aiou solved assignment code 207

AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8619 Autumn & Spring 2023

AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8619 Autumn & Spring 2023. Solved Assignments code 8619 Educational Technology 2023. Allama iqbal open university old papers.

Course: Educational Technology (8619)
Level: B.Ed (1.5 Years)
Semester: Autumn & Spring 2023

Q.1 Write note on the significance of educational technology. Also discuss the

scope of educational technology in our schools.


Educational technology, sometimes shortened to EduTech or EdTech, is a wide field.

Therefore, one can find many definitions, some of which are conflicting. Educational

technology as an academic field can be considered either as a design science or as a

collection of different research interests addressing fundamental issues of learning, teaching

and social organization. Educational technology as practice refers to any form of teaching

and learning that makes use of technology. Nevertheless, there are a few features on which

most researchers and practitioners might agree:

1. Use of technology is principled: Technology means the systematic application of

scientific knowledge to practical tasks. Therefore, educational technology is based on

theoretical knowledge drawn from different disciplines (communication, education,

psychology, sociology, philosophy, artificial intelligence, computer science, etc.) plus

experiential knowledge drawn from educational practice.

2. Educational technology aims to improve education. Technology should facilitate learning

processes and increase performance of the educational system(s) as it regards to

effectiveness and/or efficiency.

In this short introduction we will try to give a preliminary definition of the field.

Other definitions

Educational technology is a very wide field. Therefore one can find many definitions, some

of which are conflicting.

• Technology means the systematic application of scientific or other organized

knowledge to practical task. Therefore, educational technology is based on

theoretical knowledge from different disciplines (communication, psychology,

sociology, philosophy, artificial intelligence, computer science, etc.) plus experiential

knowledge from educational practise (Natalie Descryver)

• Educational technology is the use of technology to improve education. It is a

systematic, iterative process for designing instruction or training used to improve

performance. Educational technology is sometimes also known as instructional

technology or learning technology. (Wikipedia:Educational_technology)

• The study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by

creating, using and managing appropriate technological processes and resources.)

• A definition centered on its process: “A complex, integrated process involving

people, procedures, ideas, devices, and organization, for analyzing problems, and

devising, implementing, evaluating and managing solutions to those problems,

involved in all aspects of human learning”

• “One definition of Educational Technology is that it is a systematic, iterative process

for designing instruction or training used to improve performance” (Encyclopedia of

Educational Technology)

• Lachance et al. (1980:183) also focus on the the process idea: la technologie

éducative en tant que processus systématique intégrant les diverses fonctions du

processus éducatif. Elle vise, d’une part, à analyser des problèmes reliés à

l’enseignement et/ou à l’apprentissage et, d’autre part, à élaborer, implanter et

évaluer des solutions à ces problèmes par le développement et l’exploitation des

ressources éducatives (cited by Lapointe, 1991).

• Educational Technology (Information Technology) according to International

Technology Education Association

1. Teaches with technology (uses technology as a tool)

2. Primarily concerned with the narrow spectrum of information and communication


3. Primary goal: To enhance the teaching and learning process

Concept and scope of eductional technology:

By scope of educational technology we mean the jurisdiction, the limits or the boundaries

within which it works. It needs demarcation of the boundaries within which the process of

education can go on. Being a fast growing modern discipline it is almost practical all

through and is expanding with a tremendous speed, aiming at all- round development in

the area of education.

The scope of Educational Technology can be accessed from the following points:

1. Determination of Objectives:

Educational Technology provides different methods and techniques for writing instructional

objectives in behavioural terms such as Bloom Taxonomy Magar’s Approach and RCEM

Approach. The needs and requirements of the people and hence education need be revised

from moment to moment. Educational technology helps in fixing-up the right objectives in

the light of the changed circumstances and changed environment.

2. Improvement in Teaching Learning Process:

It helps in improving the teaching learning process and makes it more purposive. It tries to

discuss the concept of teaching, analysis of teaching process, variables of teaching, phases

and levels of teaching, principles of teaching, maxims of teaching and relationship between

teaching and learning.

3. Development of Teaching Learning Material:

Teaching learning materials are also as important as anything else in the teaching learning

process. In this age of science and technology, the materials of teaching cannot be


Everything of the society including values of life need be reflected in the materials. Only

right type of material will be able to modify the behaviour of the learner suitably making

him a fit person for the society.

4. Improvement in Teaching Training:

The change of environment with ne curriculum and new materials need be handled by the

teachers. The teachers equipped with old strategies and methodologies of teaching will

remain misfits.

Right type of training to the teachers is the need of the hour. Educational Technology can

render its valuable help in the training of teachers also. The use of video tapes and close

circuit T.V. will help the teachers to remodel and reshape their teaching behaviours suitably.

It includes micro teaching, simulated teaching, term-teaching, teacher effectiveness,

modification of teacher-behaviour, class-room interaction and interaction analysis, etc.

Need of educational technology in your life:

Educational technology is a field of study that investigates the process of analyzing,

designing, developing, implementing, and evaluating the instructional environment and

learning materials in order to improve teaching and learning. It is important to keep in mind

that the purpose of educational technology (also referred to as instructional technology) is

to improve education. We must define the goals and needs of education first and then we

use all our knowledge, including technology, to design the most effective learning

environment for students.

Instructional technology can also be seen as a process of solving educational problems and

concerns, which might include motivation, discipline, the drop-out rate, school violence,

basic skills, critical thinking, and the whole list of educational concerns. First, the problem is

identified, an analysis of the factors of the problem is made, and possible solutions to the

problem are presented. Then, the student population and the curriculum are analyzed. The

next step is to select the most appropriate instructional strategies for the particular

situation. Next, instructional materials and resources are selected that are suitable for the

curriculum and the mode of instruction chosen. Finally, the program is implemented,

evaluated, and revised as needed in order to meet the stated goals for school improvement.

The learning materials today have greatly expanded because of the various technological

advances. Instructional materials include more conventional materials, such as the

blackboard, overhead projectors, televisions, VCRs, overhead projectors, slide projectors,

and opaque projectors, as well as newer materials, such as the computer, various software

applications, LCD projectors, camcorders, digital cameras, scanners, the Internet, satellite,

interactive TV, audio and video conferencing, artificial intelligence, and so on.

Teachers in the public schools and faculty at universities need to understand what types of

materials are available, how to use them, why they should be used, when they should be

used, and how to integrate them into the teaching/learning environment in order to meet

the ultimate goal of improving education. Teachers also need to seriously consider how

these newer materials can affect what and how we learn and teach.

AIOU Solved Assignments Code 8619 Autumn & Spring 2023


Q.2 Distingush between salient feature of cognitivasm and behaviourism.


Behaviorism and Cognitivism are two movements in psychology that have significant

implications for viewing learning and education. Behaviorism is the study of behavior for the

purpose of identifying its determinants. Behaviorism employs mechanism as a fundamental

metaphor, which assumes that behavior is governed by a finite set of physical laws.

Cognitivism was a reaction to Behaviorism. It is the study of mental processes through the

scientific method and abstractions from behavior. Cognitivism employs mechanism and

information processing as the principle metaphors for interpreting findings.

The two movements differ particularly in their views on behavior. Behaviorism, whose

research subjects were mostly animals, views behavior as an irreducible consequence of

environmental stimuli, where as Cognitivism, whose research subjects are often humans,

sees behavior as a point from which to abstract the mental processes behind the behavior.

Cognitivism and Behaviorism are also similar in significant ways. They both use mechanism

as a fundamental assumption. Cognitivism goes beyond behaviorism in that it extends the

mechanical assumptions to the mind, not just behavior. But nonetheless both movements

view human action, mental or otherwise, as determined by physical laws.

The two movements also hold in common a contradiction; they use subjective metaphors as

the base for objective science. Behaviorism uses the stimulus and response metaphor to

interpret exhibited behavior in the world and sets its inquiry according to the affordances of

the metaphor. Similarly, Cognitivism uses information processing as a way to explain how

humans perceive, remember, and understand the world around them. Because cognitive

science bases its inquiry within the information processing metaphor, the conclusions about

mental processes are only as objective to the level that metaphor is subjective.

Though the two movements are different, cognitive does not escape all of behaviorism’s

criticism. Cognitive science, however, overcomes Behaviorism’s main faults, particularly that

reflexes and reinforcements cannot account for all human behavior and that animal

behavior is not the best predictor of human behavior.

Cognitivism also attempts to go beyond behaviorism by attempting to explain how humans

reason, make decisions, why they make errors, how they remember and mis-remember, in

other words, things that are very much part of the human experience but cannot be

explained by behavior alone. Nevertheless, with its roots in mechanism, cognitivism is still

subject to the reductionism that leaves no room for meaningful human action. Cognitive

science may have made advances over a strict stimulus/response view of the world, but a

metaphor of inputs and outputs to explain how humans think a feel does not reconcile

within mechanics and physical laws how humans are self-actuating. A machine, by default

has no inherent meaning or sentience, but in humans, something is doing the filtering, the

creating, and the development of meaning. A science that has at its core a metaphor that

assumes there is no action until acted upon cannot fully explain human behavior, mental

processes, or human meaning.

AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2 Code 8619 Autumn & Spring 2023


Q.3 Educational technology facilitates learning. How?


Teaching with technology can deepen student learning by supporting instructional

objectives. However, it can be challenging to select the “best” tech tools while not loosing

sight of your goals for student learning. Once identified, integrating those tools can itself

be a challenge albeit an eye-opening experience.

The term “technology” refers to advancements in the methods and tools we use to solve

problems or achieve a goal. In the classroom, technology can encompass all kinds of tools

from low-tech pencil, paper, and chalkboard, to the use of course management tools or

high-tech tablets, online collaboration and conferencing tools, and more. The newest

technologies allow us to try things in physical and virtual classrooms that were not possible

before. What you use depends fundamentally on what you are trying to accomplish.

CELT is here to help you (novice, expert, and everyone in between) find creative and

constructive ways to integrate technology into your class. If you are looking to flip your

class, make use of Canvas, or simply want to experiment with some new instructional

technologies, we can help.

Technology Changes Teaching, Not Teachers While all the faculty members interviewed for

this article believe technology has great power to influence their teaching, no one feels it

fundamentally changes them as teachers. “I’ve always wanted a very interactive classroom,”

Smithey says. “I want it to be very theoretically based and I know exactly what I want my

students to learn. I think technology has improved the quality of what we can access.”

Smithey also emphasizes the importance of technology being used for a clear purpose. “I

never want to use technology just for technology’s sake but to support my students’


Professor Tomarken feels that integrating statistical software and visual models into his

courses means he comes into class “better prepared” but doesn’t think it changes him as a

teacher. “I usually am pretty interactive with the class.” He does, however, credit the

accessibility of computers with reducing the “passivity factor” in his classes. “They have to

type things in, they have to click on the mouse. I think it’s pretty lively in a lot of ways.”

How Technology Enhances Learning Professor Owens, Smithey, and Tomarken all feel they

can see technology enhancing their students’ learning, particularly when students use the

technology directly. David Owens requires his students to do at least one group project

entirely over the Internet. “They’re not allowed to do it face to face,” Owens says. “They

aren’t allowed to say, “I’ll call you tonight.’ They have to do everything virtually. In this

project, they have a lot to figure out about group process, what things are done best face to

face, what things are done best asynchronously, what things are done best in an

anonymous chat room. And they figure it out. It’s…so much more powerful than my sitting

up there saying “the group process models show…”

Professor Smithey requires her students to complete a series of computer assignments from

a course CD that she has developed. Smithey values these pre-class assignments because

they save classroom time and improve the quality of class discussion. “When the students

complete their CD assignments, they come to class with a common context. We are able

then to discuss particular class dilemmas or teaching dilemmas that everyone has watched,

analyzed and reflected upon. So, we can start there and go with our class discussion rather

than having to take 20 or 30 minutes of class showing the video and asking the specific

questions. They’ve done all that in the computer lab.”

Technology can also improve the dynamics between teachers and students, often leading to

enhanced learning. “Students can see you’re doing a lot of work to further their education

and I think that there’s an appreciation factor that ultimately contributes to their own

motivation,” Tomarken says.

Students who may question how much their professors care about teaching can also see

evidence of the time and trouble taken to prepare for class. “I think sometimes graduate

students, or possibly even undergraduate students, go in with the mindset that this teachers

doesn’t really give a darn about teaching and I think using technology is a real way of

communicating ‘yes I do,’” Tomarken adds.

Technology Brings Challenges Introducing technology into the classroom can also bring a

set of challenges. First among them is finding the time needed to incorporate new

technology into courses. Professor Smithey not only uses the technology herself but also

requires her student to produces multi-media projects during the semester. “If you’re going

to ask the students to do such a challenging project, you have to be available to them. You

have to have support. There has to be some relief time to learn about the technology. You

don’t have to know the details of technology but you have to understand it well enough

that you can envision what your students need to know about using it.”

The technology itself can fail, leaving an instructor to resort to back up. Technology also

changes rapidly and it takes time to keep up with technical changes that influence how

equipment and software perform in the classroom. Professor Owens points to a digitized

news show he purchased from CBS: “I have the CD in here and one of my fears is that

someday I’ll pop it in the classroom and it won’t work. It’s a constant upkeep.”

Professors Tomarken and Owens also note that having computers in the classroom can

distract students from the class itself. Teaching in a classroom equipped with computers

“actually introduces the potential for students to be doing something on the computer that

doesn’t have anything to do with the class,” Tomarken says.

AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2  Code 8619


Q.4 Explain the terms goals and objectives. Also discuss the importance of using behavioural objectives for developing learning aids and particularly teaching subject matter.


Both terms imply the target that one’s efforts is desired to accomplish. Goals are generically

for an achievement or accomplishment for which certain efforts are put. Objectives are

specific targets within the general goal. Objectives are time-related to achieve a certain task.

A goal is defined as

1. The purpose toward which an endeavor is directed.

2. The result or achievement toward which effort is directed or aimed.

An objective has a similar definition but is supposed to be a clear and measurable target.

Attributes of goals vs. objectives

Differences in scope

Goals are broader than objectives in the sense that goals are general intentions and are not

specific enough to be measured. Objectives are narrow and are set for certain tasks in



Goals are general while objectives are specific. Goals are just general intentions towards the

attainment of something while objectives are precise actions for accomplishment of a

specific task.


Goals may be intangible while objectives ought to be tangible. Goals may be directed at

achieving non-measurable things while objectives may be targeted at getting measurable

things or tasks.

Differences in time frame

Both have a certain time frame. Goals usually have a longer time-frame than objectives.

Objectives are usually precise targets set for a short term. Goals may be set for a longer

term but many objectives may be set within that goal.

Measuring goals and objectives

Goals may or may not be measured, but in most cases objectives are measurable.


“I want to achieve success in the field of genetic research and do what no one has ever

done.” This is a goal.

“I want to complete the thesis on genetic research within this month.” This is an objective.

Importance of using behavioural objectives for developing learning aids and

particularly teaching subject matter:

Civilization is built on several fundamental principles, but perhaps one of the least

understood or valued is that of accountability. In this age of widespread democracy,

accountability is taken to mean a variety of things, and is a major focus of recent education

reform efforts being made at national and state levels. One constant in any system of

accountability is that to be meaningful, it requires measureable results based on agreed-

upon goals and objectives. Well-stated, clear objectives are fundamental to all professional

teaching and measures taken to hold teachers accountable for what their students learn. It

also means, in my opinion, that the employers of teachers are also accountable for

providing the necessary professional resources to the teachers for them to carry out their

professional instructional duties. Anything short of that is simply dishonest. The information

on this section of the site is updated as conditions warrant.

First of all, I invite you at this point to check out my program entitled “Catalyst: Tools for

Effective Teaching 2.0.” It is an update of the original and begins with a thorough tutorial

on how to write behavioral learning objectives. It also includes modules on lesson planning,

classroom management, teaching methods, and much more.

For many, if not most teachers, learning objectives are central to all lesson plans they

develop themselves or adapt from those written by others. That said, objectives that are

used in education, whether they are called learning objectives, behavioral objectives,

instructional objectives, or performance objectives are terms that refer to descriptions of

observable student behavior or performance that are used to make inferences about

learning – certainly the ultimate aim of all teaching. At some point, almost every teacher,

especially new teachers and teacher education students, must learn to write these types of

objectives. Here, such objectives are referred to as learning objectives. Acquiring this skill is

something of a rite of passage in the process of becoming a teacher, yet it is a skill that

requires practice, feedback, and experience. Over the past 30 years or so, the emphasis on,

and attention paid to learning objectives has waxed and waned as different ideas change

about how best to express instructional intent. To clarify a bit, I have included arationale for

developing and using learning objectives that meet demanding behavioral criteria. It

provides in-depth information that you might find helpful. Any skill is learned more

effectively if the learner understands the reason for learning and practicing it. Developing

this skill in relation composing learning objectives is no exception.

Learning objectives are about curriculum, not instruction. They are concerned with ends,

and not necessarily means. This is a key point. Many tend to confuse learning objectives

with objectives a teacher may have that relate to student conduct or behavior in a

classroom. Properly constructed behavioral learning objectives are about the evidence of

learning; they specify what behavior a student must demonstrate or perform in order for a

teacher to infer that learning took place. Since learning cannot be seen directly, teachers

must make inferences about learning from evidence they can see and measure. Learning

objectives, if constructed properly, provide an ideal vehicle for making those inferences.

The purpose of a learning objective is to communicate. Therefore, a well-constructed

behavioral learning objective should leave little room for doubt about what is intended. A

well constructed learning objective describes an intended learning outcome and contains

three parts, each of which alone means nothing, but when combined into a sentence or two,

communicates the conditions under which the behavior is performed, a verb that describes

the behavior itself, and the degree (criteria) to which a student must perform the behavior.

If any one of these three components is missing, the objective cannot communicate


Therefore, the parts of a learning objective are:

1. Conditions (a statement that describes the conditions under which the behavior is to be


2. Behavioral Verb (an action word that connotes an observable student behavior)

3. Criteria (a statement that specifies how well the student must perform the behavior).

A learning objective is the focal point of a lesson plan. It is a description of an intended

learning outcome and is the basis for the rest of the lesson. It provides criteria for

constructing an assessment for the lesson, as well as for the instructional procedures the

teacher designs to implement the lesson. A learning objective determines the criteria for

any assessment rubric. As you will see, without a learning objective that clearly

communicates specific student behavior or performance, it is difficult, if not impossible to

determine exactly what a particular lesson is supposed to accomplish.

In order to write learning objectives, one should begin with an understanding of the

particular content to which the objectives will relate. Understanding in more than one way

the content to be learned should be a goal of teachers as well as students. This implies that

teachers or others who prepare objectives as part of lesson plans or curriculum documents

and guides should have more than superficial knowledge of the appropriate content.

Writing a series of objectives that are within a body of content, but which have neither

internal nor external consistency with that body of content is not a productive use of time.

However, the purpose of this is not to delve into the area of curriculum consistency, but

rather present some pointers to help the reader write better objectives. So, with that in

mind, let’s begin.

AIOU Solved Assignments Code 8619 Autumn 2023


Q.5 Critically examine the instructional strategies. Which strategies do you think

more appropariate for teaching learning process in Pakistan.


As a student, you may have noticed that you do different activities in different classes.

Sometimes you get into groups to work on an assignment. Sometimes the teacher reads

something aloud to the class then assigns them a project. Other times you read quietly to

yourself or aloud in class and then discuss with your classmates. You may then present your

work to the teacher as a group or write your answers down in an essay as homework. These

are all different ways your teachers help students understand the objectives of a lesson.

While there are many different types of students and classes, people learn best when they’re

stimulated and engaged. In order for teachers to accomplish this, there are different

teaching methods and plans. These are collectively called instructional strategies. Let’s talk

about some different strategies.

After selecting the learning objectives and assessments for the course, we need to think

about the various instructional activities we will use to engage students with the material

and enable them to meet the objectives. Of course, the key is to align instructional

strategies with the other two components. Many instructional strategies are flexible, and

can be used in service of several learning objectives, but some of them are better suited for

a particular set of objectives. In most cases, we will need to use a combination of

instructional strategies. This table focuses on two of three components of course design.



Suitable Objectives

Lectures Transmit information which supplements or enhances reading; promote

understanding via explanations; respond to student misconceptions or

difficulties; create or engage interest in a new area; motivate reading or

other assignments

Discussions Practice thinking and communicating in the subject/discipline; evaluate

positions, arguments, or designs; defend own position; identify problems,

conflicts and inconsistencies; get feedback from/about students; draw on

students’ expertise and prior knowledge

Case studies Actively involve students in learning; apply disciplinary methods of analysis;

practice problem solving; practice high-level cognitive skills (i.e.,

application, analysis, synthesis, evaluation); think critically; blend cognitive

and affective dimensions (if the case has ethical or controversial

dimensions); develop collaborative skills; relate knowledge to real world;

formulate arguments and counterarguments

Writing Develop systematic relationships among ideas; application, analysis,

synthesis and evaluation; reflect on own thinking; record the evolution of

own thinking; practice disciplinary conventions (e.g., APA style); practice

responding to feedback and revising

Labs/Studios Develop disciplinary and process skills; obtain immediate feedback and

respond to it; develop metacognitive skills (e.g., awareness of own

strategies); evaluate results or product of own work; approximate real life




 Compare and contrast perspectives; practice high-level cognitive skills (i.e.,

application, analysis, synthesis, evaluation); develop meta-skills such as

leadership, communication, conflict resolution; strategize and plan how to

tackle complex problems and distribute work

Recitations Practice problem solving; review material; check student understanding;

identify and correct misconceptions; individualize instruction; answer




Evaluation; practice giving constructive feedback; self-reflection; defend

vision for own work



Sometimes called community-based instruction, service-learning places

equal emphasis on the service component of the experience and the

learning outcomes for the student



Explore areas of interest in depth; conceive of, plan, and execute a research

or creative project from beginning to end; work independently; seek

Projects mentorship from an expert in the field.

Which strategies do you think more appropariate for teaching learning process in


Pakistan at present is struggling to upgrade its failing school system in terms of a more

relevant curriculum to 23st century requirements, better ways of learning and teaching and

a transparent and viable assessment system. However, success in improving the system

hinges on the vital factor responsible for imparting the curriculum in the classroom, i.e., the


So far, some strides have been made in improving the curriculum aims and objectives which

focus on critical thinking skills. The new textbooks also stress the same aims by using

questions that require thinking before answering. The main objective is to do away with rote

learned answers and develop the skills needed for a complex 23st century.

How do students perceive the learning process in our schools? To quote a few students on

the subject of classroom teaching/learning will clarify the importance of the teacher’s

pivotal role in the learning process:

• “Most of the classes are very boring because the teacher keeps on speaking without any

class participation.

• Classes are usually dull and boring, involving long lectures.

• Teacher comes in class, asks someone to read the topic out of the book. Finishes the

course beforehand and then kind of wastes time.

• He comes and hurriedly keeps on dictating the topic. Children with good listening skills

and who are good at making notes understand but the others are left behind. But, he tries

to make children actually understand the topic.

• Teachers do not explain well; do not put effort in the work they do; their overall standard

of teaching is poor; control in the class over students is poor; style of teaching is incorrect.”  

Nevertheless, teachers are still a long way away from implementing the new methodology

in the classroom. The idea of improving teachers’ skills is being recognised by both private

and public schools and in service teachers are required to attend workshops to learn more

from the educational point of view. However, the unskilled teacher who attends these

workshops is often at a loss to gain much from this experience. For one, educational

research proves that a teacher will teach as he/she has been taught.

The past 30 years of schooling in Pakistani schools has focused on rote learning geared

towards the examination system. Teachers themselves are the product of such an

environment and to take on new techniques for use in the classroom without understanding

the underlying efficacy of such methods negates this type of learning. Maybe most will try

and practice some methods backed by the present methodology but the old ways come

back time and again. Consequently, the course to be run in an academic year will not wholly

benefit from better forms of learning in each and every topic handled by the teacher.

To make up for the deficit, teachers are then provided by school administrations with a

breakup of the syllabus in each subject incorporating the new methodology. The premise is

that even if the teacher has no clue about learning/teaching methods, they will at least go

along as best they can with what is provided as the correct mode of teaching. However, it is

quite possible that the teacher is following a pattern verbatim without understanding its

worth and unable to add or subtract to improve on it. The result is “rote learning” by the

teacher who then manages to perform in class according to the administration’s

requirements. To state the obvious, improvement in teachers’ skills is actually not taking


Command over subject matter is a starting point for most teachers who take up the

profession. However, school administrations often ask teachers to teach subjects that are

not their forte. The process then becomes a matter of learning facts from the prescribed

textbook and just focusing on the content accumulated there. The teacher will not acquire

the passion or commitment to teaching a subject forced on them. Mostly, important

subjects such as Islamiat, Pakistan Studies, History, Geography and Social Studies have

suffered at the behest of teachers ill equipped to teach them. These subjects aim at giving

awareness of good citizenship skills much needed in a weak educational climate within


Teacher education in Pakistan must be taken seriously if the quality of education has to be

improved in schools. The new four-year degree in education is again being mishandled and

rote learning of content knowledge is becoming the norm.

The courses indicated have recommended books published abroad and unavailable to

those initiating this degree as affiliates to a university. The sum total of teacher training is

giving them knowledge of this and that and hoping for the best.

AIOU Solved Assignments 1 & 2  Code 8619 Autumn & Spring 2023


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