Free AIOU Solved Assignment Code 840 Spring 2023
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Course: Educational Psychology (840)
Semester: Spring, 2023
ASSIGNMENT No. 1
Q.1 Describe the different methods of educational psychology.
One of the things that educational psychology addresses is how people learn. Some of the topics that this field might cover include individual learning differences, instructional processes, learning outcomes, learning disabilities, and gifted learners.
Although this psychology branch often focuses on children and adolescents, these psychologists study cognitive, social, and processes in all age groups. Some of the other disciplines that also play a role include cognitive, behavioral, and developmental psychology.
Education-related psychology has seen a large amount of growth, despite its relative newness as a distinct subfield. Because psychology only achieved status as a separate science in the late 1800s, most psychology work was related to education.
Some of these early figures include:
- John Locke – Locke was a philosopher who lived between 1632 and 1704 who promoted the theory of the mind being a blank slate that develops through learning and experience, with beliefs strongly influenced by Enlightenment ideas
- Johann Herbart – Herbart was a philosopher and early psychologist who lived between 1776 and 1841 emphasized teachers providing instruction according to students’ interests, as well as prior knowledge when determining an instruction type
- William James – James lived from 1842 to 1910 and was the psychologist most well-known for lectures that addressed how teachers could help students learn most effectively, as well as the first to teach a psychology class
- Alfred Binet – Binet, who was born in 1857 and died in 1911, was the inventor of what we now know as intelligence tests, which helped identify possible developmental delays
- John Dewey – Dewey, who lived from 1859 to 1952, was both an educational reformer and psychologist who emphasized learning through doing and progressive education
- Jean Piaget – Piaget, who was born in 1892 and died in 1980, was the psychologist best known for promoting cognitive development theory
- B.F. Skinner – Skinner, who lived between 1904 and 1990, was the behaviorist most responsible for promoting the theory of operant conditioning
- Benjamin Bloom – Bloom, who was born in 1913 and died in 1999, was the developer of the taxonomy that describes and categorizes the three primary educational objectives, which are affective, cognitive, and psychomotor.
Related resource: Top Master’s Degrees in Educational Psychology
Educational psychologists work closely with students, teachers, and administration staff to learn more about the most effective learning methods. According to The Bureau of Labor Statistics, educational settings represent one of the biggest markets for jobs in psychology. A few of the responsibilities might include identifying students having difficulty and developing programs to help them overcome their struggles. New learning methods may come about as a result of this type of work.
Some of the important career focuses include:
- Educational technology
- Instructional design
- Organizational learning
- Curriculum development
- Special education
- Gifted students
The Role of Education Technology
Educational technology is one field that can help maximize how technology allows students to learn more effectively. Both hardware and software, as well as theoretical concepts, play crucial roles in education technology. The use of technology is of vital importance in providing the education that students need in today’s learning environment. A background in psychology helps fill in where technology cannot work in its own right. Psychology helps educators understand the impact that certain forms of technology have on the learning process.
What Instructional Design Does
Another field is instructional design, which relates to learning materials development. Education-related psychology gives educators the background they need to develop the proper materials for student needs. Both public and private schools have begun to appreciate the value of adapting learning materials to their students’ needs. One of the things that has come about from schools and educators being more responsive to the needs of students is better learning outcomes, making this focus of great importance for psychology students.
The Impact of Organizational Learning
Many psychologists with an educational background study the organizational learning process, as well as curriculum development. The organizational learning process is one of the most critical areas of study in education-focused psychology. One of the most essential functions that organizational learning serves is helping educators and psychologists learn more about learning processes in a group setting, which differ somewhat from individual methods and are worthy of their own study.
Curriculum Development and Its Importance
Developing an effective curriculum is a vital part of ensuring that students get the most out of the learning process. The backgrounds that psychologists who have studied education have provided them with better knowledge in the ways that students might process information. A more thorough understanding of how students learn helps educators design the curriculum in more effective ways.
The Role of Psychologists in Special Education
Another setting that many educational psychologists work in is helping students with special or gifted needs. Special education-focused psychologists help students who need specialized instruction due to developmental or physical disabilities. An understanding of psychology helps educators tailor the learning experience to the unique needs of special education students. These students often require learning techniques structured towards their different abilities.
How Psychologists Help Gifted Students
Psychologists who specialize in education may also help identify gifted students, who are also likely to have needs that a standard curriculum might not meet. In many cases, these students are at risk of not reaching their potential if their typical academic program fails to hold their interest. Regardless of the circumstances, these psychologists will help students try to reach their full potential.
All branches of psychology feature different approaches or perspectives that might be used for problem-solving, and the education-related subfield is no exception. These different perspectives include:
Each of these perspectives brings a new way of looking at psychology in education to key decision-makers. Although most psychologists who work in an educational setting will not be likely to use all of these approaches, an understanding of all of them is important. The more educational psychologists understand the processes, the more they will know how to address these needs in the future.
About the Behavioral Approach
The behavioral approach to psychology has its basis in the idea that all behaviors are learned through the conditioning process. This approach relies heavily on Skinner’s theories of operant conditioning. One example of this approach is the use of rewards. However, critics feel that those approach does not address intrinsic motivations, cognitions, or attitudes. The behavioral perspective continues to be a topic of much discussion in spite of its long-standing acceptance in the world of psychology.
The Developmental Perspective
The developmental perspective draws on Piaget’s cognitive development stages. Knowledge and skills that children adopt as they grow play an essential role in understanding children’s’ capabilities at different stages. One of the things that is most helpful for educators about this perspective is that they can adapt both their materials and methods to suit the needs of different age groups. Some educators feel that this approach is one of the most helpful for adopting a curriculum that adapts to students’ changing educational needs.
The Cognitive Approach
The cognitive approach involves understanding more about thinking, learning, remembering, and processing information. This perspective has become much more popular in recent years. Some of the things that educators working through this approach do is understand what motivates learning in children or adolescents, how they remember the information received, and their problem-solving. A better understanding of all these concepts makes it easier for educators to know how to create materials with the most significant impact.
The Constructivist Perspective
The constructivist perspective in educational psychology is relatively newer, with a focus on children’s active construction of their world knowledge. This approach treats cultural and social influences as having a significant impact. Lev Vygotsky was the psychologist who played the most considerable role in advancing this perspective, and the approach continues to draw a lot of attention today.
Although this psychology subset is relatively new, it has a growing following. A better understanding of how people learn, instead of only what they learn, is going to keep playing more of a role in teaching on education. With psychology either being an elective or a requirement in many degree programs, it is likely that interest will continue to grow in the coming years.
Choosing a career in education-related psychology can be a wise choice for students interested in the development of curriculum and teaching methods. Career prospects for this field are promising, especially as educators continually look for ways to refine their techniques for different student groups.
AIOU Solved Assignment Code 840 Spring 2023
Q.2 Discuss the general characteristics of physical and motor development.
Type # 1. Physical Development:
As has been stated earlier, development is unified and cumulative; hence the discussion of physical development cannot be restricted only to the growing in size.
Any development implies an all-round developmental behaviour pattern.
Yet the study of the significance of physical growth separately is to see how much does it contribute in total personality development of a person from childhood to maturity.
Physiological maturing prepares one to profit from experience. It is important in educational psychology because biological changes—especially in the nervous system— influence what one can learn in future. Children who differ in rate of maturing have different experiences and develop different personalities.
Children grow at different rates and develop different physiques. The direct effect of these differences is seen in the child’s ability to play games—solitary or cooperative. The indirect social and psychological effects are even more important, e.g. physical immaturity, poor coordination, or biochemical abnormalities can interfere with any type of social learning.
The child who tires readily, for example, will have a shorter span of concentration, will be more upset by difficulty and will be less willing to persevere.
Physical superiority helps beneficially the development of personality and it has been noticed that physically competent children gain social assurance, are more confident and have positive self-concept. The child with a slight physique or poor coordination finds himself mostly unwanted when his playmates are choosing teams.
Physical strength’ and stature are particularly important to the boy whose personality affects all of his social relationships.
Stronger boys are generally superior in spirit and appearance and more masculine which attract other people’s attention. One’s attitude toward one’s physical endowments is an element in self-confidence at all ages. A large portion of adolescents are at some time disturbed about one or another physical characteristic.
Tallness in girls, shortness in boys, fatness in either sex lead the list of causes of discontent, in general. Hence, there bubbles up a craze for body building, preparation for good look, attractive appearance because body builds are associated with self-image.
In spite of all the facts stated above, physical superiority does not necessarily lead to superior development of personality. Sometimes the large boy is overbearing and unpopular. A relatively small adolescent who is attractive and mature may be popular among his peer group. What is most important is that the effect of a physical characteristic depends upon meaning attached to it by the person and the group.
Patterns and Trends in Physical Growth:
Even casual observation reveals that the first two and three years of development are of very rapid growth for the human organism. In order to know the characteristics of these periods of life it is important firstly to identify general principles that can adequately characterize and summarize growth and secondly, to collect normative data regarding the development of particular body parts and functions.
Viewed in its larger perspective, bodily growth occurs through approximately the first twenty years of life in humans. The entire span of overall growth period can be divided into three major subdivisions—infancy and early childhood (upto the fifth year of life), middle and late childhood (upto the age of twelve) and adolescence (upto the age of twenty or little more).
Growth is more rapid and more likely to show spurts during both the infancy-early childhood period and the adoles-cente period than during middle childhood.
The Growth Systems (Physical):
The first trend that is noticeable in the early physical growth period is the increasing size of the body. Different body parts show somewhat different growth patterns relative to the age of the child. Various organ systems or tissues show respective and regular growth pattern contributing to the increase of the size.
The ‘body-size’ category, which includes the skeleton, muscles and internal organs, show more rapid growth during the first and third developmental period of early life than in the middle childhood.
The ‘lymphatic system’ (thymus, lymph nodes, and intestinal lymphoid mass) reaches an adult level by seven years of age and is even larger during preadolescence before the growth stops, and gradually declines. Similarly, the neural system (head, brain, spinal and intricate nervous network) is almost fully developed by the age of six.
In contrast, the reproductive organs grow very slowly until adolescence, at which point their growth is propelled.
The general principle of early development is that development proceeds cephalocaudally—that is, from the cephalic or head region to the caudal or tail region. A fetus is remarkably top heavy and the neonates less so and, until middle adolescence, the proportions of adulthood is not apparent.
The early growth and development shows that the functioning of the organism appears in keeping with this direction of physical growth. Infants are able to lift their heads within the first weeks of life but cannot stand until the end of the first year.
The second general principle of the development is that growth proceeds from the proximal or center axis of the body to extremities or more distal regions. This ‘proximo-distal’ pattern of development is also reflected in the youngster’s behavioural competence.
The most intriguing facets of body growth is that there are large individual differences in the ‘rate’ at which growth occurs. This fact has potential implications for the development of social behaviour. All these are maturational effect of growth which takes place normally as a rule of nature.
Type # 2. Motor Development:
The issue of motor development is important to the educational psychologists as it paves the way for later smooth learning on the part of the child. As the child grows physically he or she develops the ability to know and manipulate the environment which is also an indication of rapid growth.
This type of motor development is often referred to as perceptual- motor development because it involves many complex perceptual and cognitive processes.
Two general principles of motor development in a child are two closely related processes known as “differentiation” and “hierarchic integration”. The term differentiation refers to the facts that the child’s physical development is characterised by an increasing degree of control and specificity in its motor functions.
Varieties of developed motor activities and control are manifested by the young infants very quickly during the growth process which indicate growing motor coordination. First they show good control over arm movements, then hand movements, and, finally, finger movements and so on with increased coordination, increasingly differentiated control over the exercise of other body parts.
The individual movements over which the child gains mastery are then “put together” that is, ‘integrated’, into more complex and sophisticated organisation of behaviour. This process is called the “hierarchic integration”: implying that individual parts of the child’s new motor competence are integrated into larger and more coherent whole units of motor behaviour.
Thus, the process of ‘differentiation’ leads to the process of ‘hierarchic’ integration to complete the growth process in the motor development.
Maturation and Learning:
The total physical development of a child is influenced by two factors—one maturation and the other learning or experience. The two factors, though labelled separately, as a matter of fact are interwoven to cast influence on the growing process.
Maturation refers to the changes that primarily represent an unfolding of the nature of the capacities of the organism (and the species) that are at least relatively independent of special environmental circumstances, training or experience.
Maturation is a concept more important than mere chronological aging. Maturation implies the changes involving improvement of behaviour from earlier to later stage of development. This means that maturation takes place automatically as an organismic process in its natural way—in a species-specific way, following two general principles of differentiation and integration.
Similarly, the ‘learning’ factor, which is a product of experience, contributes to the environmental influence.
The relative importance of the two factors need not be discussed in the present section—that the processes involved in the two factors act together and contribute jointly to form new behaviours. Therefore, this dichotomy appears to be quite simple and it is an agreed fact that a child’s’ behaviour develops through the interaction of his biological and genetic make-up as well as his social and environmental influences.
Maturational and learning factors combine for the development of various kinds of behaviour in a child again through the same process of differentiation and integration.
Growth indicates improved motor performances with age. Growth is more than enlargement. Parts of the body change in relative size, glands and their secretion take on new functions and innumerable changes take place in the body’s microanatomy and biochemistry. Change in height and weight is most striking in early adolescence.
Adolensence sees great increase in height and weight, change from childish to adult body proportions, change in the sexual organs, change in the glandular functions and change in voice.
The child, in effect, acquires a new body, which can do new things and admits him to new social relationships. These biological changes extend over several years. It is customary to consider the appearance of adult sexual characteristics (primary and secondary) at the start of adolescence.
This development is known as ‘puberty’, is dramatically signalled for the girl by the first menstruation (menarche), and less suddenly for the boy by the appearance of pubic hair and breaking of voice. The child does not leap into adolescence; the physical and behavioural changes are gradual.
As to the size, height grows rather steadily during childhood, slowing a bit before the spurt at puberty. In middle childhood, the average for the two sexes on most physical measures are about the same. In adolescence the males become taller, heavier, and stronger than females.
The second trend is the ‘timing’ of adolescent changes. Girls enter the adolescence cycle ahead of boys. The peak growth for the girls come somewhere between age 10 and 15 and most often at about 12—two years ahead of the average boy. The more rapid growth for girls presents special problems during Grades V-VTII.
Physically, the typical girl at this time is as mature as the boy two grades ahead. But as growth is influenced by environmental conditions also, the rate of growth and maturing age differs from culture to culture and from country to country (due to the influence of varying climate and weather).
The third prominent trend is individual difference. Both before and after puberty, persons of the same age and sex differ markedly. Some girls enter adolescence at relatively lower age and some do not make the transition until few years later. Among boys even some high school juniors are still children—physically.
But, on an average, most traits that concern teachers have something like a ‘normal distribution’ following a normal statistical curve. The curves become non-normal only as students begin to bump against the upper end of the scoring scale. Both physical and mental measures are likely to have somewhat symmetrical distributions, high in the middle, when the scale is open-ended.
Provided the measures of individual differences are distributed normally, two mistakes the teachers can avoid are:
(1) To consider only the deviations, i.e. individual attention to be paid just to the students who are advanced or who are behind the groups only. The normal curve warns us to consider that, superiority is as common as inferiority,
(2) To think of “superior’, “normal” or “inferior” groups as distinct. Statistically considered, nearly all the qualities of the students which are of concern to the teachers have continuous distribution. The general curve shows no gaps in the height distribution, for example, separating “tall” from normal, nor even in the mental distribution, between “bright” and “normal” or “dull”. Whenever exceptional children are selected for special treatment, the dividing line is arbitrary. Considerable variations remain within each group. Therefore, the teacher should be cautious to employ only statistical norms because the normal distribution is definitely a useful working concept, but not an exact law.
The child who is advanced in some physical characteristics has a good chance of remaining above average. But, equal differences in size may not be equally important. Being 10 cm (four inches) above the average height may be much more distressing for a girl of 14 than being 10 cm (four inches) below average.
On an. average, though the physical growth is more or less consistent, but in spite of this consistency, some children spurt in size or strength and others grow normally. Again, illness or emotional upset may impair not only physical development but all learning and social adjustment.
Despite the consistency, there are early maturers and late maturers in physical characteristics. What is of importance is that they do not differ in success per se, but they differ as persons. The personality effect in the early maturers become far smoother socially each success adds confidence and prestige, which helps them further.
The neurophysiology and biochemistry of the brain and nervous system change as the child grows older and the changes do influence his or her performance and learning. But knowledge about the internal changes is not so readily available for us as to reach some definite conclusions about their effect.
The teacher needs only to be aware of the significance of neural development and of the interpretations of the physiological findings thereupon. It is important to know that the brain changes in size and structure and permits precise control of motor responses through nerve-cell.
The microanatomy also changes: nerve-cell endings branch, strengthen and lengthen, more fibers connect the trunk with the brain, and, in general, the system becomes more complexly connected. As the brain changes, new performance becomes possible, hence intellectual growth, even after schooling begins, is probably biological in part.
The maturational process implies the changes to be unfolding of pre-patterned structure that help development, given normal health, nutrition and stimulation. Formally speaking, a maturational process is one where the ‘timing’ of emergence of some characteristics, and form are primarily controlled by genes.
But secondarily—and no less importantly, every physical and behavioural characteristic depends to some extent on diet, exercise, material care and other aspects of environment.
It is important for the educationist to note that if under normal conditions brain structures unfold in some largely predetermined manner, this should influence the timing of instruction. Neurological studies of humans establish the role of stimulation during the formative period in promoting even biological maturing.
Though biological maturing is automatic, however, it becomes improved and varied when earlier stimulation has been provided.
Limited amount of stimulation has as much effect as massive stimulation which perhaps overload a child’s behaviour. Burton White’s view is that the initial information-processing activities of the child are “plastic”. Adjusting environment in the cradle days gives the parent a first opportunity to educate the intellect of his child.
AIOU Solved Assignment 1 Code 840 Spring 2023
Q.3 Discuss the adolescence development. Also describe the possible results if special care is not taken during this period.
Adolescence is a period of life with specific health and developmental needs and rights. It is also a time to develop knowledge and skills, learn to manage emotions and relationships, and acquire attributes and abilities that will be important for enjoying the adolescent years and assuming adult roles.
All societies recognize that there is a difference between being a child and becoming an adult. How this transition from childhood to adulthood is defined and recognized differs between cultures and over time. In the past it has often been relatively rapid, and in some societies it still is. In many countries, however, this is changing.
Age is a convenient way to define adolescence, but it is only one characteristic that delineates this period of development. Age is often more appropriate for assessing and comparing biological changes (e.g. puberty), which are fairly universal, than the social transitions, which vary more with the socio-cultural environment.
Important neuronal developments also take place during the adolescent years. These developments are linked to hormonal changes but are not always dependent on them. Developments occur in regions of the brain, such as the limbic system, that are responsible for pleasure seeking and reward processing, emotional responses and sleep regulation. At the same time, changes occur place in the pre-frontal cortex, the area responsible for what are called executive functions: decision-making, organization, impulse control and planning for the future. The changes in the pre-frontal cortex occur later in adolescence than the limbic system changes.
Linked to the hormonal and neurodevelopmental changes of adolescence are psychosocial and emotional changes and increasing cognitive and intellectual capacities. Over the course of the second decade, adolescents develop stronger reasoning skills, logical and moral thinking, and become more capable of abstract thinking and making rational judgements.
Changes in the adolescent’s environment both affect and are affected by the internal changes of adolescence. These external influences, which differ among cultures and societies, include social values and norms and the changing roles, responsibilities, relationships and expectations of this period of life.
In many ways adolescent development drives the changes in the disease burden between childhood to adulthood – for example, the increase with age in sexual and reproductive health problems, mental illness and injuries.
The appearance of certain health problems in adolescence, including substance use disorders, mental disorders and injuries, likely reflects both the biological changes of puberty and the social context in which young people are growing up. Other conditions, such as the increased incidence of certain infectious diseases, for example, schistosomiasis, may simply result from the daily activities of adolescents during this period of their lives.
Many of the health-related behaviours that arise during adolescence have implications for both present and future health and development. For example, alcohol use and obesity in early adolescence not only compromise adolescent development, but they also predict health-compromising alcohol use and obesity in later life, with serious implications for public health.
The changes that take place during adolescence suggest nine observations with implications for health policies and programmes:
- adolescents need explicit attention;
- adolescents are not all the same,
- some adolescents are particularly vulnerable,
- adolescent development has implications for adolescent health;
- adolescent development has health implications throughout life;
- the changes during adolescence affect how adolescents think and act;
- adolescents need to understand the processes taking place during adolescence;
- to contribute positively, adults need to understand the processes taking place during adolescence; and
- public health and human rights converge around concepts of adolescent development.
AIOU Solved Assignment 2 Code 840 Spring 2023
Q.4 “Emotions involve a combination of feelings and impulses, physical and psychological reaction.” Discuss the statement.
According to the book “Discovering Psychology” by Don Hockenbury and Sandra E. Hockenbury, an emotion is a complex psychological state that involves three distinct components: a subjective experience, a physiological response, and a behavioral or expressive response.1
In addition to trying to define what emotions are, researchers have also tried to identify and classify the different types of emotions. The descriptions and insights have changed over time:
- In 1972, psychologist Paul Eckman suggested that there are six basic emotions that are universal throughout human cultures: fear, disgust, anger, surprise, happiness, and sadness.2
- In the 1980s, Robert Plutchik introduced another emotion classification system known as the “wheel of emotions.” This model demonstrated how different emotions can be combined or mixed together, much the way an artist mixes primary colors to create other colors.3
- In 1999, Eckman expanded his list to include a number of other basic emotions, including embarrassment, excitement, contempt, shame, pride, satisfaction, and amusement.2
In order to better understand what emotions are, let’s focus on their three key elements, known as the subjective experience, the physiological response, and the behavioral response.
The Subjective Experience
While experts believe that there are a number of basic universal emotions that are experienced by people all over the world regardless of background or culture, researchers also believe that experiencing emotion can be highly subjective.4
Consider anger, for example. Is all anger the same? Your own experience might range from mild annoyance to blinding rage.
We also don’t always experience pure forms of each emotion. Mixed emotions over different events or situations in our lives are common. When faced with starting a new job, you might feel both excited and nervous. Getting married or having a child might be marked by a wide variety of emotions ranging from joy to anxiety. These emotions might occur simultaneously, or you might feel them one after another.
The Physiological Response
If you’ve ever felt your stomach lurch from anxiety or your heart palpate with fear, then you realize that emotions also cause strong physiological reactions. (Or, as in the Cannon-Bard theory of emotion, we feel emotions and experience physiological reactions simultaneously.)
The autonomic nervous system controls involuntary body responses, such as blood flow and digestion. The sympathetic nervous system is charged with controlling the body’s fight-or-flight reactions. When facing a threat, these responses automatically prepare your body to flee from danger or face the threat head-on.
While early studies of the physiology of emotion tended to focus on these autonomic responses, more recent research has targeted the brain’s role in emotions. Brain scans have shown that the amygdala, part of the limbic system, plays an important role in emotion and fear in particular.5
The amygdala itself is a tiny, almond-shaped structure that has been linked to motivational states such as hunger and thirst as well as memory and emotion. Researchers have used brain imaging to show that when people are shown threatening images, the amygdala becomes activated. Damage to the amygdala has also been shown to impair the fear response.6
The Behavioral Response
The final component is perhaps one that you are most familiar with—the actual expression of emotion. We spend a significant amount of time interpreting the emotional expressions of the people around us. Our ability to accurately understand these expressions is tied to what psychologists call emotional intelligence, and these expressions play a major part in our overall body language.
In Japan, for example, people tend to mask displays of fear or disgust when an authority figure is present. Similarly, Western cultures like the United States are more likely to express negative emotions both alone and in the presence of others, while eastern cultures like Japan are more likely to do so while alone.
In everyday language, people often use the terms “emotions” and “moods” interchangeably, but psychologists actually make distinctions between the two. How do they differ? An emotion is normally quite short-lived, but intense. Emotions are also likely to have a definite and identifiable cause.
For example, after disagreeing with a friend over politics, you might feel angry for a short period of time. A mood, on the other hand, is usually much milder than an emotion, but longer-lasting.8 In many cases, it can be difficult to identify the specific cause of a mood. For example, you might find yourself feeling gloomy for several days without any clear, identifiable reason.
AIOU Solved Assignment Code 840 Autumn 2023
Q.5 State the significance of personality.
The personality implies psychological and social character that an individual acquires by hereditary biological endowment which provides him the basis for development and social growth of environment within which he springs forth. Personality is the product of social interaction in group life. In society every person has different traits such as skin, color, height and weight. They have different types of personalities because individuals are not alike. It refers to the habits, attitudes as well as physical traits of a person which are not same but have vary from group to group and society to society, everyone has personality, which may be good or bad, impressive or unimpressive. It develops during the process of socialization in a culture of a specific group or society. One cannot determine it of an individual exactly because it varies from culture to culture and time to time. For example, a killer is considered criminal in peace time and hero in war. The feeling and actions of an individual during interaction moulds the personality. It is the sum of total behaviors of the individual and covers both overt and covert behaviors, interests, mentality and intelligence. It is the sum of physical and mental abilities and capabilities. Personality has been derived from the Latin word “persona” which means “mask” used by the actors to change their appearance. It is the combination of an individual thoughts, characteristics, behaviors, attitude, idea and habits. The Meaning of Personality: The term ‘personality’ is derived from the Latin word ‘persona’ which means a mask. According to K. Young, “Personality is a …. patterned body of habits, traits, attitudes and ideas of an individual, as these are organised externally into roles and statuses, and as they relate internally to motivation, goals, and various aspects of selfhood.” G. W. Allport defined it as “a person’s pattern of habits, attitudes, and traits which determine his adjustment to his environment.” According to Robert E. Park and Earnest W. Burgess, personality is “the sum and organization of those traits which determine the role of the individual in the group.” Herbert A. Bloch defined it as “the characteristic organization of the individual’s habits, attitudes, values, emotional characteristics……. which imparts consistency to the behavior of the individual.” According to Arnold W. Green, “personality is the sum of a person’s values (the objects of his striving, such as ideas, prestige, power and sex) plus his non- physical traits (his habitual ways of acting and reacting).” According to Linton, personality embraces the total “organised aggregate of psychological processes and status pertaining to the individual.” Personality, as we understand it, says MacIver, “is all that an individual is and has experienced so far as this “all” can be comprehended as unity.” According to Lundberg and others, “The term personality refers to the habits, attitudes, and other social traits that are characteristic of a given individual’s behaviour.” By personality Ogburn means “the integration of the socio psychological behaviour of the human being, represented by habits of action and feeling, attitudes and opinions.” Davis regards personality “a psychic phenomenon which is neither organic nor social but an emergent from a combination of the two.” According to Anderson and Parker, “Personality is the totality of habits, attitudes, and traits that result from socialization and characterizes us in our relationships with others.” According to N.L. Munn, “Personality may be defined as the most characteristic integration of an individual’s structure modes of behaviour, interests, attitudes, capacities, abilities and aptitudes.” According to Morton Prince, “Personality is the sum total of all the biological innate dispositions, impulses tendencies and instincts of the individual, and the acquired disposition and tendencies acquired by experience.” According to Young, “Personality is the totality of behaviour of an individual with a given tendency system interacting with a sequence of situations.” Lawrence A. Pewin has given a working definition of personality in these words, “Personality represents those structural and dynamic properties of an individual or individuals as they reflect themselves in characteristic responses to situations.” Characteristics of personality (i) Personality is not related to bodily structure alone. It includes both structure and dynamics (ii) Personality is an indivisible unit. (iii) Personality is neither good nor bad. (iv) Personality is not a mysterious phenomenon. (v) Every personality is unique.(vi) Personality refers to persistent qualities of the individual. It expresses consistency and regularly. (vii) Personality is acquired. (viii) Personality is influenced by social interaction. It is defined in terms of behaviour. Types of Personality Following are the three types of personality 1. Extrovert Personality This type has the tendency to live mostly outside the like to live with others. Those individuals are highly socialized and have contact with outside people in the society. They want to join other groups who are more in number. These type of people are drivers, excessive drinkers, smokers, robbers, thieves, wicked persons etc. 2. Introvert Personality Introvert is opposite to extrovert. Those people are always live alone in their rooms and do not want to go outside. They have their own imaginary world. They are teachers, scientists, thinkers and philosophers. 3. Ambivert Personality Between extrovert and introvert personalities there is a third one type called ambivert. People belonging to this type enjoy both the groups and attend them. They have middle mind and want to live in both parties. Sometimes they join outside people but sometimes they live in their own rooms. Factors of Personality Enormously the following five factors of personality are contributing to the formation and development of human personality. 1.Biological Factors 2.Social Factors 3.Cultural Factors PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT TIPS 1.Should be a better listener 2.Good conversation 3.Be positive in outlook and attitude 4.More reading and building interest 5.Should be a good courteous 6.Interaction with new people 7.Helpful to other people 8.Give respect if you want respect 9.Confident about yourself 4.Physical Environment 5.Situational Factors 1. Biological Factors of Personality Biological factors of personality are very important for the formation of human personality. Children are born in a family; inherit many traits and features from their parents. Children get physical and psychological characteristics from their parents which becomes a part of their personalities. Some of the inherited traits are courage, coward, intelligence, weakness etc. For example it was experimented on the negro that they are biological inferior. A normal healthy man has some physical similarities such as two hands five senses, two eyes and these biological similarities help to explain some of the similarities in the behavior. It separates individuals from one another and their various physical characteristics except identical twins having the same physical qualities. So, biological factors of personality are responsible for the development of personality. 2. Social Factors of Personality When an individual interact with other persons in his/her group give and take relationship takes place and it affects the personality of an individual social factors of personality are responsible for the formation of personality, when an individual has group experience and contact with others personality of an individual is influenced by others may be bad or good but depends on the association in which he/she keeps. In a society every person plays a specific role and status. For example in our society younger are expected to be respectful for elders. Many other social factors like environment, group life, family, media with which an individual interact in his/her society daily life mold their personalities. We can say that whatever comes in contact with an individual’s social life affects personality of that individual and develop good or bad personality. 3. Cultural Factors of Personality Both material as well as non-material culture affects personality of an individual. An individual living in his/her culture adopts the traits consciously or unconsciously and acts accordingly. Culture of any society determines the behaviors and personality of an individual and he/she is expected to act according to the culture. A person follows all the social norms of a culture which results in the formation of good personality while non-conformity to the cultural rules develops abnormal or bad personality. So, the culture in which an individual seeks satisfaction adjusts himself/herself and develops personality. 4. Physical Environment Physical environment also determines the personality of an individual. Environmental factors include land, river, mountains, hills, forests, plain area, atmosphere etc which affect the personality to be good or bad, healthy or weak. All the feelings, emotions, ideas, attitudes, habits and behavior as well as body structure is the result of physical environment of to which an individual belongs. For example, body structure, physique, color and health of the rural people are different from urban people. These people have different environment due to which they develop variety of personalities. The people living in cities have facilities and modern ways of life which creates to develop delicate bodies and minds as compare to the rural people who are deprived of these facilities. 5. Situational Factors of Personality Situational factors of personality also have a complete share in the formation of personality of an individual. situational factors of personality are charging according to the social situations. Every person face may situations in his life which enables him/her to change his/her behavior. For example, a teacher may be rigid and strict with students but may not with his/her family. An officer may behave with the subordinates differently as compare to his/her friends. Personality is not the result of only one factor but every factor is responsible to give complete share in its formation. A person behave and his/her personality exists when interacts with environment, culture, society, parents, friends and to those who come in contact by chance.