Free AIOU Solved Assignment Code 831 Spring 2021

Free AIOU Solved Assignment Code 831 Spring 2021

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Course: Foundation of Education (831)
Semester: Spring, 2021
ASSIGNMENT No. 1

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Q. 1 Discuss the advantages of studying Islamic foundations of education for developing a high quality education system.

The word Islam defined by the Quran itself means submission to the Supreme Being and compliance with His laws, which constitutes Nature. Islam lays special emphasis on the acquisition of knowledge. Concept of vicegerent of man: According to Quran, Allah has made man as a vicegerent due to knowledge (IIm-ul-Asma), when angels argues about the vicegerent of man than Allah (SWT) taught Adam the names of some things and then Adam told them and hence proved his ability for vicegerent on earth. This shows the importance of acquiring knowledge from the Quranic point of view (Surah AL-Baqra Foruth Ruku). It is obligatory alike for both Muslim male and female. Knowledge is of two types, revealed knowledge and acquired knowledge. Revealed knowledge has been given to human beings, through prophets by Allah. Acquired knowledge is that which is being acquired by the human beings though the study of natural phenomena, attitude of man and through the study of society. Quran says that for the prosperous life on earth both kinds of knowledge, revealed and acquired is necessary. It shows the basis of the educational set-up in Islam where the children are not only equipped with religious knowledge but also with acquired that is scientific knowledge so that they can live a righteous and prosperous life. That is why the knowledge in Islam is considered as the greatest gift of Allah to Man. It helps man to attain righteous and prosperous life. Education is the process through which knowledge is transmitted from a section of society to another section. It also reflects the philosophy on which it is based. Islamic philosophy derives its origin from the spirit of teachings of the Quran and Hadith (the saying of the Holy Prophet may peace be upon him). The Qayas and Fiqqah, are also the crucial components.
The word Quran literally means reading or recitation. Islamic education aims to discovering and formulating Allah’s will. Quran indicated basic principles that lead a Muslim to observation of the universe and Nature, where he can find the answers to many question by his own efforts.
We would certainly appreciate that how nicely Quran gives hints in respect of various branches of learning and advises man to use intellect. So much so that Quran says in Surah Al-Aaraf that those who do not us their abilities us as intellect, eyes and ears will enter into the fire of hell because they are inferior than animals. It should be noted that the Quran explains the actual practical shape of life by demarking the borders of the various aspect of life. Quran being a complete code of life says “We have sent down to you the book, as an explanation for everything.”
The Quranic text is divided into 114 chapters. Each chapter is called “Surah” which consist of a certain number of verses each called “Ayah”. The revelations continued in Quran were not all revealed on one occasion but at long intervals and in response to special needs to the prophet (peace be upon him) lived at Mecca for thirteen years and at Medina for ten years. The revelations which the Prophet (peace be upon him) received in Mecca period are mostly concerned with general percepts that urges strongly and earnestly the man to righteousness. Quran is not a book of science or any other particular field of knowledge but it deals, mainly with basis principals of human life. Therefore, Quranic concept of education is that it explicitly teaches its readers principles in each and every sphere of life so that its followers have complete knowledge about their pattern of life. Quran is the fountain head of wisdom, from which all other sources of knowledge derive their authority. It consist of very words of Allah, revealed on Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) in twenty three years, first in Mecca and completed in Medina. The Holy Quran says, “This day have I perfected for you, your religion and completed My favor on your, and chosen for you Islam as a religion. Islamic education system comprises of the following principles:

1. Belief in the oneness, immateriality, absolute power, mercy and supreme compassionateness of the Creator.

1) Charity and brotherhood among mankind.

2) Subjugation of passion.

3) The outpouring of a grateful heart to the Giver of all good.

4) Accountability of human actions in another existence.

5) Developing a sense of social consciousness i.e. enjoining what is right and forbidding what is wrong.
Hadith
The next source of Islamic foundations of education is the Hadith, Ahadith as plural. Hadith derives its authority and validity from Holy Quran. Quran says ‘obey Allah and obey the Messenger’ (4:49). Thus, Hadith offers best explanation or interpretation to Quran.
Ahadith are not only explanatory to the Quranic text but also complementary to it. Prophet (peace be upon him) is a teacher appointed by Allah who not only teaches the Book and philosophy but purifies the soul as well. He (peace be upon him), himself was a role model who presented ideal practical life in the light of those limits enunciated by the Quran. Thus, the Quran declared the Prophet (peace be upon him) to be the interpreter of Quranic texts. Hadith is the index and vehicle of the Sunnah which gives concrete shape to the Quranic teachings. A Hadith is a statement of the Prophet (peace be upon him). A sunnah may be embodied in a Hadith, but is not itself a Hadith. His (peace be upon him) Sunnah is both an instrument for the institutionalization and practice of Allah’s will, as well as a strong force for the propagation of Islam. As we studied earlier that the man is expected to learn through experiments on the foundations given by the Quran and whose example is preserved in the life, activities and saying of Prophet (peace be upon him). The Prophet (peace be upon him) before emigration (Hijrat) to Medina deputed a teacher, there to arrange the education of the believers. After the Hijrat, the Prophet’s Mosque in Medina became the center of education. A covered platform called Suffa, was built in front of the Prophet (peace be upon him) house to give instructions in the Quran and Hadith. On the other hand the Prophet’s wives (MAPT) were in charge of the education of women. The foundations laid by Hadith and Sunnah for Islamic education is that children should not only be taught theoretically but there should be a practical guidance for them to adapt in practical life. That is why prophet Muhammad (PBUH) was given the task to teach his companions, Quran, practically. There are hundreds of Hadith which emphasize on necessity and supreme value of gaining knowledge. Some of them are the following: He dies not who takes from learning. The ink of the scholar is more holy than the blood of the martyr. He who leaves home in search of knowledge walks in the path of Allah. The acquisition of knowledge is a duty incumbent on every Muslim male or female. Seek after knowledge even though it may in China. To be present in a circle of learned men is better than prostrating oneself in prayer a thousand times or visiting a thousand sick persons and attend a thousand funerals.
A word of wisdom is like the lost treasure of a believer who has got the best right to secure it wherever he might have found it. In Islam to acquire knowledge is an act piety, he/she who speak of it praise Allah, he/she who seeks it adores Allah and he/she who imparts it performs an act of devotion.

Q. 2

AIOU Solved Assignment Code 831 Spring 2021

Discuss in detail how philosophy of education influence our system of education.

Philosophy means “love of wisdom.” It is made up of two Greek words, philo, meaning love, and sophos, meaning wisdom. Philosophy helps teachers to reflect on key issues and concepts in education, usually through such questions as: What is being educated? What is the good life? What is knowledge? What is the nature of learning? And What is teaching? Philosophers think about the meaning of things and interpretation of that meaning. Even simple statements, such as “What should be learned? Or What is adolescence?” set up raging debates that can have major implications. For example, what happens if an adolescent commits a serious crime? One interpretation may hide another. If such a young person is treated as an adult criminal, what does it say about justice, childhood, and the like? Or if the adolescent is treated as a child, what does it say about society’s views on crime?

Your educational philosophy is your beliefs about why, what and how you teach, whom you teach, and about the nature of learning. It is a set of principles that guides professional action through the events and issues teachers face daily. Sources for your educational philosophy are your life experiences, your values, the environment in which you live, interactions with others and awareness of philosophical approaches. Learning about the branches of philosophy, philosophical world views, and different educational philosophies and theories will help you to determine and shape your own educational philosophy, combined with these other aspects.

When you examine a philosophy different from your own, it helps you to “wrestle” with your own thinking. Sometimes this means you may change your mind. Other times, it may strengthen your viewpoint; or, you may be eclectic, selecting what seems best from different philosophies. But in eclecticism, there is a danger of sloppy and inconsistent thinking, especially if you borrow a bit of one philosophy and stir in some of another. If serious thought has gone into selection of strategies, theories, or philosophies, this is less problematic. For example, you may determine that you have to vary your approach depending on the particular learning needs and styles of a given student. At various time periods, one philosophical framework may become favored over another. For example, the Progressive movement led to quite different approaches in education in the 1930s. But there is always danger in one “best or only” philosophy. In a pluralistic society, a variety of views are needed.

Branch Metaphysics: What is the nature of reality? Epistemology: What is the nature of knowledge? How do we come to know? Axiology: What values should one live by?
Educational Examples –Do you think human beings are basically good or evil?
–What are conservative or liberal beliefs?
–How would an anthropologist look at this classroom? A political scientist? A biologist?
–How do we know what a child knows?
–Is morality defined by our actions, or by what is in our hearts?
–What values should be taught in character education?
Sub-branches Ontology
What issues are related to nature, existence, or being? Is a child inherently evil or good? How might your view determine your classroom management?
Cosmology
What is the nature and origin of the cosmos or universe? Is the world and universe orderly or is it marked by chaos? What would one or the other mean for a classroom?
Knowing based on:
Scientific Inquiry
Senses and Feelings
From authority or divinity
Empiricism (experience)
Intuition
Reasoning or Logic
What reasoning processes yield valid conclusions?
Deductive:  reasoning from the general to the particular All children can learn. Bret is a fifth grader. He has a learning disability. Can Bret learn?
Inductive:  reasoning from the specific to the general. After experimenting with plant growth under varied conditions, stu-dents conclude plants need water and light
Ethics
What is good and evil, right and wrong?
Is it ever right to take something that does not belong to you?
Aesthetics
What is beautiful?
How do we recognize a great piece of music? Art?
Can there be beauty in destruction?

So understood, “naturalism” is not a particularly informative term as applied to contemporary philosophers. The great majority of contemporary philosophers would happily accept naturalism as just characterized—that is, they would both reject “supernatural” entities, and allow that science is a possible route (if not necessarily the only one) to important truths about the “human spirit”.

Even so, this entry will not aim to pin down any more informative definition of “naturalism”. It would be fruitless to try to adjudicate some official way of understanding the term. Different contemporary philosophers interpret “naturalism” differently. This disagreement about usage is no accident. For better or worse, “naturalism” is widely viewed as a positive term in philosophical circles—only a minority of philosophers nowadays are happy to announce themselves as “non-naturalists”.[1] This inevitably leads to a divergence in understanding the requirements of “naturalism”. Those philosophers with relatively weak naturalist commitments are inclined to understand “naturalism” in a unrestrictive way, in order not to disqualify themselves as “naturalists”, while those who uphold stronger naturalist doctrines are happy to set the bar for “naturalism” higher.[2]

Rather than getting bogged down in an essentially definitional issue, this entry will adopt a different strategy. It will outline a range of philosophical commitments of a generally naturalist stamp, and comment on their philosophical cogency. The primary focus will be on whether these commitments should be upheld, rather than on whether they are definitive of “naturalism”. The important thing is to articulate and assess the reasoning that has led philosophers in a generally naturalist direction, not to stipulate how far you need to travel along this path before you can count yourself as a paid-up “naturalist”.

As indicated by the above characterization of the mid-twentieth-century American movement, naturalism can be separated into an ontological and a methodological component. The ontological component is concerned with the contents of reality, asserting that reality has no place for “supernatural” or other “spooky” kinds of entity. By contrast, the methodological component is concerned with ways of investigating reality, and claims some kind of general authority for the scientific method. Correspondingly, this entry will have two main sections, the first devoted to ontological naturalism, the second to methodological naturalism.

Of course, naturalist commitments of both ontological and methodological kinds can be significant in areas other than philosophy. The modern history of psychology, biology, social science and even physics itself can usefully be seen as hinging on changing attitudes to naturalist ontological principles and naturalist methodological precepts. This entry, however, will be concerned solely with naturalist doctrines that are specific to philosophy. So the first part of this entry, on ontological naturalism, will be concerned specifically with views about the general contents of reality that are motivated by philosophical argument and analysis. And the second part, on methodological naturalism, will focus specifically on methodological debates that bear on philosophical practice, and in particular on the relationship between philosophy and science.

Q. 3

AIOU Solved Assignment 1 Code 831 Spring 2021

Write a detailed note on reconstructionism.


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Social reconstruction is a condition in which the population achieves a level of tolerance and peaceful co-existence; gains social cohesion through acceptance of a national identity that transcends individual, sectarian, and communal differences; has the mechanisms and will to resolve disputes nonviolently; has community institutions that bind society across divisions; and addresses the legacy of past abuses. For the social well-being of a society, social reconstruction includes twin approaches: directly addressing the legacy of violent conflict through inter- and intra-group reconciliation767 and indirectly building societal links768 by promoting reconciliation through community-based development and cooperative action.769 Following violent conflict, social cohesion may be almost nonexistent. Returnees, combatants, and victims of the conflict often have great difficulty finding their place in the community again. Disputes over land, water, pasture rights, inheritance, marriage, and other community issues may arise, further affecting already traumatized communities. Local institutions—both formal and informal—that helped bind the population before the conflict may be shattered. Spoiler narratives and impromptu war memorials that reinforce societal cleavages may be present. Without the tolerance and cohesion that enables peaceful coexistence, individuals and communities may resort to violence to address their grievances and resolve disputes.

Is an educational philosophy that views schools as tools to solve social problems. Social reconstructionists reason that, because all leaders are the product of schools, schools should provide a curriculum that fosters their development. Reconstructionists not only aim to educate a generation of problem solvers, but also try to identify and correct many noteworthy social problems that face our nation, with diverse targets including racism, pollution, homelessness, poverty, and violence. Rather than a philosophy of education, reconstructionism may be referred to as more of a remedy for a society that seeks to build a more objective social order.

Outraged at the inequity in educational opportunities between the rich and the poor, George Counts wrote Dare the School Build a New Social Order? in 1932. He called on teachers to educate students to prepare them for the social changes that would accompany heightened participation in science, technology, and other fields of learning, without compromising their cultural education. This text was important in the development of social reconstructionist schools in the United States. For social reconstructionists, the class becomes an area where societal improvement is an active and measurable goal.

The reconstructionist classroom contains a teacher who involves the students in discussions of moral dilemmas to understand the implications of one’s actions. Students individually select their objectives and social priorities and then, with guidance from the teacher, create a plan of action to make the change happen.

For example, a class may read an article on texting while driving and watch a documentary on the need for awareness in school systems. Also, a police officer or a loved one of someone who has been affected by texting while driving may speak to the class and describe dangerous and fatal events that have resulted from choosing to text while driving. If the article, the movie, and the speaker inspire them, the students may take on a long-term awareness project.

One group may choose to analyze the regional news coverage on texting while driving, while another may choose to conduct a survey, analyzing student viewpoints on the subject. Either or both groups may schedule meetings with political leaders and create programs or legislation. Alternatively, they might create a web page and present it to the media. All the while, the teacher advises on research techniques, writing skills, and public communication methods, building core skills that will be applicable across a broad range of topics.

An excellent example of social reconstructionism is the 2007 movie Freedom Writers. In the movie the teacher was determined to get the students interested by requiring them to write. Students were allowed to write about anything they wanted and were free to express themselves in their journals however they pleased. The journal writing not only taught basic writing skills; in some individual instances, it helped to bring students out of a life of crime.

Reconciliation is a contentious term. The controversy derives from its meaning as both a goal and a process.770 While reconciliation may not be a realistic end goal within the time constraints of a typical S&R mission, reconciliation processes are still crucial to the social recovery and development of the population. Simply put, reconciliation is a process through which people move from a divided past to a shared future, the ultimate goal being the peaceful coexistence of all individuals in a society. Reconciliation programs seek to promote tolerance and mutual respect, reduce anger and prejudice from the conflict, foster intergroup understanding, strengthen nonviolent conflict resolution mechanisms, and heal the wounds of conflict. As well as address the causes of conflict, reconciliation can deter future violence and violations of human rights.

Understand the cultural context to shape strategies for promoting reconciliation. Reconciliation processes are delicate and highly political in nature and should be grounded in the culture.773 To mitigate potential skepticism and fear about biases and intentions, reconciliation programs should involve all of society, including everyone from high-level politicians down to the ordinary survivor.774 Creating effective reconciliation programs requires assessing the social, political, economic, and cultural context before determining the best methods. Restoring social relationships successfully involves paying close attention to cultural or traditional mechanisms that exist for dealing with crises. It also entails assessing popular support for these processes to ensure that programs will be effective and that victims do not feel pressured into participating.

Q. 4

AIOU Solved Assignment 2 Code 831 Spring 2021

Differentiate between learning and maturation by giving examples.    

The main difference between learning and maturation is that learning is the process of acquiring knowledge, skills, and behaviours, whereas maturation is the process of becoming mature or developed.

Although learning and maturation are two inter-related activities, they are not the same. Maturation refers to both mental and physical development of a person. Learning can be both informal and formal, as well as conscious or unconscious. Mental maturation or cognitive maturation is necessary for learning. In fact, maturation facilitates learning.

Learning is the acquisition of knowledge, skills, behaviours, values, or preferences. It can occur both consciously and unconsciously. It can occur through education, training, experience as well through personal development. Moreover, there is no age limit for learning; we learn new things every day, all throughout our lives. As babies, we learn to eat, crawl, talk, walk, etc. and we learn a wide range of other skills as we grow up. And, this type of learning happens through observing, experimenting and experiencing.

It’s not only humans who have the ability to learn; animals, plants and even machines also have the ability to learn. However, this ability to learn is often different from a human’s capability to learn. Curiosity and intrinsic motivation are the factors that often promote a person to learn. Furthermore, our capacity to learn varies depending on different factors such as motivation, personality, intelligence level, and learning style.

Maturation is basically the process of maturing or growing. It is the process by which we change, grow and develop throughout our lives. Also, this is a biological, physical and mental process. We can basically categorize maturation into two sections as physical maturation and cognitive maturation.

Physical maturation naturally refers to the physical changes and development in our bodies. For example, as babies grow up, they develop motor skills and coordination. They also grow tall and gain weight as they age. Moreover, they also go through hormonal changes when they reach puberty.

Cognitive maturation, on the other hand, refers to the cognitive development from our birth to adulthood. We learn to think, learn and interact with various people and situations. Developing reasoning skills, language acquisition, and developing intellect and memory are some examples of cognitive development.

Relationship Between Learning and Maturation

Learning and maturation are intertwined processes. In fact, it is maturity that facilitates learning. When you are teaching something to a person, it is always important to make sure that person has achieved the necessary mental maturity required for that lesson.

Difference Between Learning and Maturation

Definition

Learning is the process of acquiring knowledge, skills, and behaviours through experience, training and education. In contrast, maturation is the process of becoming mature or developed, both mentally and physically. Thus, this is the fundamental difference between learning and maturation.

Type of Process

Moreover, learning is mainly a mental process, whereas maturation is both mental and physical development.

Occurrence

Another difference between learning and maturation is that learning happens through experience, practice, training, or education, while maturation occurs through individual growth.

External Stimuli

While learning happens because of external stimuli, maturation does not need any external stimuli.

Conclusion

Learning and maturation are two intertwined processes. The main difference between learning and maturation is that learning is the process of acquiring knowledge, skills, and behaviours, whereas maturation is the process of becoming mature or developed. Thus, maturation is a mental and physical growth, whereas learning is mainly a mental process.

Q. 5

AIOU Solved Assignment Code 831 Autumn 2021

Explain the need for studying socio-economic foundations of education for teachers.

Social Foundations of Education draws upon several disciplines and fields to examine education, namely history, philosophy, comparative/ international education, cultural studies, sociology, and political science. Social Foundations inquiry helps to sharpen students’ capacities to understand, analyze, and explain educational issues, policies, and practices in order to improve education.

Thus, the purpose of Social Foundations study is to draw upon these humanities and social science disciplines to develop students’ interpretive, normative, and critical perspectives on education, both inside and outside of schools (Council for Social Foundations of Education, 1996, 2004). The development of such perspectives helps educators to “exercise sensitive judgments amidst competing cultural and education values and beliefs” (CSFE, 1996).

Rather than reducing education to a formula for best practice, courses in the Social Foundations of Education challenge students to think deeply about the relationships between education (formal and informal) and society(ies) at large.  Social Foundations encourages educators to use

Each perspective or method of inquiry is described as follows:

Interpretive perspective: Students use concepts and theories from the humanities and social sciences to examine educational phenomena. Social Foundations perspectives (comparative, cultural, historical, and philosophical) are applied to examine and analyze an educational aspect or issue and these perspectives affect the meaning and interpretation of that educational issue.

Normative perspective: Students examine education in relation to differing value orientations and assumptions about schooling and education. Educational issues, policies, and practices are examined in light of differing value positions and students engage in reflection and development of their own values about education (Kubow & Fossum, 2007).

Critical perspective: Students develop the ability to question the contradictions and inconsistencies among educational values, policies, and practices.

These perspectives are not only important to the development of pre-service and in-service educators but also central to the professional standards promoted by the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) and the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS). Thus, all preparation programs for prospective teachers and other professional educators must include study in the Social Foundations of Education.

Principle #1: The educator has acquired a knowledge base of resources, theories, distinctions, and analytic techniques developed within the humanities, the social sciences, and the foundations of education. That is, the educator has developed habits of using this knowledge base in evaluating and formulating educational practice.

Principle #2: The educator understands and can apply normative perspectives on education and schooling. That is, the educator understands and employs value orientations and ethical perspectives in analyzing and interpreting educational ideas, issues, and practices.

Principle #3: The educator understands and can apply critical perspectives on education and schooling. That is, the educator has developed habits of critically examining educational practice in light of this knowledge base.

Principle #4: The educator understands how moral principles related to democratic institutions can inform and direct schooling practice, leadership, and governance. That is, the educator understands how knowledge from Social Foundations of Education illuminates the conditions that support education in a democratic society.

Principle #5: The educator understands the significance of diversity in a democratic society and how that bears on instruction, school leadership, and governance. That is, the educator understands how social and cultural differences originating outside the classroom and school affect student learning and how educational understanding includes sensitivity to human potentials and differences.

Principle #6: The educator understands how philosophical and moral commitments affect the process of evaluation at all levels of schooling practice, leadership, and governance.  That is, the educator can articulate the moral and philosophical assumptions underlying evaluation measures or processes.

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