BIO201 GDB Fall 2023 – GDB – Solution VU

BIO201 GDB Fall 2023 – GDB – Solution VU

BIO201 GDB Fall 2023 solution idea:


How and why complement system is activated?


Complement system:

The Complement System made up of complement proteins.

Complement Proteins:

Vertebrate blood contains about 20 different antimicrobial proteins that make up the complement system. These proteins, in different combinations, provide three types of defenses. In each type, the complement proteins act in a characteristic sequence, or cascade, with each protein activating the next:

  1. They attach to microbes, which helps phagocytes recognize and destroy
  2. They activate the inflammation response and attract phagocytes to site of
  3. They lyse (burst) invading cells such as


So, the complement system is also known as complement cascade is a part of immune system, that improves the (complements) the capacity of antibodies and phagocytic cells to clear micro- organisms and damaged cells from an organism, promote inflammation and attacks the pathogen’s cell membrane.


How and why Complement System is activated?

The complement system consists of small plasma proteins that are synthesized by liver, and circulate in the blood as inactive precursors. These proteins are activated directly by pathogens or indirectly by pathogen bound antibodies. When stimulated, proteases in the system cleave specific proteins to release cytokinesis and initiate an amplifying cascade for further cleavages and generates active components with various effector functions.


There are three pathways of complement system activation:

  1. The classical pathway: It is directly triggered by pathogen or indirectly by antibody binding to pathogen
  2. MB-letin pathway
  3. Alternative Pathway



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