Free AIOU Solved Assignment Code 846 Spring 2021

Free AIOU Solved Assignment Code 846 Spring 2021

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Course: Teaching Strategies (846)
Semester: Spring, 2021
ASSIGNMENT No. 1

Q.1 Discuss with any educationist, the permissive style of teaching and prepare a report of the outcomes of your discussion.

Through teaching the teacher brings a desirable change in the learner. Both the concepts teaching and learning are interrelated to each other. Development of all-round personality of the learner is the final goal of teaching and learning. During teaching an interaction takes place between an experienced person (teacher) and an inexperienced person (student). Here the main aim is to bring change in the behavior of the student.

Teachers teach students at three levels. They have to keep in mind about the developmental stage of the learners so that desired educational objectives can be achieved. These three levels are

  1. Memory level: Thoughtless teaching
  2. Understanding level: Thoughtful teaching
  3. Reflective level: Upper thoughtful level

I’ll be doing a separate article on these levels of teaching but for now, in this article, we will have the gist of all these three levels of teachings along with their advantages and disadvantages.

Memory level of teaching

It is the first and thoughtless level of teaching. It is concerned with memory or mental ability that exists in all living beings. Teaching at memory level is considered to be the lowest level of teaching. At this level,

  • the thinking ability does not play any role.
  • students only cram the facts, information, formulas and laws that are taught to them.
  • the teaching is nothing but learning the subject matter by rote.[Bigge, Morris L(1967)]
  • the role of the teacher is prominent and that of the student is secondary.
  • The study material is organized and pre-planned. The teacher presents the study material in a sequential order.
  • Memory level teaching lacks insight. Psychologically, it is cognitive level teaching.

Merits of memory level teaching

  1. Useful for children at lower classes. This is because of their intellect us under development and they have a rote memory.
  2. The role of the teacher is important in this level of teaching and he is free to make choices of subject matter, plan it and can present it at will.
  3. The knowledge acquired at memory level teaching forms a basis for the future i.e. when student’s intelligence and thinking is required.
  4. Memory level teaching acts as the first step for understanding and reflective levels of teaching. It is pre-requisite for understanding level teaching.

Demerits of memory level teaching

  1. This does not contribute to the development of the student’s capabilities.
  2. Since at this level student learns by rote, the knowledge gained does not prove helpful in real life situations as it does not develops the talents of students.
  3. The pupils are kept in strict discipline and cramming is insisted on this teaching.
  4. Intelligence does not carry any importance in this type of teaching and it lacks motivation

Reflective level of teaching

This level is also known as introspective level. Reflecting on something means giving careful thought to something over a period of time. It also means thinking deeply about something.

Reflective level of teaching is considered to be the highest level at which teaching is carried out.

  • It is highly thoughtful and useful.
  • A student can attain this level only after going through memory level and understanding level.
  • Teaching at the reflective level enables the students to solve the real problems of life.
  • At this level, the student is made to face a real problematic situation. The student by understanding the situation and using his critical abilities succeeds in solving the problem.
  • At this level emphasis is laid on identifying the problem, defining it and finding a solution to it. The student’s original thinking and creative-abilities develop at this level.
  • The role of the teacher in this level of teaching is democratic. He does not force knowledge on the students but develops in their talents and capabilities.
  • The role of the students is quite active.
  • reflective level of teaching is that which is problem-centered and the student is busy in original imagination.

Merits of reflective level teaching

  1. The teaching at this level is not teacher-centered or subject-centered, it is leaner-centered.
  2. There is an interaction between the teacher and the taught at the reflective level teaching.
  3. At this level, teaching is appropriate for the higher class.
  4. At this level, teaching is highly thoughtful and useful than the teaching at the memory or understanding level.

Demerits of reflective level teaching

  1. not suitable for small children at the lower level of teaching. It is suitable only for mentally matured children
  2. At this level, the study material is neither organized nor pre-planned. Therefore students cannot acquire systematic and c;rganized knowledge of their study courses.

AIOU Solved Assignment Code 846 Spring 2021

Q.2 Explain various activities occurring in each phase of teaching while highlighting on the different phases of teaching.

Teaching is a complex task. We need systematic planning to perform this task. Teaching has to be done in steps. The different steps constituting the process are called the phases of teaching. Each phase has some operations of teaching which create the situation for learning. Teaching process can be divided into three phases/stages.

  1. Pre-active phase – refers to planning
  2. Interactive phase – refers to the conduct and management
  3. Post-active phase – refers to the follow-up and consolidation

Different phases involve different operations of teaching.

The pre-active phase of teaching:-

  • It is the phase of planning for teaching.
  • Good planning makes the task of teacher smooth, functional and successful.
  • There one two major steps involved in this phase.
  1. Establishment of some kind of goals or objectives.
  2. Discovering ways and means to active these objectives.

Operation of teaching at pre-active phase:-

Before classroom teaching, a teacher has to perform many tasks. This phase includes all these activities which a teacher performs before entering the classroom. This stage involves the following activities.

(1) The formulation or fixing up of goal:-

  • The teacher formulates in detail the instructional objectives in behavioral terms by using the taxonomy of educational objectives.
  • Objectives one determined according to student’s psychology and needs of the society and the school.
  • Objectives are determined according to what changes teacher expects in students by achieving these objectives.

(2) Selection of content or subject matter to be taught:-

  • After fixation of teaching objectives teacher decides about the content to be presented before learners.
  • For content selection following points should be kept in mind.
  1. The demand of syllabus/curriculum.
  2. The entry behavior of the accepted learners.
  3. Level of the motivation of learners.
  4. Teacher’s preference for assessment related to the content.

 (3) The arrangement of ideas and style of teaching:-

After selecting the presentable content, the teacher arranges the elements of the content in a logical and psychological sequence. Sequencing should be able to assist in the transfer of learning.

(4) Selecting Intuitional Methodology:-

The teacher has to select appropriate strategies and tactics of teaching, keeping in view, of the content and objectives of teaching. This operation is very important in teacher-education programme.

(5) Development of teaching strategies:-

The teacher should decide beforehand about strategies and tricks, which he has to use during the course of his classroom teaching. He should decide about

  • When and what device of teaching should be used.
  • When the teaching aids will be used.
  • When recapitulation or evaluation etc. will be done.

(6) Deciding the duration, place, and management of classroom teaching.

(7) A decision about evaluation tools and techniques.

So, this stage is about working out the details of the teaching or activities a teacher want to perform in the class. Here teacher hypothesizes about the possible outcome of his action.

The interactive phase of teaching:-

This phase refers to the execution of the plan made during the pre-active phase. This is actual classroom teaching. In this phase, the teacher gives students the learning experiences through some suitable modes.

In this phase, teachers give learners a pre-determined environment. The teacher interacts with students so that desired changes can be brought in the learner.

So learning is directed in pre-determined directions to achieve pre-determined goals. In this process, the teacher provides learners with verbal stimulation.
This stimulation can be of various kinds. Few examples are:-

  • asking questions
  • listening to student’s response
  • providing guidance
  • making explanations etc.

Operations of teaching at interactive phase:-

This phase of teaching

  • includes all those activities which a teacher uses after entering the classroom.
  • includes actual teaching done in the classroom.

In this face to face encounter with learners. Here the teacher uses some of the techniques, aids, and material planned in the first phase. This helps the teacher in achieving the relevant objectives that were already set. Here the following operations are undertaken by the teacher.

(1) Setting up the class:-

It refers to the activity of perceiving the due size of the class, getting the feel of the mood of learners. here teacher should be aware of

  • how many in the group are looking attentive
  • how many are negligent and disinterested
  • who are sharper ones
  • who are troublemakers etc.

(2) Knowing the learners:-

Knowing the learners means to know about the previous knowledge of the new learners. It is done after preserving the class size. For this teacher can start by knowing the abilities, interests, attitudes and academic backgrounds of the new learners.

(3) Starting teaching:-

At this stage, the teacher starts teaching. This is done after diagnosing by questioning. Here, two types of activities are involved.

  1. Initiation
  2. Response

The initiation and response are known as ‘verbal interaction’

The interactive phase of teaching is the classroom interaction between teacher and students. The interaction may be verbal or non-verbal. Interaction is the most important at this stage. This is the interchange between teacher and student by initiation or response operations.

In this phase, all the activities performed by a teacher when he enters the classroom are combined together. These activities one concerned with the presentation of content in the class.

AIOU Solved Assignment 1 Code 846 Spring 2021

Q.3 critically examine the understanding level of teaching and also give the limitations of teaching at understanding level.

Teachers teach students at three levels. They have to keep in mind about the developmental stage of the learners so that desired educational objectives can be achieved.  I’ll be doing a separate article on these levels of teaching but for now, in this article, we will have the gist of all these three levels of teachings along with their advantages and disadvantages. It is the first and thoughtless level of teaching. It is concerned with memory or mental ability that exists in all living beings. Teaching at memory level is considered to be the lowest level of teaching. At this level,

  1. The thinking ability does not play any role.
  2. Students only cram the facts, information, formulas and laws that are taught to them.
  3. the teaching is nothing but learning the subject matter by rote.[Bigge, Morris L(1967)]
  4. The role of the teacher is prominent and that of the student is secondary.
  5. The study material is organized and pre-planned. The teacher presents the study material in a sequential order.
  1. Memory level teaching lacks insight. Psychologically, it is cognitive level teaching.
  1. Useful for children at lower classes. This is because of their intellect us under development and they have a rote memory.
  2. The role of the teacher is important in this level of teaching and he is free to make choices of subject matter, plan it and can present it at will.
  3. The knowledge acquired at memory level teaching forms a basis for the future i.e. when student’s intelligence and thinking is required.
  4. Memory level teaching acts as the first step for understanding and reflective levels of teaching. It is pre-requisite for understanding level teaching.
  5. This does not contribute to the development of the student’s capabilities.
  6. Since at this level student learns by rote, the knowledge gained does not prove helpful in real life situations as it does not develops the talents of students.
  7. The pupils are kept in strict discipline and cramming is insisted on this teaching.
  8. Intelligence does not carry any importance in this type of teaching and it lacks motivation

This level is also known as introspective level. Reflecting on something means giving careful thought to something over a period of time. It also means thinking deeply about something.

Reflective level of teaching is considered to be the highest level at which teaching is carried out.

  1. It is highly thoughtful and useful.
  2. A student can attain this level only after going through memory level and understanding level.
  3. Teaching at the reflective level enables the students to solve the real problems of life.
  4. At this level, the student is made to face a real problematic situation. The student by understanding the situation and using his critical abilities succeeds in solving the problem.
  5. At this level emphasis is laid on identifying the problem, defining it and finding a solution to it. The student’s original thinking and creative-abilities develop at this level.
  6. The role of the teacher in this level of teaching is democratic. He does not force knowledge on the students but develops in their talents and capabilities.
  7. The role of the students is quite active.
  8. Reflective level of teaching is that which is problem-centered and the student is busy in original imagination.

Merits and Demerits of reflective level teaching

  1. The teaching at this level is not teacher-centered or subject-centered, it is leaner-centered.
  2. There is an interaction between the teacher and the taught at the reflective level teaching.
  3. At this level, teaching is appropriate for the higher class.
  4. At this level, teaching is highly thoughtful and useful than the teaching at the memory or understanding level.
  5. not suitable for small children at the lower level of teaching. It is suitable only for mentally matured children
  6. At this level, the study material is neither organized nor pre-planned. Therefore students cannot acquire systematic and c;rganized knowledge of their study courses.

AIOU Solved Assignment 2 Code 846 Spring 2021

Q.4 Discuss and differentiate between the terms task analysis and content analysis. Give examples in support of your answer.

Task and/or content analysis is a set of activities that help instructional designers understand the domain (knowledge, skills, etc.) to be taught. It is a critical part of the instructional design process, solving at least three problems for the designer:

  1. It defines the knowledge and skills required to solve the performance problem or alleviate a performance need. This step is crucial because most designers are working with an unfamiliar domain.
  2. Because the process forces subject-matter experts to work through each individual step of what is required to solve a problem, subtle details of the knowledge and skills to be taught can be more easily identified.
  3. During the process, the designer has the opportunity to view material from the learner’s perspective. Using this perspective, the designer can often gain insight into appropriate instructional strategies for the materials they will ultimately create.

Task/content analysis does not begin in a vacuum. It begins with the needs or goals derived from the definition of the instructional problem. Designers should also consider what they uncovered during their learner analysis. An understanding of the learner’s knowledge and background related to the instructional domain helps designers determine the beginning point for the analysis as well as the depth and breadth of analysis. The output of a task/content analysis is documentation of the content that could possibly be included in the instructional materials. This output then serves as input for developing detailed instructional objectives.

A task/content analysis can take many different forms. Designers most often work with one or more subject-matter experts (SMEs), individuals who are experts in the content area. The SME is our link to the instructional domain; we rely on this individual (or individuals) to provide accurate, detailed information for use in developing the instructional unit. Our task as designers is to help the SME elaborate on the content and tasks in a meaningful, logical manner.

In this chapter, we describe the different kinds of content structures designers might encounter in their work, and how each can require different types of strategies to analyze (and later teach) effectively. We then describe three specific techniques for analyzing these knowledge and skill structures: (a) a topic analysis well suited for defining cognitive knowledge; (b) a procedural analysis for use with psychomotor tasks, job tasks, or cognitive sequences involving a series of steps; and (c) a critical incident method, which is useful for analyzing interpersonal skills.

Six structures are often associated with a task/content analysis: facts, concepts, principles and rules, procedures, and interpersonal skills.

Facts

A fact is an arbitrary association between two things. For example, ‘‘The chemical symbol for potassium is K’’ is a fact that describes a relationship between potassium and K. Most topics include many facts because they are the building blocks or tools of any subject—the ‘‘vocabulary’’ the learner must master for understanding. But unless facts are arranged in structured patterns, they will be of limited use to a learner and are often quickly forgotten.

Concepts

Concepts are categories used for grouping similar or related ideas, events, or objects. For example, we might use the concept of soft drinks to categorize the aisle in the grocery store that contains colas, orange drink, root beer, and so forth. The concept of fruit would include apples, oranges, bananas, and dates, but not potatoes. We use concepts to simplify information by grouping similar ideas or objects together and assigning the grouping a name (e.g., fruit, islands, or democracies). Some concepts, such as fruit, are considered concrete concepts because we can easily show an example. Concepts such as safety, liberty, peace, and justice are abstract concepts because they are difficult to represent or illustrate.

Principles and Rules

Principles and rules describe a relationship between two concepts. In microeconomics, we can derive several principles from a supply-and-demand curve. For example, ‘‘as price increases, the supply increases’’ is a principle that describes a direct relationship between two concepts (i.e., price and supply) that increase and decrease together. ‘‘As price decreases, demand increases’’ describes a different relationship between price and demand that causes one to increase as the other decreases.

Procedures

A procedure is an ordered sequence of steps a learner must execute to complete a task. A recipe for making a cake or casserole is a procedure. Similarly, a procedure could be a series of steps needed to plant a rosebush, or it could be a complex series of cognitive processes required to debug a computer program or diagnose the flu.

Interpersonal Skills

This broad category includes behaviors and objectives related to interpersonal communication, for example the development of interviewing skills, solving group conflict, leading a group, or how to sit (e.g., appropriate body language) when being interviewed on television.

A topic analysis is used to define connections and relationships between the facts, concepts, principles, and rules that make up a knowledge domain. Such an analysis is typically done in layers, much like what an archaeologist finds when excavating a site. First, the top layer of soil is scraped away. Then layers of earth are removed, and each artifact’s identity and location are recorded. Similarly, a designer working with the SME carefully reveals the first layer of information while looking for indicators of knowledge structures (i.e., facts, concept, and principles). Once the structure is revealed, additional detail is gathered for each structure, and new information appears as the designer digs deeper into the content.

A topic analysis thus provides two types of information. First, it identifies the content that will be the focus of the intended instruction. Second, it identifies the structure of the components. We should note that during a topic analysis, the designer might also identify one or more procedures that require analysis. While the topic analysis is not suited for analyzing procedures, our next methodology, procedural analysis, would be appropriate. As you conduct a topic analysis, then, you should remain focused on identifying the facts, concepts, and principles that make up the domain.

Analyzing a Topic

Let’s examine a topic analysis example. Imagine we are designing a beginning carpentry course. The course includes an introductory module on different types of wood fasteners. To begin, we can ask an SME to describe the different fasteners. Our question prompts the following outline:

  1. Nails
  2. Screws
  3. Bolts

The SME considered these three major categories adequate to describe the various types of fasteners. So we might next ask the SME to further define each category. He expanded our outline as we asked additional questions. To get started, we might ask from what material fasteners are made, how they are sized, and how they are used.

  1. Nails
    1. Generally made from wire
    2. Range in size from 2-penny to 60-penny
      1. Length of nails 10-penny or less is determined by dividing size by 4 and adding 0.5 inch
        1. Example: 7-penny nail is 2.25 inches long
    3. Typically driven into one or more pieces of wood with a hammer or nail gun
  2. Screws
    1. Made from steel
    2. Size determined by the gauge (thickness) and length
      1. Length varies from 0.25 to 6 inches
    1. Usually twisted into a hole with screwdriver
    2. Provide a more secure joint than nails
  1. Bolts
    1. Made from steel
    2. Measured by length and diameter
      1. Available in fine or coarse threads
    1. Placed through a hole and then a nut is tightened from opposite side

Let’s examine the content structure identified in the outline. Some of the facts identified in the outline are as follows:

  1. Nails are generally made from wire
  2. Bolts are made of steel
  3. Bolts are measured by length and diameter
  4. Screw length varies from .25 to 6 inches

The concepts identified in the topic analysis are:

  1. Nail
  2. Screw
  3. Bolt

One procedure was identified in the task analysis:

Length of nails 10-penny or less is determined by dividing size by 4 and adding 0.5 inch.

Our SME helped us identify one principle in the content:

Screws provide a more secure joint than nails.

Next, we can ask the SME to provide detailed information on each fastener category, starting with nails. Once he finishes, we can organize the content using the following steps:

  1. Identify the different content structures (facts, concepts, and principles; we might have also identified procedures, and interpersonal skills that we will also need to analyze using other procedures).
  2. Group related facts, concepts, principles, and interpersonal skills. For example, in our full outline of wood fasteners, we would group all the information about nails, then the information about screws, and so forth.
  3. Arrange the various components into a logical, sequential order.
  4. Prepare the final outline to represent your task analysis.

AIOU Solved Assignment Code 846 Autumn 2021

Q.5 the methods provide learning by doing to be quite successful in developed and developing countries. Discuss.

In most developing countries, few children graduate from secondary school and many don’t even finish primary school. In Ghana, for example, only 50 percent of children complete grade 5, and of those, less than half can comprehend a simple paragraph. The UNESCO program Education for All, which as part of the Millennium Development Goals aims to provide free, universal access to primary schooling, has been successful in dramatically increasing enrollment. But, according to annual Education for All reports, many kids drop out before finishing school. Why don’t they stay?

There are numerous reasons, including the difficulty of getting to school and the cost of schooling. Even when tuition is free, there are often expenses for lunch, uniforms, and examination fees. And because the quality of education is often poor, parents are forced to pay for additional tutoring to enable their children to pass tests. Opportunity costs may be even larger—while they are in school, children forgo opportunities to produce income working on the family farm or selling in the marketplace. It is not surprising that when education investments do not result in adequate learning, or even basic literacy and numeracy, parents do not keep their children in school.

Even when learning outcomes are adequate, very few students continue on to secondary school. Job prospects for most people in the developing world are poor, and staying in school past grade 5, or even through grade 10, does not improve them significantly. In impoverished regions, the vast majority will not secure formal employment and will be supported primarily through subsistence level agriculture and trading. Health outcomes in these regions are also dire. Millions of children die every year from controllable diseases such as diarrhea, respiratory infections, and malaria.

Educational programs typically adopt traditional Western models of education, with an emphasis on math, science, language, and social studies. These programs allocate scarce resources to topics like Greek mythology, prime numbers, or tectonic plate movement—topics that may provide intellectual stimulation, but have little relevance in the lives of impoverished children. Highperforming students in less developed regions face a much different future from their counterparts’ in wealthier areas. There are no higher levels of schooling or professional job opportunities awaiting most of these children; they will likely end up working on family or neighborhood farms or starting their own small enterprises.

Schooling provides neither the financial literacy students will need to manage the meager resources under their control, nor the guidance needed to create opportunities for securing a livelihood or building wealth. In addition, schooling provides little assistance to promote the physical health needed for economic stability and quality of life. Life expectancy is low in impoverished regions, and not just because of lack of quality medical care. The devastation preventable disease wreaks on well-being and financial stability in poor regions can be dramatically mitigated through instruction on basic health behaviors, such as hand washing.

We fervently believe that what students in impoverished regions need are not more academic skills, but rather life skills that enable them to improve their financial prospects and well-being. These include financial literacy and entrepreneurial skills; health maintenance and management skills; and administrative capabilities, such as teamwork, problem solving, and project management.

Over the last five years, we have done extensive work on the state of education in developing countries. We have visited many government, nongovernment, and private schools and teacher training programs in Asia, Latin America, and Africa, and we have talked extensively with teachers, students, headmasters, school owners, and government officials. We have visited innovative educational programs that are among the world’s largest and most successful, including BRAC, an NGO in Bangladesh that owns and operates 32,000 primary schools; Pratham, which provides literacy and other educational support programs, teaching 33 million children in India; and Escuela Nueva, the Colombian program of mono- and multigrade teaching that has grown to 20,000 schools. We have implemented training for illiterate adults in developing countries and have tested that training effectively over the last few years, applying the best of our experience to improving organizations like Opportunity International, a large microfinance institution.

These experiences have convinced us that the time is right to redefine quality education in the developing world.

A New Educational Model

We have developed a robust educational model that combines traditional content with critically important financial, health, and administrative skills, which can be delivered via existing school systems and teachers.

Our model, which we call “school for life,” shifts the goal of schooling away from the achievement of standardized learning outcomes toward making a positive impact on the economic and social well-being of students and their communities. The model requires significant changes in both content and pedagogy. First, entrepreneurship and health modules are mandatory curriculum components for all primary grade students. Second, student-centered learning methods are used that require students to work in groups to solve complex problems and manage projects on their own.

This approach is inspired by models of adult education in developing countries that focus on self-efficacy as a critical foundation of positive livelihood and health-seeking behaviors, along with active-learning pedagogies used in progressive schools throughout the world. The health curriculum draws on the work of the World Health Organization and focuses on preventing disease, caring for sick children, and obtaining medical care. The entrepreneurship curriculum is informed by our work with adult entrepreneurs in developing countries, and it draws ideas from a broad range of financial and entrepreneurial programs developed by organizations like the International Labour Organization, Junior Achievement, and Aflatoun.

Conceptual knowledge is put into practice at school through activities that empower children to use what they have learned. For example, students practice routine health behaviors, such as hand washing and wearing shoes near latrines—and, to the extent feasible, gain exposure to other important behaviors, such as boiling drinking water and using malaria nets. They practice routine market-like transactions by earning points for schoolwork and budgeting those points to obtain valuable prizes, such as sitting in a favorite chair or being first in line.

Students also develop higher order skills as they work in committees to develop and execute complex projects. Health-related projects can range from planning and carrying out an athletic activity to be played during recess, to practicing diagnostic skills when classmates are ill—helping to decide, for example, when a cold has turned into a respiratory infection that requires antibiotics. Entrepreneurship projects include identifying and exploiting market opportunities through business ideas like school gardens or community recycling that create real value. Students learn and practice workplace skills and attitudes like delegation, negotiation, collaboration, and planning—opportunities that are rarely available to them outside their families.

Some school systems, especially at the secondary level, have begun to include entrepreneurship and health topics in their curricular requirements. But including information in basic lectures is not enough. Schools must simultaneously adopt action-oriented pedagogical approaches that hone critical thinking skills and enable children to identify problems, seek out and evaluate relevant information and resources, and design and carry out plans for solving these problems. This involves tackling real problems that require and empower students to take the initiative and responsibility for their own learning.

A full implementation of this new school for life approach has not yet been adopted by any major organization, but a pilot is currently being developed by Escuela Nueva in Colombia. Escuela Nueva was the pioneer in adapting student-centered approaches for use in impoverished rural environments, which often use multigrade classrooms. Escuela Nueva develops classroom materials and pedagogical approaches in which students work in self-directed teams to learn, discuss, and actively practice, using the basic content included in standard governmental curricula.

Through this unique combination of relevant content, practical implementation, and student empowerment, children develop a body of knowledge, skills, and attitudes that will enable them to succeed and thrive when they leave school, whether they are headed toward college or remain in their communities.

Dramatic Changes Are Needed

The traditional definition of school quality in the developing world is based on content mastery. But using traditional schooling approaches during the few precious years most children will spend in school leads to wasted resources and forgone opportunities for individuals and communities. Governmental agencies and organizations that support and promote quality education for all children must move beyond traditional models to help children develop the knowledge, skills, and attitudes that are relevant to their lives and that can lift them out of poverty.

For too long, governments and organizations investing in developing-world education have operated under the unquestioned assumption that improved test scores were clear evidence that their investments have paid off. But if, as we argue here, mastery of the basic primary school curriculum is not the best means for improving life chances and alleviating poverty in developing countries, that model is broken. Investing in interventions that produce the highest test scores is no longer a valid approach for allocating scarce educational dollars or the scarce time available for the development of young minds. It is time to seek out the interventions that lead to the greatest social and economic impact for the poor.

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