjoy. You should also choose books that are at an English level just above the one you’re most comfortable with. You want to challenge yourself just enough to learn new things, but not enough to get frustrated with your reading.
Not sure where to start? There are lots of places online where you can find recommendations for books to learn English reading:
- Listopiaon Goodreads is full of lists created by people just like you.
- Your Next Readlets you search for books that are similar to the ones you’ve read and liked before, or you can browse some of their lists.
- Jellybookshelps you discover new books and sample 10%, which means you can try the book and see if it’s a good fit for you.
- Whichbookis a very different kind of website—you choose the kinds of things you’re looking for in a book (happy/sad, beautiful/disgusting) and the website gives you suggestions based on that.
Any of these can help you find the perfect book for improving your reading comprehension.
3. Ask Yourself Questions While Reading and After Reading
Learning how to read English books is about more than just reading the words!
There are a few things you can do before, during and after reading to help you better understand the text.
Before you read, browse the text. That means you should look over the text quickly without actually reading every word.
Take some time after you read too, to browse again and summarize what you remember. Try to quickly say or write a few sentences that describe what the text was about.
Thinking about what you read will show you how much of it you really understood, and help you figure out if you still have questions.
Before you read, here are a few questions you can ask yourself as you browse, to help you prepare for reading:
- Are there any words in bold or italics?
- Are there titles or subtitles?
- What are some of the names mentioned?
- Is there a lot of dialogue?
- Are the paragraphs short or long?
After you read, the questions below can be used to help you think about what you did and did not understand:
- What was the text about?
- What are the most important things that happened in the text?
- Did anything confuse you?
- Did anything surprise you?
- Are there any parts you didn’t understand?
You might have some more questions depending on what kind of text you were reading, but these are good basic ones to start with.
4. Improve Fluency First
Reading. Is. Fun.
Do you notice how you stopped every time you saw the period?
Now imagine reading an entire article or even book like this, stopping after every word. It would be difficult to understand, wouldn’t it?
It’s hard to form an understanding of what you’re reading when you read word-by-word instead of in full sentences. That’s why, to improve your understanding, it’s important to improve your fluency first.
Fluency is how smoothly you can read. When you read in your head, you should have a certain rhythm to the words. The words should flow together naturally, like when somebody is talking. That’s how to read English books like a native speaker would.
Improving fluency can be as simple as choosing slightly easier texts to read, or it might take some time and practice. If you take some time to improve how fluently you read, though, it will help you in the future. You’ll improve your reading and even your speaking. It will also make reading feel more fun and natural.
Many of the words you find when you’re reading are actually “sight words.” These are words that you should know by sight and should not have to think about how to read them.
You can practice sight words very quickly. Just find a good list of sight words, like this one, and take about a minute or two every day to read the words as fast as you can.
If you don’t know any of the words it’s a good idea to look them up beforehand, but remember that this exercise is about reading faster, not understanding more. Once you can read at a comfortable speed, you can focus on understanding.
It might seem strange, but another great way to practice reading fluency is with videos. Specifically, look for English videos with subtitles. That way, you will read the words while hearing how a native speaker naturally says them.