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Free AIOU Solved Assignment Code 831 Spring 2021
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Course: Foundation of Education (831)
Semester: Spring, 2021
ASSIGNMENT No. 1
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|Q. 1||Discuss the advantages of studying Islamic foundations of education for developing a high quality education system.
The word Islam defined by the Quran itself means submission to the Supreme Being and compliance with His laws, which constitutes Nature. Islam lays special emphasis on the acquisition of knowledge. Concept of vicegerent of man: According to Quran, Allah has made man as a vicegerent due to knowledge (IIm-ul-Asma), when angels argues about the vicegerent of man than Allah (SWT) taught Adam the names of some things and then Adam told them and hence proved his ability for vicegerent on earth. This shows the importance of acquiring knowledge from the Quranic point of view (Surah AL-Baqra Foruth Ruku). It is obligatory alike for both Muslim male and female. Knowledge is of two types, revealed knowledge and acquired knowledge. Revealed knowledge has been given to human beings, through prophets by Allah. Acquired knowledge is that which is being acquired by the human beings though the study of natural phenomena, attitude of man and through the study of society. Quran says that for the prosperous life on earth both kinds of knowledge, revealed and acquired is necessary. It shows the basis of the educational set-up in Islam where the children are not only equipped with religious knowledge but also with acquired that is scientific knowledge so that they can live a righteous and prosperous life. That is why the knowledge in Islam is considered as the greatest gift of Allah to Man. It helps man to attain righteous and prosperous life. Education is the process through which knowledge is transmitted from a section of society to another section. It also reflects the philosophy on which it is based. Islamic philosophy derives its origin from the spirit of teachings of the Quran and Hadith (the saying of the Holy Prophet may peace be upon him). The Qayas and Fiqqah, are also the crucial components.
1. Belief in the oneness, immateriality, absolute power, mercy and supreme compassionateness of the Creator.
1) Charity and brotherhood among mankind.
2) Subjugation of passion.
3) The outpouring of a grateful heart to the Giver of all good.
4) Accountability of human actions in another existence.
5) Developing a sense of social consciousness i.e. enjoining what is right and forbidding what is wrong.
AIOU Solved Assignment Code 831 Spring 2021
Discuss in detail how philosophy of education influence our system of education.
Philosophy means “love of wisdom.” It is made up of two Greek words, philo, meaning love, and sophos, meaning wisdom. Philosophy helps teachers to reflect on key issues and concepts in education, usually through such questions as: What is being educated? What is the good life? What is knowledge? What is the nature of learning? And What is teaching? Philosophers think about the meaning of things and interpretation of that meaning. Even simple statements, such as “What should be learned? Or What is adolescence?” set up raging debates that can have major implications. For example, what happens if an adolescent commits a serious crime? One interpretation may hide another. If such a young person is treated as an adult criminal, what does it say about justice, childhood, and the like? Or if the adolescent is treated as a child, what does it say about society’s views on crime?
Your educational philosophy is your beliefs about why, what and how you teach, whom you teach, and about the nature of learning. It is a set of principles that guides professional action through the events and issues teachers face daily. Sources for your educational philosophy are your life experiences, your values, the environment in which you live, interactions with others and awareness of philosophical approaches. Learning about the branches of philosophy, philosophical world views, and different educational philosophies and theories will help you to determine and shape your own educational philosophy, combined with these other aspects.
When you examine a philosophy different from your own, it helps you to “wrestle” with your own thinking. Sometimes this means you may change your mind. Other times, it may strengthen your viewpoint; or, you may be eclectic, selecting what seems best from different philosophies. But in eclecticism, there is a danger of sloppy and inconsistent thinking, especially if you borrow a bit of one philosophy and stir in some of another. If serious thought has gone into selection of strategies, theories, or philosophies, this is less problematic. For example, you may determine that you have to vary your approach depending on the particular learning needs and styles of a given student. At various time periods, one philosophical framework may become favored over another. For example, the Progressive movement led to quite different approaches in education in the 1930s. But there is always danger in one “best or only” philosophy. In a pluralistic society, a variety of views are needed.
So understood, “naturalism” is not a particularly informative term as applied to contemporary philosophers. The great majority of contemporary philosophers would happily accept naturalism as just characterized—that is, they would both reject “supernatural” entities, and allow that science is a possible route (if not necessarily the only one) to important truths about the “human spirit”.
Even so, this entry will not aim to pin down any more informative definition of “naturalism”. It would be fruitless to try to adjudicate some official way of understanding the term. Different contemporary philosophers interpret “naturalism” differently. This disagreement about usage is no accident. For better or worse, “naturalism” is widely viewed as a positive term in philosophical circles—only a minority of philosophers nowadays are happy to announce themselves as “non-naturalists”. This inevitably leads to a divergence in understanding the requirements of “naturalism”. Those philosophers with relatively weak naturalist commitments are inclined to understand “naturalism” in a unrestrictive way, in order not to disqualify themselves as “naturalists”, while those who uphold stronger naturalist doctrines are happy to set the bar for “naturalism” higher.
Rather than getting bogged down in an essentially definitional issue, this entry will adopt a different strategy. It will outline a range of philosophical commitments of a generally naturalist stamp, and comment on their philosophical cogency. The primary focus will be on whether these commitments should be upheld, rather than on whether they are definitive of “naturalism”. The important thing is to articulate and assess the reasoning that has led philosophers in a generally naturalist direction, not to stipulate how far you need to travel along this path before you can count yourself as a paid-up “naturalist”.
As indicated by the above characterization of the mid-twentieth-century American movement, naturalism can be separated into an ontological and a methodological component. The ontological component is concerned with the contents of reality, asserting that reality has no place for “supernatural” or other “spooky” kinds of entity. By contrast, the methodological component is concerned with ways of investigating reality, and claims some kind of general authority for the scientific method. Correspondingly, this entry will have two main sections, the first devoted to ontological naturalism, the second to methodological naturalism.
Of course, naturalist commitments of both ontological and methodological kinds can be significant in areas other than philosophy. The modern history of psychology, biology, social science and even physics itself can usefully be seen as hinging on changing attitudes to naturalist ontological principles and naturalist methodological precepts. This entry, however, will be concerned solely with naturalist doctrines that are specific to philosophy. So the first part of this entry, on ontological naturalism, will be concerned specifically with views about the general contents of reality that are motivated by philosophical argument and analysis. And the second part, on methodological naturalism, will focus specifically on methodological debates that bear on philosophical practice, and in particular on the relationship between philosophy and science.
AIOU Solved Assignment 1 Code 831 Spring 2021
Write a detailed note on reconstructionism.
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Social reconstruction is a condition in which the population achieves a level of tolerance and peaceful co-existence; gains social cohesion through acceptance of a national identity that transcends individual, sectarian, and communal differences; has the mechanisms and will to resolve disputes nonviolently; has community institutions that bind society across divisions; and addresses the legacy of past abuses. For the social well-being of a society, social reconstruction includes twin approaches: directly addressing the legacy of violent conflict through inter- and intra-group reconciliation767 and indirectly building societal links768 by promoting reconciliation through community-based development and cooperative action.769 Following violent conflict, social cohesion may be almost nonexistent. Returnees, combatants, and victims of the conflict often have great difficulty finding their place in the community again. Disputes over land, water, pasture rights, inheritance, marriage, and other community issues may arise, further affecting already traumatized communities. Local institutions—both formal and informal—that helped bind the population before the conflict may be shattered. Spoiler narratives and impromptu war memorials that reinforce societal cleavages may be present. Without the tolerance and cohesion that enables peaceful coexistence, individuals and communities may resort to violence to address their grievances and resolve disputes.
Is an educational philosophy that views schools as tools to solve social problems. Social reconstructionists reason that, because all leaders are the product of schools, schools should provide a curriculum that fosters their development. Reconstructionists not only aim to educate a generation of problem solvers, but also try to identify and correct many noteworthy social problems that face our nation, with diverse targets including racism, pollution, homelessness, poverty, and violence. Rather than a philosophy of education, reconstructionism may be referred to as more of a remedy for a society that seeks to build a more objective social order.
Outraged at the inequity in educational opportunities between the rich and the poor, George Counts wrote Dare the School Build a New Social Order? in 1932. He called on teachers to educate students to prepare them for the social changes that would accompany heightened participation in science, technology, and other fields of learning, without compromising their cultural education. This text was important in the development of social reconstructionist schools in the United States. For social reconstructionists, the class becomes an area where societal improvement is an active and measurable goal.
The reconstructionist classroom contains a teacher who involves the students in discussions of moral dilemmas to understand the implications of one’s actions. Students individually select their objectives and social priorities and then, with guidance from the teacher, create a plan of action to make the change happen.
For example, a class may read an article on texting while driving and watch a documentary on the need for awareness in school systems. Also, a police officer or a loved one of someone who has been affected by texting while driving may speak to the class and describe dangerous and fatal events that have resulted from choosing to text while driving. If the article, the movie, and the speaker inspire them, the students may take on a long-term awareness project.
One group may choose to analyze the regional news coverage on texting while driving, while another may choose to conduct a survey, analyzing student viewpoints on the subject. Either or both groups may schedule meetings with political leaders and create programs or legislation. Alternatively, they might create a web page and present it to the media. All the while, the teacher advises on research techniques, writing skills, and public communication methods, building core skills that will be applicable across a broad range of topics.
An excellent example of social reconstructionism is the 2007 movie Freedom Writers. In the movie the teacher was determined to get the students interested by requiring them to write. Students were allowed to write about anything they wanted and were free to express themselves in their journals however they pleased. The journal writing not only taught basic writing skills; in some individual instances, it helped to bring students out of a life of crime.
Reconciliation is a contentious term. The controversy derives from its meaning as both a goal and a process.770 While reconciliation may not be a realistic end goal within the time constraints of a typical S&R mission, reconciliation processes are still crucial to the social recovery and development of the population. Simply put, reconciliation is a process through which people move from a divided past to a shared future, the ultimate goal being the peaceful coexistence of all individuals in a society. Reconciliation programs seek to promote tolerance and mutual respect, reduce anger and prejudice from the conflict, foster intergroup understanding, strengthen nonviolent conflict resolution mechanisms, and heal the wounds of conflict. As well as address the causes of conflict, reconciliation can deter future violence and violations of human rights.
Understand the cultural context to shape strategies for promoting reconciliation. Reconciliation processes are delicate and highly political in nature and should be grounded in the culture.773 To mitigate potential skepticism and fear about biases and intentions, reconciliation programs should involve all of society, including everyone from high-level politicians down to the ordinary survivor.774 Creating effective reconciliation programs requires assessing the social, political, economic, and cultural context before determining the best methods. Restoring social relationships successfully involves paying close attention to cultural or traditional mechanisms that exist for dealing with crises. It also entails assessing popular support for these processes to ensure that programs will be effective and that victims do not feel pressured into participating.
AIOU Solved Assignment 2 Code 831 Spring 2021
Differentiate between learning and maturation by giving examples.
The main difference between learning and maturation is that learning is the process of acquiring knowledge, skills, and behaviours, whereas maturation is the process of becoming mature or developed.
Although learning and maturation are two inter-related activities, they are not the same. Maturation refers to both mental and physical development of a person. Learning can be both informal and formal, as well as conscious or unconscious. Mental maturation or cognitive maturation is necessary for learning. In fact, maturation facilitates learning.
Learning is the acquisition of knowledge, skills, behaviours, values, or preferences. It can occur both consciously and unconsciously. It can occur through education, training, experience as well through personal development. Moreover, there is no age limit for learning; we learn new things every day, all throughout our lives. As babies, we learn to eat, crawl, talk, walk, etc. and we learn a wide range of other skills as we grow up. And, this type of learning happens through observing, experimenting and experiencing.
It’s not only humans who have the ability to learn; animals, plants and even machines also have the ability to learn. However, this ability to learn is often different from a human’s capability to learn. Curiosity and intrinsic motivation are the factors that often promote a person to learn. Furthermore, our capacity to learn varies depending on different factors such as motivation, personality, intelligence level, and learning style.
Maturation is basically the process of maturing or growing. It is the process by which we change, grow and develop throughout our lives. Also, this is a biological, physical and mental process. We can basically categorize maturation into two sections as physical maturation and cognitive maturation.
Physical maturation naturally refers to the physical changes and development in our bodies. For example, as babies grow up, they develop motor skills and coordination. They also grow tall and gain weight as they age. Moreover, they also go through hormonal changes when they reach puberty.
Cognitive maturation, on the other hand, refers to the cognitive development from our birth to adulthood. We learn to think, learn and interact with various people and situations. Developing reasoning skills, language acquisition, and developing intellect and memory are some examples of cognitive development.
Relationship Between Learning and Maturation
Learning and maturation are intertwined processes. In fact, it is maturity that facilitates learning. When you are teaching something to a person, it is always important to make sure that person has achieved the necessary mental maturity required for that lesson.
Difference Between Learning and Maturation
Learning is the process of acquiring knowledge, skills, and behaviours through experience, training and education. In contrast, maturation is the process of becoming mature or developed, both mentally and physically. Thus, this is the fundamental difference between learning and maturation.
Type of Process
Moreover, learning is mainly a mental process, whereas maturation is both mental and physical development.
Another difference between learning and maturation is that learning happens through experience, practice, training, or education, while maturation occurs through individual growth.
While learning happens because of external stimuli, maturation does not need any external stimuli.
Learning and maturation are two intertwined processes. The main difference between learning and maturation is that learning is the process of acquiring knowledge, skills, and behaviours, whereas maturation is the process of becoming mature or developed. Thus, maturation is a mental and physical growth, whereas learning is mainly a mental process.
AIOU Solved Assignment Code 831 Autumn 2021
Explain the need for studying socio-economic foundations of education for teachers.
Social Foundations of Education draws upon several disciplines and fields to examine education, namely history, philosophy, comparative/ international education, cultural studies, sociology, and political science. Social Foundations inquiry helps to sharpen students’ capacities to understand, analyze, and explain educational issues, policies, and practices in order to improve education.
Thus, the purpose of Social Foundations study is to draw upon these humanities and social science disciplines to develop students’ interpretive, normative, and critical perspectives on education, both inside and outside of schools (Council for Social Foundations of Education, 1996, 2004). The development of such perspectives helps educators to “exercise sensitive judgments amidst competing cultural and education values and beliefs” (CSFE, 1996).
Rather than reducing education to a formula for best practice, courses in the Social Foundations of Education challenge students to think deeply about the relationships between education (formal and informal) and society(ies) at large. Social Foundations encourages educators to use
Each perspective or method of inquiry is described as follows:
Interpretive perspective: Students use concepts and theories from the humanities and social sciences to examine educational phenomena. Social Foundations perspectives (comparative, cultural, historical, and philosophical) are applied to examine and analyze an educational aspect or issue and these perspectives affect the meaning and interpretation of that educational issue.
Normative perspective: Students examine education in relation to differing value orientations and assumptions about schooling and education. Educational issues, policies, and practices are examined in light of differing value positions and students engage in reflection and development of their own values about education (Kubow & Fossum, 2007).
Critical perspective: Students develop the ability to question the contradictions and inconsistencies among educational values, policies, and practices.
These perspectives are not only important to the development of pre-service and in-service educators but also central to the professional standards promoted by the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) and the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS). Thus, all preparation programs for prospective teachers and other professional educators must include study in the Social Foundations of Education.
Principle #1: The educator has acquired a knowledge base of resources, theories, distinctions, and analytic techniques developed within the humanities, the social sciences, and the foundations of education. That is, the educator has developed habits of using this knowledge base in evaluating and formulating educational practice.
Principle #2: The educator understands and can apply normative perspectives on education and schooling. That is, the educator understands and employs value orientations and ethical perspectives in analyzing and interpreting educational ideas, issues, and practices.
Principle #3: The educator understands and can apply critical perspectives on education and schooling. That is, the educator has developed habits of critically examining educational practice in light of this knowledge base.
Principle #4: The educator understands how moral principles related to democratic institutions can inform and direct schooling practice, leadership, and governance. That is, the educator understands how knowledge from Social Foundations of Education illuminates the conditions that support education in a democratic society.
Principle #5: The educator understands the significance of diversity in a democratic society and how that bears on instruction, school leadership, and governance. That is, the educator understands how social and cultural differences originating outside the classroom and school affect student learning and how educational understanding includes sensitivity to human potentials and differences.
Principle #6: The educator understands how philosophical and moral commitments affect the process of evaluation at all levels of schooling practice, leadership, and governance. That is, the educator can articulate the moral and philosophical assumptions underlying evaluation measures or processes.